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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

The History of Niddah in America as Social Drama: Genealogy of a Ritual Practice

2015 (has links)
abstract: Since the 1960’s and 1970’s, ethnographic research on Jewish menstrual rituals known as niddah, Taharat HaMishpacha, or Family Purity has associated their practices with religious behavior. Much of this research organizes around questions of women’s agency within ostensibly patriarchally constructed religious practices that carry the potential to oppress its women practitioners. This premise is built upon a number of implicit assumptions about the history of today’s niddah practices: that niddah is observed exclusively by Orthodox Jews; that increasing rates of niddah observance correlate exclusively with the trend toward stricter observance levels among the Orthodox since the 1960s; and that this increasingly strict observance itself reflects a reactionary trend among the Orthodox community (a.k.a. tradition versus modernity). All these assumptions currently circulate, in various degrees, among the American Jewish lay community and are shared by a significant number of congregational rabbis. Until the 1990s, no history of niddah existed to either support or refute these assumptions. I initially intended that this project would provide future ethnographers with a comprehensive history of niddah in America during the past one and a half centuries. I engaged Victor Turner’s theory of Social Drama as a framework for understanding this history as a socio-cultural process, rather than as a series of less than related events. However, this study h*as resulted in the identification of many more specific assumptions about the decline and revival of niddah observance in the twentieth century, which are not supported by the scant evidence available. These challenged assumptions beg new directions for research; a thorough reworking of the history of niddah in America; and a fresh look at the literature advocating niddah produced in the 1990’s and early 2000’s. This genealogy as Social Drama presents niddah in twentieth century America as undergoing periods of crisis, negotiation, and reintegration. This drama was triggered by late nineteenth century concepts of religion, body, and ritual that undermined and ruptured the integrity of niddah as a bodily religious ritual practice. Niddah’s twentieth century social drama culminated in fresh articulations of a unique Jewish sexuality and Jewish marital ethic. Dissertation/Thesis Masters Thesis Religious Studies 2015
32

Généalogie du spirituel républicain français dans la philosophie sociale, morale et politique du XIXème siècle. Genealogy of the republican spiritual in social, moral and political philosophy of nineteenth-century France

Pasteur, Julien 5 October 2015 (has links)
L’idée d’un « spirituel républicain » est, en France, plus intuitivement sentie que rationnellement conçue. Si le syntagme dénote quelque densité conceptuelle, historiens et philosophes s’accordent d’ordinaire à la chercher dans les doctrines politiques et sociales de la IIIème République – celles du solidarisme, de la laïcité ou des lois sur l’éducation. Ce travail voudrait montrer que le spirituel républicain est irréductible à un supplément d’âme, comme à toute forme de caution morale destinée à pallier les derniers scrupules d’une politique désenchantée. En ce sens, sa généalogie demande à être singulièrement élargie à l’aval. Elle trouve son origine dans le sillage de la Révolution Française, où 1789 commande tout autant une interprétation politique qu’une reconfiguration anthropologique de la croyance. Le point commun des auteurs mobilisés ici (Joseph de Maistre, Auguste Comte, Jules Michelet, Alexis de Tocqueville, Émile Durkheim) est en effet d’assumer une position symétriquement opposée à la nôtre. Partant du principe que la question spirituelle est la seule qui n’ait pas été réglée, ils s’efforcent d’interroger le statut, problématique dans les démocraties modernes, d’un gouvernement des esprits. C’est donc en partant de ce qui, au sein de ce corpus, est réputé le plus anachronique – soit la rémanence du religieux au cœur d’un siècle censément scientifique – que la notion de spirituel républicain trouve à se constituer. Guettée par le risque d’un syncrétisme philanthropique inchoatif, comme par la confrontation à trois des idéologies majeures du XIXème siècle (traditionalisme, libéralisme, socialisme), cette tradition intellectuelle ne conserve son identité qu’en justifiant son qualificatif de républicain. The idea of the spiritual as it relates to republicanism – the “republican spiritual” – is, in France, more intuitively felt than it is rationally conceived. While the phrase carries a certain conceptual density, historians and philosophers normally agree that this idea is to be sought in the political and social doctrines of the Third Republic – for example, in the doctrines of solidarity and secularism and in the laws on education. This work shows that the “republican spiritual” cannot be reduced to a touch of soul, or to any form of moral guarantee intended to overcome the last scrupules of a disenchanted politics. In this way, its genealogy needs to be particularly enlarged. It has its origin in the wake of the French Revolution, as the events of 1789 required both a political interpretation of belief as well as its anthropological reconfiguration. The common point among the authors studied here (Joseph de Maistre, Auguste Comte, Jules Michelet, Alexis de Tocqueville, Émile Durkheim) is that the position they took on this issue is diametrically opposed to ours today. These authors, starting from the standpoint that the spiritual question is the only one that has not been resolved, struggle to understand the status – problematic in modern democracy – of a spiritual regime. It is thus within the most anachronistic elements of the body of work studied here – that is, the endurance of the religious in a supposedly scientific century – that the notion of the “republican spiritual” finds its origin. At risk of a formless philanthropic syncretism, menaced by its confrontation with three of the main ideologies of the 19th century (traditionalism, liberalism, and socialism), this intellectual tradition only preserves its identity by justifying its qualification as republican.
33

Pragmatisme : une philosophie anarchiste ? : une généalogie : Proudhon, Bakounine, James, Dewey Pragmatism : an anarchist philosophy ? : a genealogy : Proudhon, Bakunin, James, Dewey

Maroupas, Nikolaos 3 November 2015 (has links)
Le pragmatisme, en tant que courant philosophique, et l'anarchisme, en tant que courant politique, semblent être reliés par deux approches d'apparence complémentaire : le premier est souvent considéré comme politiquement neutre alors que le second comme philosophiquement indifférent. Notre étude consiste à examiner cette double neutralité et, suivant notre interrogation, à savoir « le pragmatisme, est-il une philosophie anarchiste ? », valoriser et évaluer la possibilité d'une réponse positive, car les conséquences politiques de l'un et les conséquences philosophiques de l'autre, ainsi que les causes de leur prétendue indifférence complémentaire, nous inspirent l'idée d'une architecture commune. Dans un premier temps, nous tentons de situer cette architecture dans la philosophie de James et de Dewey se focalisant sur le rapport du pragmatisme à la démocratie. Nous dégageons ainsi les traits principaux d'une philosophie de l'expérience conforme aux exigences que les philosophes pragmatistes prêtent à la démocratie, car c'est l'expérience qui permet à la démocratie de voir sa dimension éthique, très présente chez les pragmatistes, devenir politique. Dans un deuxième temps, nous examinons l'articulation de ce que l'on peut appeler doxa anarchiste avec les thèses philosophiques que James et Dewey voient composer la philosophie de l'expérience. Nous nous focalisons notamment sur la pensée de Proudhon et de Bakounine, dont la filiation nous semble porteuse du même esprit anti-absolutiste qui correspond à la dimension critique de la philosophie de l'expérience. Pragmatism, as a philosophical movement, and anarchism, as a political one, seem to be connected by two seemingly complementary approaches: pragmatism is often considered as politically neutral, while anarchism as philosophically indifferent. The aim of our study is to examine this double neutrality and, following our interrogation, namely « is pragmatism an anarchist philosophy? », to evaluate the possibility of a positive answer, the political consequences of the one and the philosophical consequences of the other, and also the causes of their alleged complementary indifference, inspiring us the idea of a commun architecture. First, we try to locate this architecture in the philosophy of James and Dewey, focusing on the relationship of pragmatism to democracy. Thus, we point out the main features of a philosophy of experience fitting the demands - in a pragmatic perspective - of democracy. For it is only experience that allows democracy to see its ethical dimension - very present among pragmatists - become political. Second, we examine the articulation of what we can call anarchist doxa with the philosophical assertions that form, according to James and Dewey, the philosophy of experience. We focus, in particular, on the thought of Proudhon and Bakunin, whose kinship seems to carry the same anti-absolutist spirit that forms the critical dimension of the philosophy of experience.
34

Une généalogie de la raison d'État : les racines médiévales de la pensée politique moderne A Genealogy of Reason of State : The Medieval Foundations of Modern Political Thought

Le Mauff, Julien 16 September 2015 (has links)
La raison d’État, concept clé de la modernité politique et de la pensée étatique du XVIIe siècle, est approchée à rebours dans cette étude, afin de mieux en saisir les origines, et de comprendre les conditions qui en permettent l’émergence. Par l’adoption d’une méthode généalogique, ce travail vise aussi à concilier l’école historique française des Annales et la tradition anglo-américaine de l’histoire des idées, et à traiter les théories politiques comme un objet historique à part entière. Chaque texte et chaque auteur est donc intégré dans un enchaînement d’influences et de relations sans dénier à chacun son individualité intellectuelle. Parmi les notions principales qui structurent toutes les définitions de la raison d’État, la nécessité, l’utilité publique, l’exception à la loi connaissent des évolutions profondes dès le XIIe siècle, sous l’effet de la redécouverte des Anciens par Jean de Salisbury et plus encore Thomas d’Aquin, du travail des juristes, tant en droit canonique que romain, ainsi que dans la pratique fiscale des XIIIe et XIVe siècles. Les progrès de l’idéologie royale, l’affirmation d’une nécessité spécifique à l’action politique chez Guillaume d’Ockham, et l’essor du concept d’État souverain sous l’influence particulière de Marsile de Padoue, participent aussi de cette élaboration à l’œuvre, notamment dans l’Italie des cités-États. Le parcours s’achève par l’exposition de trois différentes définitions de la raison d’État qui, d’abord chez Machiavel et Guichardin, puis chez Botero, puis enfin chez les juristes dont Ammirato et Canonhiero, ouvrent la voie au triomphe de l’étatisme et au renouvellement des questionnements politiques, à l’aube des Lumières. This survey attempts to draw a new understanding of reason of State, as a key concept in modern politics and in 17th century State-centered thought. It is therefore studied backwards, in order to better describe its origins, and to understand what conditions enabled its formulation. The genealogic method is chosen as a way to conciliate the French school of the Annales and the anglo-american tradition of history of ideas, and to handle political ideas as historical artefacts. Every text and author is therefore apprehended as a part of a chain of influences and relationships, while intellectual singularities are preserved. Among the main concepts that participate in defining reason of State, necessity, public utility and legal exception evolve deeply from the 12th century, as a result of the rediscovery of ancient authors by John of Salisbury and still more by Thomas Aquinas, of recent developments in canon and roman law, and of new fiscal policies during the 13th and 14th centuries. The improvements of royal ideology, the new necessity specifically applied to political action in William of Ockham’s thought, and the rise of the concept of a sovereign State under the primary influence of Marsilius of Padua, also participate in this preparation, now centered on Italian city-states. The account ends with a view on three different definitions of reason of State, that correspond first to Machiavelli and Guicciardini, then to Botero, and finally to the legal thought of Ammirato and Canonhiero. This outcome paves the way to the triumph of Statism, and to the new developments of political theory during the Enlightenment.
35

Power and forced labor| A geneology of labor and migration in the United States

Rohan, Rory Delaney 5 February 2015 (has links)

Recently, federal agents across the US have uncovered an unprecedented number of forced labor operations, many involving non-citizens who are forced to perform farm work under threat of violence and deportation. Contemporary scholarship explains this phenomenon as the effect of liberalized economic relations, industrialized agriculture, and consumer demand for cheap products. While instructive, such explanations leave open questions of how historical factors sanction the coercive farm labor relations seen today. Using the genealogical method, this paper examines the history of labor practices in Florida, a state in which forced labor not only flourished before the Civil War, but also in which forced labor remains common today.

After highlighting how Florida's ante-bellum and post-bellum labor practices and discourses imbued employment with normative valuations, this paper argues that such discourses and practices have since been taken up by state and federal institutions, eventually influencing laws and policies concerning labor, prisoners, and immigrants. These historically embedded practices and discourses, moreover, function to discipline the lives and govern the status of non-citizens in and through employment.

36

Historiebruk i valrörelsen : En jämförande analys av Stefan Lövens och Fredrik Reinfeldts tal under valrörelsen 2014

Tägt, Amanda 2015 (has links)
Uppsatsen syftar till att genom en jämförande analys undersöka Stefan Löfvens och Fredrik Reinfeldts historiebruk under valrörelsen 2014, för att på så sätt se på vilket sätt ideologiska skillnader påverkar användandet av historia. Det finns förhållandevis få studier gjorda om de borgerliga partierna, och om deras förhållande till de partier som ligger till vänster på den politiska skalan. Tidigare undersökningar har främst fokuserat på partiernas historia. Denna uppsats handlar istället om dagens politikers användande av historien. Uppsatsens källmaterial utgörs av tal som partiledarna hållit under valrörelsen. Materialet har undersökts utifrån perspektivet att partiledarna både för att kunna behålla väljare och för att locka nya, behöver skapa och befästa en identitet och att historia är en viktig del i detta identitetsskapande. Källmaterialet har undersökts med hjälp av Klas-Göran Karlssons uppdelning mellan en genetisk och en genealogisk historiesyn och Peter Aronssons typologi över historiekulturens fem grundtroper. Undersökningen har visat att partiledarna ger uttryck för ett flertal olika historiesyner, men främst vad Karlsson kallar för den genealogiska som utgår ifrån att vi kan lära av historien. Löfven har i större utsträckning än Reinfeldt lagt fokus på det egna partiets historia. Partiernas ideologiska skillnader syns till viss del i exemplen från det förflutna som de väljer att använda sig av, men skillnaderna blir mest tydliga i deras tolkning av historien, i den kontext referatet används i och hur man väljer att argumentera med hjälp av det historiska exemplet.

Godkännandedatum 2015-02-02

37

Utvecklingen av samverkansregler mellan hälso- och sjukvården och näringslivet : Samverkan och krishantering i fält av legitimitet The development of a common code of ethics between public health care and private industry in Sweden

Andersson, Christoffer 2015 (has links)
Collaboration is a form of organization on the rise in Sweden. For health care, it is ofinterest to collaborate with industry to ensure that needs for specialist education andtraining are met and that products developed meet the relevant requirements.Conversely, industry actors have an interest to have a close collaboration with healthcare in order to gain insight into customer needs, provide information about theirproducts and to test products in development.The starting point of this study is an agreement and regulatory framework for formsof collaboration between public health care in Sweden in general and thepharmaceutical industry, the medical device industry and the laboratory technologyindustry. The research questions concerns how this agreement has evolved and theprocess surrounding its emergence may contribute to knowledge about collaborationas a form of organization and the relationship to concepts such as legitimacy,corruption and institutional theory.By tracking the emergence of the current regulatory framework genealogicalthroughout history, the study uncovers how the agreements have played a role in andcontributed to the legitimization and institutionalization of collaboration practices andhow crises have changed the shape of the practices. A theoretical treatment ofrelevant concepts such as legitimacy, institutionalization of practices, corruption andstigmatization of organizations form the basis for an interpretation and analysis of theprocess.The conclusions of the examination of the historical process that led to the currentagreements contribute to empirical knowledge of how crises and stigma affect thelegitimacy of collaboration practices and how the repair of legitimacy can be donesuccessfully after a crisis. The treatment of the empirical material is also a historicalsource for the development of ethics agreements between public health care andpharmaceutical industry and the medical industry in Sweden.
38

From Martial Law to Boba: What Is It to be Taiwanese American?

Fields, Jinelle 1 January 2015 (has links)
This work looks at the way the Taiwanese American college student's identities are complicated and compounded by the intertwined histories of China and Taiwan. It looks at the historical account of Chinese and Taiwanese history through the understanding of genealogical history. It also analyzes the importance of narrated family accounts and lived experiences of Taiwanese-ness. Lastly, it looks at the development of Taiwanese identity as it is strengthened or weakened through religion, politics, and language.
39

El Compendivm Constitvcionvm Generalivm Cathalonie de Narcís de Sant Dionís

Álvarez Gómez, Daniel 25 March 2015 (has links)
A les Corts de Barcelona (1412-1413), que presidiren successivament Ferran I i l’infant Alfons, s’aprovà una Constitució, intitulada «Per tal que les leys», que determinava la recopilació en llatí i en traducció catalana (tret d’algunes excepcions en sentit invers) de la major part del corpus jurídic de Catalunya, fonamentalment Constitucions i Capítols de Corts. L’ordenació de la dita recopilació seguí les rúbriques dels primers deu llibres del Codi de Justinià. El projecte, conegut com a Compilació, fou iniciat per juristes de la mida de Bonanat Pere i Jaume Callís, en una primera comissió escollida per Ferran I; i el continuaren el diputat Francesc Basset i l’oïdor de comptes Narcís de Sant Dionís, comissionats a posteriori per la Diputació del General. No obstant això, la Compilació resultà parcialment fallida. Es projectà la confecció de dos volums en pergamí, un en llatí i l’altre en català, que anirien a raure a l’Arxiu Reial, i de dues còpies, que custodiaria la Diputació del General. De tota manera, només se’n conserven en l’actualitat tres exemplars en pergamí a l’Arxiu de la Corona d’Aragó que poden ser identificats amb aquells. Un dels exemplars catalans, fins al present moment, continua perdut. El darrer dels juristes comissionats, Sant Dionís, escrigué un opuscle llatí, que ell mateix anomenà Compendium, el qual, estructurat igualment segons el codi justinianeu, serviria als especialistes com una mena d’enquiridion. També en conservem una traducció al català, probablement obra del propi Sant Dionís. El Compendium és un breu manual que ultrapassa la Compilació, perquè cita un major número de lleis en incloure simplement resums de les disposicions legals. L’edició dels tres manuscrits llatins que contenen l’obra de Sant Dionís és l’objecte principal de la present tesi. En front de l’edició llatina, s’aporta la transcripció d’un dels exemplars de la versió catalana, el manuscrit 1 de la Generalitat, a l’Arxiu de la Corona d’Aragó. La tesi s’inicia amb un estudi preliminar sobre la biografia de Sant Dionís, en què s’intenta aclarir la genealogia del personatge, i sobre la formació de la Compilació. Conclou amb taules que identifiquen les disposicions legislatives contingudes al Compendium. During the Courts of Barcelona (1412-1413), presided successively by Ferdinand I and the Prince Alfonse, a Constitution was approved, entitled “Per tal que les leys”, that prescribed that the majority of the juridical corpus of Catalonia, basically Constitutions and “Capitula Curiae”, were collected in Latin and in its Catalan translation (besides some exceptions in reverse). The distribution of this collection followed the titles of the first ten books of the Justinian’s Code. The project, known as Compilation, was initiated by jurists such important as Bonanat Pere and Jaume Callís, i.e. the first commission elected by Ferdinand I; and it was continued by Francesc Basset and Narcís de Sant Dionís, selected a posteriori by the “Diputació del General”. However, this collection partially failed. Two volumes in parchment were designed, one in Latin and another in Catalan, to be located in the Royal Archive, and two copies, to be guarded by the “Diputació”. Nevertheless, only three copies in parchment are preserved in the present Archive of the Crown of Aragon that could be identified with those ones. One of the Catalan copies is still lost. The jurist Narcís de Sant Dionís wrote a Latin brief treatise .named Compendium by himself. that could be useful as a handbook to the specialists, structured like the Justinian’s Code. We still have a translation to Catalan, probably by the same Sant Dionís. The Compendium is a short handbook that surpasses the Compilation, because it quotes a higher number of laws since it only presents summaries of the legal dispositions. The Edition of the three Latin manuscripts that contain the work of Sant Dionís is the main object of the present thesis. In front of the Latin Edition, it is provided the transcription of one copy of the Catalan version, the manuscript 1 of the “Generalitat”, in the Archive of the Crown of Aragon. An introductory study about the biography of Sant Dionís intends to clarify his genealogy. The formation of the Compilation is also evaluated. The thesis finishes with tables that identify the legislative dispositions contained in the Compendium.
40

Population Genetic Methods and Applications to Human Genomes

Gattepaille, Lucie 2015 (has links)
Population Genetics has led to countless numbers of fruitful studies of evolution, due to its abilities for prediction and description of the most important evolutionary processes such as mutation, genetic drift and selection. The field is still growing today, with new methods and models being developed to answer questions of evolutionary relevance and to lift the veil on the past of all life forms. In this thesis, I present a modest contribution to the growth of population genetics. I investigate different questions related to the dynamics of populations, with particular focus on studying human evolution. I derive an upper bound and a lower bound for FST, a classical measure of population differentiation, as functions of the homozygosity in each of the two studied populations, and apply the result to discuss observed differentiation levels between human populations. I introduce a new criterion, the Gain of Informativeness for Assignment, to help us decide whether two genetic markers should be combined into a haplotype marker and improve the assignment of individuals to a panel of reference populations. Applying the method on SNP data for French, German and Swiss individuals, I show how haplotypes can lead to better assignment results when they are supervised by GIA. I also derive the population size over time as a function of the densities of cumulative coalescent times, show the robustness of this result to the number of loci as well as the sample size, and together with a simple algorithm of gene-genealogy inference, apply the method on low recombining regions of the human genome for four worldwide populations. I recover previously observed population size shapes, as well as uncover an early divergence of the Yoruba population from the non-African populations, suggesting ancient population structure on the African continent prior to the Out-of-Africa event. Finally, I present a case study of human adaptation to an arsenic-rich environment.

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