17 December 2015
La presente investigación realiza un estudio a profundidad de la obra de Santiago Sierra y Teresa Margolles, quienes han trabajado en México desde el inicio de la década de los 90, y que ocupan hoy un destacado lugar en el circuito artístico internacional. Suele argumentarse que la importancia de su obra radica en visibilizar los increíbles niveles de violencia y polarización de la riqueza existentes en nuestra sociedad, constituyendo no sólo una denuncia sino un llamado a la reflexión ya la toma de postura crítica. Este trabajo cuestiona estos argumentos y enuncia que en la obra de ambos productores visuales existe una clara discordancia entre el discurso que las valida y las estrategias concretas seguidas para su realización. Pone particular atención a las prácticas de denigración y maltrato, así como a las dinámicas de objetualización y comercialización de los sujetos. ¿Nos encontramos frente a un arte de denuncia o simplemente somos testigos de un ejercicio de violencia perpetrándose dos veces sobre el mismo cuerpo? La hipótesis que se pretende demostrar es que su obra se articula a partir de la reproducciónde algunas de las lógicas más brutales del sistema económico y político vigente en México. La investigación establece diversos puntos de coincidencia entre el trabajo de Santiago Sierra y Teresa Margolles, plantea la existencia de una línea de continuidad en su obra y ubica la genealogía de sus propuestas en el periodo de instauración del neoliberalismo en México. Se realiza por tanto una reconstrucción de la serie de cambios experimentados por el circuito artístico mexicano durante aquél periodo, advirtiendo cómo las modificaciones suscitadas en el terreno político fueron acompañadas de una profunda transformación en la manera de entender el sentido y los límites del quehacer artístico. Se analiza la insistencia de ambos productores visuales (muy acorde al discurso de importantes sectores de la comunidad artística mexicana a inicios de la década de los 90) en afirmar la impotencia del arte, y se recuperan diversas declaraciones en las que queda de manifiesto su abierto desinterés por incidir en la realidad social. ¿Qué sentido parece tener entonces su trabajo? Si entendemos el arte como estrategia reflexiva, como herramienta para cuestionarnos sobre nuestra realidad, su quehacer no podría limitarse a la enunciación de lo existente sino que debería dirigirse a proponer mundos posibles.La reflexión se encuentra inexorablemente ligada a la posibilidad de creación, al deseo de incidir en la realidad (que puede aparecer como algo remoto o parcial, pero sin duda irrenunciable). La investigación concluye con una reflexión teórica, y una serie de imágenes en torno a la ética como ente capaz de resistirse a la impotencia y el desencanto: es la valoración, el reconocimiento de la humanidad e infinitud del Otro, lo único capaz de poner en marcha el deseo deapostar por la posibilidad de construir realidades compartidas. This is an in-depth study of the work of Santiago Sierra and Teresa Margolles, who have worked in Mexico since the early 90’s and today hold an important position in the international artistic circuit. It is often said that the importance of their work lies in their ability to make visible the unbelievable levels of violence and polarization of wealth which exists in our society, and in the process, not only exposing it, but calling us to reflect on this and to take a critical stance. This work challenges such a view and proposes that the work of both producers presents a clear discrepancy between their validating discourse and the concrete strategies they follow to carry it out. Special attention is placed on the practices of denigration and abuse, as well as the process of objectifying and commercializing their subjects. Is this art of exposure or are we merely witnessing an act of violence being perpetrated twice on the same body? The hypothesis intends to demonstrate that their work does not only fail to question the present economic system, but that it also reproduces some of its most brutal rationale. This research establishes several points of coincidence between the work of Santiago Sierra and Teresa Margolles, it presents the existence of a line of continuity in their work, and it places the genealogy of their proposals at the onset of neoliberalism in Mexico. Therefore, it reconstructs a series of changes observed within the Mexican artistic circuit during this period, remarking on the way in which changes made in the political arena were accompanied by a deep transformation in the way we comprehend the meaning and limitations of artistic creation. This research concludes with a theoretical reflection and a series of drawings around the issue of ethics as an entity which is capable of resisting itself to impotence and disenchantment: the value, the recognition of humanity and the infinite Other, is the only thing capable of setting forth the will to bet on the possibility of building a shared reality.
The Queen's Three Bodies| Representations Of Female Sovereignty In Early Modern Women's Writing, 1588-1688Casey-Williams, Erin V. 11 December 2015 (has links)
Sovereignty, a mechanism of power around which a state is organized, has emerged as a way to understand the twenty-first-century biopolitical moment. Thinkers including Michel Foucault, Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri, and Roberto Esposito find sovereignty essential to understanding modern regimes of bodily domination and control. These thinkers look back to early modern England as an originary moment when older theories of sovereign power became attached to emerging modern political systems. Despite the sophistication of these arguments, however, no recent biopolitical theory accounts for the situation of women in historical or current system of power, nor do they discuss the role gender has played in the development of sovereignty.
My project addresses this ideological and historical gap by examining how sovereignty was being discussed, challenged, and appropriated by literary figures from 1588-1688. In the years leading up to and spanning the Interregnum, sovereignty splintered and became available to formerly disenfranchised individuals, especially women writers. Such women not only appropriated and challenged traditional sovereignty in their texts, but also influenced contemporary and future understandings of power, politics, and gender. Each of my four chapters serves as a test cases of a woman writer engaging with and transforming sovereignty.
I first examine Elizabeth Cary’s closet drama The Tragedy of Mariam, Faire Queen of Jewry (1612); I then move on to Mary Wroth’s epic romance The Countess of Montgomery’s Urania, Part 1 (1621) and Part 2 (completed and circulated in manuscript 1629). In the third chapter, I examine Katherine Philips’ Poems, circulated in manuscript during the Interregnum, and published posthumously in 1667; my final chapter then moves to Margaret Cavendish’s utopian fiction and work of natural philosophy, The Blazing World. These women challenged traditional notions of body and power, offering their own new understandings of sovereign agency; they enable us to more fully the genealogical progression of sovereignty and to incorporate the category of gender into twenty-first century understandings of biopolitics.
The Canterbury Roll is a fifteenth-century genealogical chronicle roll that traces the succession of English kings from Noah until the Wars of the Roses. Created in a period when genealogy and ancestry had practical and ideological meaning in society, the Canterbury Roll is symbolic of the ideas of dynasty, myth and heritage that its original creators and readers valued. This thesis departs from previous historiographical approaches to genealogical rolls by treating the Canterbury Roll as a document that reflects the political culture in which it was produced. By examining the image, text and materiality of the manuscript, the thesis develops on existing scholarship and offers insights into the depiction of political prophecies, political theories of effective kingship, the justification of royal deposition and English perceptions towards foreign kingdoms and dominions. Political prophecies on the roll reveal how genealogy and prophecy contribute to a broader sense of history and prestige that the Lancastrian kings claimed to inherit. By using mythical royal depositions, the roll justifies the removal of Richard II and the Lancastrian dynasty’s legitimacy through not only hereditary right, but also contemporary political theory that validated the ousting of ineffective kings. The thesis also establishes that the roll reveals contemporary English attitudes towards other territories such as Scotland, Wales and France, which reflect the political and diplomatic context of the period. These themes demonstrate the capacity of genealogical manuscripts to present a nuanced view of contemporary political concepts. In doing so, this thesis both provides an in-depth textual analysis of the Canterbury Roll, and contributes to the historiography of medieval genealogical literature and political thought by approaching the manuscript as a source for the political culture of early fifteenth-century England.
Po/ética de la escucha. Un estudio de la representación del dolor físico infligido y el sufrimiento en la escritura testimonial de Nora StrejilevichAcedo Alonso, Noemí 13 November 2015 (has links)
La presente investigación doctoral es una propuesta de lectura de la novela testimonial Una sola muerte numerosa (1996), de la escritora argentina —y superviviente del centro clandestino de detención, torturas y exterminio “Club Atlético”— Nora Strejilevich. Para ello, se parte de una de las cuestiones que han permanecido silenciadas a lo largo de la tradición del pensamiento, la relativa a la pregunta sobre el sentido (al por qué) que plantea la víctima del dolor y del sufrimiento infligido por otro ser. Si bien la filosofía ha abordado la temática del mal y de la violencia desde la perspectiva de quién lo perpetra (el agente), o bien, ha estudiado la procedencia desde el discurso del mito, la teodicea y la teología, la figura de quién padece el mal cometido ha quedado relegada hasta el advenimiento de la Shoah, que da lugar a la emergencia de la ‘era del testigo’, en palabras de Annette Wieviorka, momento en que despierta el interés por el testimonio. En Latinoamérica, esta escritura se conceptualiza como un nuevo género literario por la crítica de los años sesenta a los ochenta. Así, en el primer capítulo, se atiende al esfuerzo crítico por hallar una definición para el género, estudiar las diversas genealogías y taxonomías que se proponen y, a su vez, también se analizan los debates que proliferan en torno a esta modalidad discursiva. Asimismo, se aborda el testimonio como acto aporético desde la filosofía y como vínculo entre la historia y la memoria desde las aproximaciones críticas más recientes de los Estudios de la memoria. Todo ello con el propósito de crear un marco teórico apropiado para el estudio de la escritura testimonial de Nora Strejilevich, conformada por la novela citada y por varios relatos que ha publicado desde el año 2000 en diversas antologías y revistas. En el segundo capítulo, se analiza el contexto histórico de la última dictadura militar en Argentina (1976-1983), considerada por algunos historiadores y sociólogos como un genocidio social reorganizador. Así, es pertinente atender aquí a la filosofía de la Shoah por las conexiones y los puntos en común que mantiene con el poder totalitario y con la tecnología del poder desaparecedor implementados en el país latinoamericano. El objetivo es analizar el papel de la tortura y las reflexiones que se derivan en torno al dolor y al sufrimiento de las víctimas, convertidas en testigos y supervivientes de los también denominados ‘campos de concentración’. Una vez realizado el estudio sobre la teoría del dolor y la tortura, la investigación se adentra, ya en el tercer capítulo, en la po/ética de la escucha propuesta en la novela testimonial de Strejilevich. Con esta expresión se quiere poner de manifiesto el desplazamiento que se da en el ámbito de la filosofía hacia la ética, el arte y la narración —la est/ética—, ya que se considera un terreno apropiado para la elaboración de la experiencia, que debe fundamentar el pensamiento contemporáneo. Es decir, desde la filosofía (Adorno, Arendt, Cavarero, Butler) se conmina a escuchar la demanda ética que se formula desde la escritura testimonial. Así, se propone un nuevo mapa comprensivo que no sólo está centrado en la representación (imbricada a la esfera conceptual de la visión) sino en lo auditivo (acogiendo al grito como máxima expresión de un horror que si no puede verse por inmirable, sí puede oírse). Esta es la hipótesis principal de este trabajo. Por último, se realiza una lectura intertextual de la obra de Nora Strejilevich y de otros testimonios como el de Jean Améry y Jacobo Timerman, para dar cuenta de la diversidad que abarca la escritura testimonial, que puede considerarse una escritura de muerte, pero también de vida, en cuanto acto que da comienzo no sólo a algo: un escrito que se convierte en una morada habitable y permanente; sino de alguien: un/a superviviente que trata de dar cuenta de la derrota política y de la resistencia al olvido. The present doctoral research is a reading proposal of Una sola muerte numerosa (1996), a testimonial novel written by the Argentinean author —and survivor of the concentration, torture, and extermination camp “Club Atlético”— Nora Strejilevich. To do so, it parts from one of the silenced matters throughout the tradition of thought; this is the question relative to the sense (to the question of why) that the victim’s pain and suffering poses when another being inflicts it. While Philosophy has addressed the subject matter of evil and violence from the perspective of the perpetrator (the agent), or, has studied the provenance from the myth perspective of both theodicy and theology, the figure of the one that suffered the wrongdoing was neglected until the advent of the Shoah, which led to the emergence of the “Witness Era”, a term by Annette Wieviorka, that marks the moment when testimonial writing awakes interest. In Latin America, this kind of writings have been conceptualised as a new literary genre by the critic community in the 1980s. This is why, in the first chapter, the critical effort to construct a definition for this new genre is revised, as well as the different genealogies and the taxonomies that were proposed at the time. The debates that proliferate around this discursive modality are also revised. In this same chapter, testimony is presented as aporetical from a philosophical point of view, and it works as the link between History and memory from the most recent critical approaches to the subject that have been carried out in Memory Studies. All of this is done with the purpose of building an appropriate theoretical frame for the study of Nora Strejilevich’s testimonial writing, comprised by the cited novel and numerous short stories that have been published in magazines and anthologies since the year 2000. The second chapter analyses the historical context of the last Argentinean military dictatorship (1976-1983), considered to be, by some historians and sociologists, a reorganizing social genocide. This is the reason why it is pertinent to revise Shoah’s philosophy, because of the connections and the common ground that it maintains with totalitarian power and the disappearing power technologies implemented in the Latin American country. The main goal is to analyse the role of torture and the reflections that surface around the victims’ pain and suffering, victims that become witnesses and survivors of these also called “concentration camps”. Once the study about pain and torture is conducted, the research focuses, now on the third chapter, in the po/ethics of the act of listening that is proposed in Strejilevich’s testimonial novel. With this term it is intended to manifest the movement that is carried through from the discipline of Philosophy to that of Ethics, Art, and narrative —the Est/Ethics—, because it is considered to be an appropriate ground for experience construction, which has to provide a basis to contemporary thought. In other words, parting from Philosophy (Adorno, Arendt, Cavarero, Butler), one is urged to listen to the ethical claim that is formulated in testimonial writing. Thus, a new comprehensive map is presented, one that is not only focused on representation (embedded to vision’s conceptual sphere), but in the auditory (receiving the scream as the maximum horror expression that cannot be seen because of its fiendishness, but it can be heard). This is the main hypothesis of this investigation. Finally, an intertextual reading is carried out between the work of Nora Strejilevich and other testimonies, such as the ones written by Jean Améry and Jacobo Timerman, to give account of the diversity that testimonial writing ensues, and that it can be considered to be related to death, but also to life, as it is an act that is not only the beginning of something: a testimony becomes an habitable and permanent dwelling place; but most importantly, a testimony is the beginning of someone: a survivor that tries to give account of the political defeat and the resistance to be forgotten.
Starks, Erica Holmes
20 October 2015
Ancestor reverence, in this study, is considered to consist of reflecting on and honoring the women and men who came before us in our bloodlines, including those friends and chosen family who were part of our intellectual or spiritual lineages. Many traditions include beliefs that our consciousness continues after death, and some traditions hold that ancestors may influence the events of the living or intercede with the gods on the living's behalf. In many traditions ancestors are honored through altar building, rituals, and trance journeys. Rituals performed for the ancestors create strong familial and community bonds. This thesis work is important because it expanded the opportunities for me to understand my family dynamics and to develop relationships with my deceased foremothers and forefathers. I learned about myself in understanding my families' past and felt stronger connections to my lineage and progeny. The literature revealed that genealogy research is a form of ancestor reverence; especially in Western cultures that no longer have formalized ancestor reverence rituals and practices. Through genealogy research, I learned the names and stories of my ancestors and ancestresses and, in combination with that research, on a pilgrimage to my ancestral homeland, I explored my matriline using an archaeomythological and feminist lens that combined archaeology, anthropology, mythology, folklore, genetics, ecology, and history to search for the evidence of what women did throughout herstory. I gathered the stories focused on how women worked, lived and contributed to society throughout history, because the stories of my ancestresses, like the accomplishments of most women from 1500-1900, were often omitted from written history. A sacred journey can catapult the participant into greater and faster spiritual growth; this was true for me in that I may not have gained this wisdom otherwise. In this paper I explored the idea that ancestors were revered through multiple methods, including pilgrimage and creative writing. While altar building, rituals, trance journeys, and genealogy were most often recorded in written form in regards to ancestor reverence, they are not the only methods that can provide experience and impact to the descendant who honors their ancestors. I have tried to prove this assertion through academic research: I used a heuristic approach to carefully examine my personal experiences with each of these forms of ancestor reverence and an arts-based approach through creative writing to pen short works about my ancestors.
Ginard Puigserver, Maria
23 July 2015
La construcció de les tradicions biogràfiques dels poetes mítics grecs va començar a gestar-se des de les primeres manifestacions literàries gregues i es va prolongar durant segles. Al llarg d’aquest període, aquestes figures van ser adoptades amb finalitats diverses i van encaixar en els usos i les necessitats individuals o col·lectius d’autors literaris, grups de culte o interessos polítics. A més a més, la construcció biogràfica d’aquests poetes comparteix processos i mecanismes de caracterització similars als que van fer servir les tradicions dels poetes històrics i d’altres operadors culturals com els filòsofs. Així doncs, la tesi analitza els motius biogràfics principals que s’incorporaren a les figures dels poetes mítics, per blocs temàtics, i el procés com es generaren i s’aprofitaren els t pics i els motius biogràfics en els poetes considerats sovint iniciadors de la poesia grega. Les anàlisis d’aquesta recerca s’organitzen principalment al voltant de figures com Tàmiris, Orfeu, Museu, Eumolp, Epimènides, Linos, Olè, Filammó i Amfíon, entre d’altres, i s’estructuren seguint uns eixos temàtics com són els orígens (genealogia i pàtria), les relacions de magisteri i d’iniciació i altres motius típics de la biografia heroica (el viatge, els enfrontaments poètics i amb el poder, les invencions, la institució de cultes, la mort i la integració en la condició heroica). L’estudi dels motius biogràfics ha comportat la identificació d’una funció d’equivalència entre alguns d’aquests motius i s’hi ha detectat també una voluntat de jerarquització i competència, molt lligada al context cultual en què molts d’aquests poetes tenien presència. De manera similar, els biografemes han contribuït a assignar als poetes analitzats una funció instauradora per a la tradició literària i religiosa que els prenia com a referent, com a conseqüència de la relació constant i privilegiada amb la divinitat. The development of the biographical traditions of the Greek mythical poets started with the first Greek literary works and it lasted for centuries. Throughout this period these figures were adapted for different uses and they suited literary, cultic or political interests either particularly or collectively. Furthermore, the shaping of the traditions of these poets, generally considered previous to Homer, has similarities with the historical poets, philosophers, sages and others. So, the thesis analyses the main sets of biographical formulaic themes and the process in which these formulaic motifs were elaborated and reshaped. The poets studied are Thamyris, Orpheus, Musaeus, Eumolpus, Linus, Epimenides, Olen, Philammon and Amphion among others, and the topics are their genealogy and origin, poetic initiation and other traditional topics of the heroic biography (teacher-pupil relationship, travel, song contests, quarrel with authorities, inventions, establishment of new cults, death, heroization). The study of these biographical traditions has led to identify the equivalence among some formulaic themes and the intention to set up a hierarchy, tied to cultic context where these poets were used. Similarly, the biographemes contributed to assign them an authoritative role for the literary and religious tradition which took them as a referent, thanks to the constant and privileged relationship with deities.
Discussion of Three Cases on‘Xian Ren’ from “Shui Hu Zhuan”、“Jin Ping Mei”、“Hong Lou Meng”. 閒人三論：《水滸傳》、《金瓶梅》到《紅樓夢》的探討Pei-ting Chao, 趙珮珽 2015 (has links)
碩士 國立中央大學 中國文學系 103 The goals of this essay are by studying the related characters in the three classical novels of the Ming and Qing dynasties to highlight the dialectical interpretation of the culture identity of the‘Xian Ren’（閒人）group and wish the revelation of this case study having the subsequent construction of the genealogy． Back to roots， the group can be traced to the last of nine occupations of the people of the “Zhou li＂(周禮)，‘Xian Min’(閒民)，which means people with no fixed and changing occupations；from a metaphysical dialectic perspective， the no fixed and the changing are inter-inventing with extended meaning of the‘Xian’(閒)of transcending and the‘Xian’(閑)of exclusion in “Shuo Wen Jie Zi”(說文解字)；in the practice of competency， on the one hand，‘Xian Ren’evolved into the competent hanger―ons of “Du Cheng Ji Sheng”（都城紀勝）and“Meng Liang Lu”(夢粱錄)of the Southern Song dynasty，especially of “Shui Hu Zhuan”(水滸傳)；on the other side，“Xian Ren”(閒人)also developed from celebrated scholars of “Shi Shuo Hsin Yu”(世說新語)， the poets of the Tang and Song dynasties like Bai Juyi(白居易) and Su Shi(蘇軾) into Jia Baoyu(賈寶玉)，who is 'rich and honourable idler.' and fussing for nothing．As for “Shui Hu Zhuan”（水滸傳），the people，who are hanger―ons but refer to themselves as agents to enforce justice on behalf of heaven， should be called ，according to the opinions of Lu Xun(魯迅) nicknamed ‘San Xian’(三閒) of three leisure，the‘Xian Ren’of helper∙
The Heart of the Heart Sūtra: A Comparison of Medieval Chinese Interpretations of the Prajñāpāramitā Hṛdaya Sūtra 《心經》之心：《般若波羅蜜多心經》在中世紀中國的解釋比較TZU-HSIAO SHIH, 釋自孝 2015 (has links)
碩士 佛光大學 佛教學系 103 This thesis is engaged in a scriptural interpretation contrast upon the Heart Sūtra (The referred title as the Heart Sūtra will be adopted hereafter on many occasions on behalf of its Sanskrit title, the Prajñāpāramitā Hṛdaya Sūtra.) among the commentarial traditions in Medieval China. The commentarial campaign of the Heart Sūtra launched from the 7th century, and the ensuing mission of commentating was still undertaken by a number of commentators amidst the later hundreds of years. Those commentators including Kuījī窺基, Fǎzáng法藏, Dàdiān大顛 and Zhìyuán智圓, who represented their individual monastic genealogies were all formally transmitted the teachings by the patriarchs of religious traditions, Yogācāra, Huáyán, Chán and Tiāntái. The contrast is administered amongst the four traditions corresponding to the specific illustrations towards the implications within the texts of the Heart Sūtra. At first, Huáyán and Tiāntái stand for the two major religious denominations which were noted for their individual teachings in commentating the Buddhist scriptures, which the Fivefold Teachings of Huáyán School went together with the Fourfold Teachings of Tiāntái School in Medieval China. On the other hand, Yogācāra and Chán hold quite divergent perspectives upon the explanations of phenomena. Yogācāra School stresses the existence of dependent origination in all phenomena, whereas Chán School emphasizes the emptiness of all phenomena. In the course of the scriptural interpretation contrast among these four commentarial traditions, we can see that they hold variant opinions on commentating the Heart Sūtra, but they actually did not contradict one another. Sometimes we can find that they mutually take advantage of the tenets of the other religious sects but not just the teaching of themselves in doing their commentaries. Furthermore, the introduction of the historical legends happened upon Xuánzàng and Kūkai as well as the linguistic inspection within the shorter text of the Heart Sūtra helps to acknowledge the origin of it, and which brings about a series of discussions over the main text and the mantra of this sūtra. Next, the quest towards the exegetical recognitions upon the heart of the Heart Sūtra corresponding to the above four Chinese commentarial traditions favors to identify the hermeneutical methodologies of them quite to accord with the individually monastic heredities. It is also noteworthy that in the process of contrasting the specific commentaries, we can find that the above four Chinese commentarial traditions play dramatic roles in offering their idiosyncratically philosophical thoughts, and that also favors us to cognize the respective teachings which convey the monastic experiences and Buddhist academic disciplines that specify the individually religious inheritances, and meanwhile makes us embrace a deeper and broader speculation upon the entailments within the text of the Heart Sūtra illustrated by the four traditions.
Sagan, Hans Nicholas
7 November 2015
Political protest is an increasingly frequent occurrence in urban public space. During times of protest, the use of urban space transforms according to special regulatory circumstances and dictates. The reorganization of economic relationships under neoliberalism carries with it changes in the regulation of urban space. Environmental design is part of the toolkit of protest control.
Existing literature on the interrelation of protest, policing, and urban space can be broken down into four general categories: radical politics, criminological, technocratic, and technicalprofessional. Each of these bodies of literature problematizes core ideas of crowds, space, and protest differently. This leads to entirely different philosophical and methodological approaches to protests from different parties and agencies.
This paper approaches protest, policing, and urban space using a critical-theoretical methodology coupled with person-environment relations methods. This paper examines political protest at American Presidential National Conventions. Using genealogical-historical analysis and discourse analysis, this paper examines two historical protest event-sites to develop baselines for comparison: Chicago 1968 and Dallas 1984. Two contemporary protest event-sites are examined using direct observation and discourse analysis: Denver 2008 and St. Paul 2008.
Results show that modes of protest policing are products of dominant socioeconomic models of society, influenced by local policing culture and historical context. Each of the protest event-sites studied represents a crisis in policing and the beginning of a transformation in modes of protest policing. Central to protest policing is the concept of territorial control; means to achieve this control vary by mode of protest policing, which varies according to dominant socioeconomic model. Protesters used a variety of spatial strategies at varying degrees of organization. Both protesters and police developed innovations in spatial practice in order to make their activities more effective.
This has significant consequences for professionalized urban design. Both protester and policing spatial innovation involves the tactical reorganization and occupation of urban space. As urban space plays a constituent role in protest and policing, environmental designers must be aware of the political consequences of their designs.
View of the Sage and the Awareness of the Transmission of Dao in Pre-Qin Confucian Philosophy: A Critical Study of The Analects, The Mencius and The Doctrine of the Mean 論先秦儒家的「聖人觀」及其道統意識—以《論語》、《孟子》、《中庸》為焦點Zhan-jie How, 侯展捷 2015 (has links)
碩士 國立臺灣大學 哲學研究所 103 Adhering strictly to the threefold research methodology of “defining key conceptual terms”, “clarifying the basis of propositions for value judgement” and “reconstructing the philosophical system”, this thesis engages in a comprehensive study of Pre-Qin Confucian texts with the intention of achieving the following objectives: (1) examine and elucidate the rich intellectual content of important concepts such as “sagely” 聖, “the sage” 聖人 and “the Way of the sages” 聖人之道; (2) explicate the appropriate conceptual relationship between “the Way of the Junzi” 君子之道and “the Way of the Sages” in the Confucian context; (3) reevaluate the fundamental Confucian tenets regarding human nature and the “transmission of Dao” based on our understanding of the Confucian “View of the Sage” 聖人觀, culminating in the advancement of a coherent and systematic explanation as to how the Confucian Dao should be properly realized. In order to achieve these objectives, this thesis seeks to answer four main questions. First and foremost, what is actually connoted by seemingly abstract concepts such as “sagely” and “the Sage”? In other words, what are the criteria for one to be recognized as a Sage in the Confucian sense? Secondly, how should we interpret the intricate conceptual relationship between the Junzi and the Sage? Thirdly, is it plausible for us to reflect on the awareness of the transmission of the Dao 道統意識 shared amongst Sages and Junzi (or Sage-disciples) based on our understanding of the Confucian “View of the Sage”? Last but not least, is the Confucian “View of the Sage” consistent with its view of human nature? If so, how do these two propositions cohere with each other? Based on a critical study of the Confucian “View of the Sage” as represented in The Analects of Confucius, The Mencius and The Doctrine of the Mean, followed by a thorough reassessment of the problematic Confucian concept of the “transmission of Dao”, we reached the following three conclusions. First, regarding the proper definition of the term “Sage” in Confucian philosophy, we understand it to be an honorable title conferred by succeeding generations of Junzi upon a Junzi who has passed on. In this sense, such a title is not merely a product of exalting the Junzi’s outstanding character or life’s work. More significantly, it signifies a mutual recognition within the wider Confucian community of this particular Junzi as an exemplar of morality not only worthy of respect and reverence, but also serving as inspiration and mentor to future generations of Junzi or Sage-disciples. Moreover, Junzi (or the Way of the Junzi) and the Sage (or the Way of the Sages) are not two self-sufficient and unrelated concepts within Confucian philosophy. They are in reality a pair of mutually justifying and reciprocally illuminating concepts: on the one hand, the Way of the Junzi posits the Way of the Sages as its ultimate end, on the other, the Way of the Sages fulfils its purpose insofar as the Way of the Junzi is manifested adequately in the world of experience. In more explicit terms, the Way of the Sages actualizes itself in the form of an “intentional field” 意義場域, which unites Confucians from different generations through the medium of Sage Teachings. In this unique “intentional field”, aspiring Junzi or Sage-disciples model their own pursuit of Dao on past Sages by studying their chronicles, achievements and personalities. More importantly, such an “intentional field” is tenable because Pre-Qin Confucians unanimously accept the fundamental notion that “the sagely and the profane share a common mind-heart”. On one end of the spectrum, every individual has the innate capacity to accord himself with the Way of the Sages through steadfastness of will and commitment to practice; on the other end, the Way of the Sages (through the medium of Sage Teachings) has the obligation to illuminate each individual’s path toward sagehood. Therefore, the Way of the Junzi and the Way of the Sages are in truth two closely-related and intertwining aspects of the Confucian Dao: Without postulating the Way of the Sages as the ultimate end to which the Way of the Junzi works tirelessly toward, the former would be reduced to nothing but an otiose concept; similarly, without the Way of the Sages playing an instrumental facilitating role in the manifestation of the Way of the Junzi, that the latter could validate its own realization would be nearly inconceivable. Secondly, building upon findings from preceding sections, we seek to highlight the common themes and ideas expounded in the three main Pre-Qin Confucian texts with regards to the Confucian “View of the Sage” and integrate these scattered and isolated narratives within a systematic theoretical framework, by introducing a novel concept known as “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” 道統意識. Even though the object of awareness is the historically problematic concept of Dao-tong 道統, our understanding of this concept departs from the traditional emphasis on the canonization and sanctification of certain unique individuals under a fixed genealogy (this is also the reason why we elect to translate 道統意識 as “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” and not “awareness of the genealogy of the Dao”). Instead, two things are most imperative to such a form of awareness: (1) the inborn potential and latent desire to attain sagehood which resides within every individual’s mind-heart; (2) the active facilitating role played by past sages in guiding Junzi or Sage-disciples of the present toward the ultimate goal of sagehood, through the mediating forms of outstanding moral accomplishments and exemplary personality models. In a nutshell, the “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” is most concerned with the inner spiritual dimension of Confucian tradition. Furthermore, even though such a form of awareness is essentially grounded on the moral agent’s independent pursuit of a moral life, it is also able to transcend the relatively limited “intentional field” of each individual moral agent, and move freely within the shared “intentional field” jointly created and preserved by successive generations of Sages and Sage-disciples. Hence, our notion of the “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” comprises of both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. In other words, it is not only interested in how moral agents interact with one another in their present form of existence (synchronic dimension), but also the proper way in which Sages and Sage-disciples across different timeframes accord and relate with one another, as exemplified by a strong sense of communion and shared identity (diachronic dimension). In the final part of the thesis, we turn our attention from the founding of a new theory to its justification within the entire Confucian theoretical framework. We compare the “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” proposition (which epitomizes the Confucian Dao) with the Confucian view of human nature, and examine whether both propositions are logically consistent. Our conclusion is that Pre-Qin Confucians hold the basic view that “human nature is inclined toward goodness” 人性向善, and that this view of human nature shares a direct correspondence with the “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” proposition: Once an individual holds firm to the belief that “human nature is inclined toward goodness”, and consequently dedicates himself or herself to the realization of specific acts of goodness, he has in fact satisfied the conditions of Junzi or Sage-disciple. As a Junzi or Sage-disciple, he or she then consciously partakes in the continual manifestation and transmission of the Way of the Sages, in which case he or she is obligated to maintain an emotional and intellectual attachment to the Sages of the past.
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