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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
71

Wladimiro Acosta y la vivienda colectiva (1928 - 1935) : su aporte a la innovación arqueológica y tipológica en América Latina

Ranzini, Marcelo 21 July 2015 (has links)
VVladimiro Acosta (WA) was a Russian architect with centro-european modem studies. His moving to Latin America in 1928 he meant one of the most significant contributions to Argentinian architecture. Since his arrival until 1935 he would develop ten social housing prototypes, which although they were never built they still represent one of the main and most complete studies on housing unit. The hypothesis which leads this thesis shows these prototypes as one of the most significant contributions in typological and technological innovation on social housing in Argentina and Latin America. We consider social housing as one of the most relevant contributions of the modern period. lts research places us before a central topic in modern discipline, where it is possible to dig the main lines of an architectonic thought born in Europe during the first half of XX Century. Nevertheless, it is the move to a specific place where we want to place our study field. This material shows the works of an architect with modern studies whose professional development is proposed in and for a different hemisphere. The hypothesis that this work presents, describes the particular evolution as the outcome of the confrontation of a theory acquired following the European avant-garde of the 20s with a different economic and territorial reality. This confrontation between the concept of the european urban and architectonic modernity with the socio-cultural reality in Latin America would allow WA to produce highly innovative proposals. When we focus in the typological and technological innovations WA developed on social housing over this short but fruitful period, leads us to endose accurate enough material so as to visualize one of the most valuable contributions in Argentinian Architecture. The prototypes which are studied were never built. Digital technology was used to the graphic construction of these projects, placing drawing as builders. Thus, drawing becomes a complement which adds up to the final outcome. This tool reveals new aspects of the unit and the whole, going through the exactitude of the three dimension construction. In this investigation the graphic construction adds information which creates an investigation tool to give different shades to the original object of study and states an inquiry position in the historic and productive aspects through the observation of architecture as formal material. In this way, the graphic construction is the protagonist since it adds original information, a new aspect of WA work and its potential. This work is intended to identify the design instruments, the logic train of thought where WA based his prototypes so as to find a kind of genealogy of the projects signed by WA. The peculiar evolution in his proposals guides us to the hypothesis which favors the universality of the modern theory by showing the ability of adaptation to any site. This work does not try to define WA's proposals as modern or local, instead it tries to go beyond a mere labeling, investigating the instruments that the author values in his projects . At the same time, it is of interest to check its validity, probably not directly its use nowadays, but in its recognition as contribution in a field that it is still developing. Wladimiro Acosta (WA) era un arquitecto de origen ruso y de formación moderna centroeuropea. Su traslado a América Latina en 1928 provocaría una de las contribuciones más importantes para la disciplina arquitectónica argentina. Desde su arribo y hasta el año 1935 desarrollaría por iniciativa personal diez prototipos de vivienda colectiva que nunca fueron construidos, y que al día de hoy, siguen representando unos de los principales y más completos estudios referidos al tema de la unidad de vivienda. La hipótesis que rige esta tesis presenta a estos prototipos como uno de los aportes más significativos en innovación tipológica y tecnológica de vivienda colectiva para la disciplina arquitectónica argentina, enseñanza que es extrapolable al conjunto de América Latina. Consideramos la vivienda colectiva como una de las contribuciones relevantes del período moderno. Su exploración nos ubica ante un tema central de la disciplina moderna, donde es posible indagar en los lineamientos fundamentales de un pensamiento arquitectónico surgido en Europa durante la primera mitad del siglo XX. Sin embargo, es en el traslado a un lugar especifico donde nos interesa situar el campo de estudio. Este material presenta la obra de un arquitecto de formación moderna, pero cuyo desarrollo profesional es propuesto en y para un hemisferio diferente. La hipótesis que este trabajo plantea describe esta particular evolución como el producto de la confrontación de una teoría disciplinar asimilada en consonancia con las vanguardias centroeuropeas de la década del veinte, con una realidad económica y territorial sustancialmente diferente. Esta confrontación entre los conceptos de la modernidad urbano arquitectónica europea, con la realidad socio cultural, ambiental, tecnológica y disciplinar de América Latina le permitiría a WA realizar propuestas con un alto componente innovador. Centrarse en las innovaciones tecnológicas y tipológicas de vivienda colectiva realizadas por WA a lo largo de este corto pero fructifero período, conlleva la delimitación de un material suficientemente preciso para visualizar uno de los aportes más valiosos existentes en la disciplina arquitectónica en Argentina. Los prototipos en estudio nunca fueron construidos. Se utiliza la tecnología digital para la construcción gráfica de estos proyectos, poniendo al dibujo en el oficio de constructor. De esta manera se ubica el dibujo como algo complementario, que añade sin redundar. Esta herramienta aporta nuevas visiones de la unidad y del conjunto, sometiéndolos al rigor de su construcción en las tres dimensiones del espacio. En este trabajo de investigación la construcción gráfica produce conocimiento, que se constituye como una herramienta investigativa que intenta aportar nuevas miradas respecto al objeto original de estudio y manifiesta una posición de indagación no solo historiográfica sino productiva, a través de la observación de la arquitectura como material formal. De esta manera la construcción gráfica es protagonista, ya que agrega información original, un nuevo conocimiento de la obra de WA y de sus potencialidades. Es interés de este trabajo identificar los instrumentos de diseño, las lógicas, en las que WA se basara para realizar sus prototipos, con el fin de encontrar una especie de genealogía de los proyectos firmados WA. La particular evolución evidenciada en sus propuestas nos acerca a la hipótesis que defiende el valor de universalidad de la teoría moderna, al denotar una particular facultad de adaptación a un territorio sensiblemente diferente al de su formulación. Este trabajo no intenta enmarcar de moderno ni de local a las propuestas de WA sino de ir más allá de una simple catalogación, indagando en los instrumentos que el autor revaloriza en sus concepciones. A su vez, es interés constatar su vigencia, tal vez no desde su uso estricto en la actualidad, sino en el reconocimiento de su labor como esclarecedor de un campo que actualmente sigue en desarrollo.
72

Race, gender and empire: transnational and transracial feminism in the first novels of Pauline Hopkins and Olive Schreiner

Barends, Heidi 2015 (has links)
Includes bibliography. White South African author Olive Schreiner (1855-1920) and African American author Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins (1859-1930) are well-known and celebrated literary figures in their own right, but are seldom read side by side. Furthermore, these authors and their works are traditionally placed on different spectrums of feminist literary genealogies despite writing during a similar time-frame and sharing converging feminist agendas. This thesis analyses The Story of an African Farm (1883), Schreiner?s first completed novel, alongside Hopkins? first full-length novel, the romance Contending Forces: A Romance Illustrative of Negro Life North and South (1900). Individually, these novels and their authors do radical work in liberating their female characters from the patriarchal and racial oppression prevalent in each context. This thesis argues that reading the two in tandem offers unique insight into a specifically transnational and transracial feminist consciousness emerging at the turn of the nineteenth century. Identifying multiple links between the novels? feminist concerns and their intersecting negotiations with race and empire, this comparative literary study establishes temporal, spatial and conceptual links between the two works, arguing that these links transcend both the space and race of their novels? local contexts in order to suggest a definitive transnational and transracial feminist awareness. Such a reading moreover disrupts traditional genealogies of western feminism, urging scholars to look beyond the narrow scope of feminist ?waves? and schools in order to detect nuances, convergences and relationships between texts which such genealogies disregard.
73

Discursos sobre a civilidade e produção de subjetividades em manuais portugueses dos séculos XVIII-XIX

Santos, Gesiel Prado. 2015 (has links)
Orientador: Maria do Rosário Gregolin Banca: Nilton Milanez Banca: Vanice Maria de Oliveira Sargentini Banca: Kátia Menezes de Sousa Banca: Luzmara Ferreira Curcino Resumo: Tomando o ponto de vista da Análise de Discurso a partir da reflexão de Michel Foucault e considerando as subjetividades enquanto construções históricas intermediadas pela relação intrínseca das práticas discursivas e as técnicas de si, o objetivo desta pesquisa consiste em analisar o discurso de manuais de civilidade que circularam em Portugal e no Brasil nos séculos XVIII e XIX, a fim de entender seu papel na projeção do sujeito civilizado a partir do processo civilizatório decorrente da instauração da Corte Portuguesa no Rio de Janeiro, em 1808. A existência e a circulação de uma literatura prescritiva de comportamentos coloca ao sujeito a função de aplicar sobre si um conjunto de técnicas de controle de modo a tornar-se civilizado. Aceitar que subjetividades são forjadas por práticas discursivas, requer analisar o discurso para além dos limites da significação e inseri-lo em uma rede de interconexões com outros dizeres e acontecimentos, na tentativa de compreender "o que faz do sujeito um civilizado". Sendo assim, abre-se a problemática para pensar uma análise do discurso que não esteja às voltas apenas com a constituição dos sentidos, mas que tenha interesse em compreender as subjetividades por meio de uma cartografia da existência. Portanto, com base na leitura de postulados teóricos foucaultianos, este trabalho propõe uma reflexão crítica sobre uma teoria da subjetividade na Análise do Discurso por meio da genealogia das práticas de existência desenvolvida por Michel Foucault. O sujeito ocupa o centro do pensamento da filosofia foucaultiana, e o exercício de compreensão implica olhar para as práticas discursivas, de modo a compreender de que maneira as subjetividades são construídas Résumé: Considérant les réflexions de Foucault à propos de l'Analyse du Discours et les subjectivités comme des productions historiques médiées par la relation intrinsèque des pratiques discoursives et des techniques du soi, l'objectif de ce travail-là c'est d'analyser le discours de la bienséance et du bon comportement et son rôle dans la projection du sujet civilisé dès le procès de civilisation commencé par l'instauration de la Cour Portugaise au Rio de Janeiro, en 1808. L'existence et la circulation d'une littérature normative de comportements mettent sur le sujet la fonction d'appliquer sur soi-même un ensemble de techniques de contrôle pour devenir civilisé. Pour accepter que les subjectivités sont produites par des pratiques discoursives on doit analyser le discours au-dehors des limitations de la signification, et le placer dans un réseau d'interconnexions avec des autres dits et événements, pour essayer de comprendre « ce que fait du sujet un civilisé ». De cette façon, on crée une problématique autour d'une analyse du discours qui ne s'occupe que des sens, en posant le besoin de comprendre les subjectivités à travers une cartographie de l'existence. On propose ainsi penser une théorie de la subjectivité dans l'Analyse du Discours à travers une généalogie des pratiques d'existence avec la lecture de Michel Foucault. Le sujet occupe le centre de la pensée de la philosophie foucaldienne, et l'exercice de comprehénsion implique regarder les pratiques discoursives, pour comprendre de quelle façon les subjectivités sont-elles produites Doutor
74

Habemus doctorem? : considerações sobre processos de subjetivação no campo acadêmico contemporâneo

Silva, Mauricio Júnior Rodrigues da. 2015 (has links)
Orientador: Maria do Rosário de Fátima Valencise Gregolin Banca: Marina Célia Mendonça Banca: Luzmara Curcino Ferreira Banca: Ivânia dos Santos Neves Banca: Maria Regina Momesso Resumo: Para ocupar uma posição de sujeito dentro do campo acadêmico contemporâneo não basta estar presente no mesmo, é preciso cumprir uma série de práticas discursivas e não discursivas. Dentre elas, adotar um procedimento de escrita, tornar-se pesquisador, registrar cada uma de suas produções, possuir títulos, dentre outras. Essas e outras práticas legitimam o sujeito nos jogos de verdade que perpassam esse campo. Diante desses jogos, cumpre ao presente trabalho questionar alguns desses processos pelos quais o indivíduo deve passar para ocupar uma posição dentro do campo acadêmico que lhe permita enunciar com propriedade determinadas verdades. Na busca pela especificidade dessas práticas, procurou-se empreender uma prática de análise de discursos pautada na arquegenealogia foucaultiana. Essa perspectiva arquegenealógica está posta dentro de um campo do saber chamado de Análise do Discurso, desenvolvida na França nos anos 60/70 por meio dos estudos de Michel Pêcheux e Michel Foucault e pensada no Brasil hodierno a partir das perspectivas históricas de Maria do Rosário Gregolin (2002, 2004, 2006b). Esse instrumental teórico permite empreender uma teoria crítica do presente, de modo a verificar como o campo acadêmico está constituído a partir de uma relação de forças. Para problematizar esses processos de subjetivação que ocorrem no campo acadêmico, tomou-se dois eixos principais de análise: um primeiro pautado nos procedimentos de escrita, proveniente da análise de certos manuais/editais acadêmicos que estabelecem padrões de escrita, de circulação e legitimação dos textos; um segundo eixo derivado do assento curricular, no qual se analisou a Plataforma Lattes como um importante dispositivo para construção da subjetividade dos acadêmicos. A análise desses dois eixos temáticos permitiu ao trabalho analisar como as práticas nesse campo se norteiam dentre outros fatores pelas partilhas de títulos. Elas... Abstract: To occupy a subject-position within a contemporary academic field, you may not just be on it, you need to follow a series of discursive and non discursive practices. Among them, having a procedure of writing, becoming a researcher, registering each of its productions, have titles, among others. These and other practices legitimize the subject in truth games that pervade this field. Against these games, we must question some of those processes by which the individual must pass to occupy a position within the academic field that enables him to enunciate truths with property. In the persuit of specifying these practices, we tried to undertake an analysis of discourse in Foucault guided arque-genealogy. Our arque-genealogy is within a field of knowledge called Discourse Analysis, developed in France in the years 60/70 through the studies of Michel Foucault and Michel Pêcheux and thought in Brazil in contemporaneity from the historical perspective of Maria do Rosário Gregolin (2002, 2004, 2006b). This theoretical tools allows us to undertake a critique of this theory, in order to check how the academic field is constructed from a relationship of forces. To discuss the subjective processes that occurs in the academic field, we took up two main axes of analysis: a first guided in the procedures of writing, from the analysis of certain manuals that establishes academic standards of writing, circulation and legitimization of texts; a second axis derived from the curriculum register, which examined the Plataforma Lattes as an important device for the subjectivity of the academic building. The analysis of these two themes enabled us to understand how the practices in this field are guided by the shared titles. They act as important instruments of power through which individuals produce their subjectivities. Bans, segregation from these shares are described in the research, especially from the separation between the Homo accademicus and Homo... Doutor
75

El drama de fideicomiso en Umbral de Juan Emar: obra total y acto ético

Vargas Peirano, María Constanza 2015 (has links)
Tesis para optar al grado de Magíster en Literatura Autor no autoriza el acceso a texto completo de su documento. Este trabajo se propone como un estudio referido a la obra de Juan Emar, en específico de El Drama de Fideicomiso, transcripción híbrida que se constituye como una novela/drama al interior del Primer Pilar de Umbral, El Globo de Cristal. Para ello, nuestro autor reubica y descoloca las tradicionales fronteras ónticas entre las categorías de autor/actor/espectador/lector, texto dramático/puesta en escena/novela autobiográfica, lo que conlleva un cuestionamiento directo respecto de nuestras formas de representación (Crítica a los artistas y públicos burgueses). Al interior del DF, sin embargo, Emar no solo se preocupa de problemas relativos a la esfera artística, sino que también configura esta Novela/Drama como una acérrima crítica a las relaciones que se gestan entre Estado e Iglesia en Chile. En dicho sentido, Emar advierte en los ideologemas de la Patriotería y de la Beatería, respectivamente, la raíz de nuestra nación chilena. Para ello, despliega en el DF una transcontextualización paródica (Hutcheon) de diversos momentos históricos asociados a la genealogía en Occidente de dichos ideologemas, los que, junto con el valor satírico que logran tras su nueva disposición en la novela/drama, también dan cuenta de una nueva perspectiva de la historia. Con ello, Emar busca demostrar el nexo ineludible entre las Estéticas de lo Total y la implantación de determinados ideologemas al servicio del poder. Es esta denuncia la que se constituye en un Acto Ético (Bajtín).
76

La domesticación de los pobres. Combate a la pobreza y política social anti-pobreza como pautas expansivas de la economía de mercado en Chile. Revisión de las áreas salud y vivienda en documentos de estado y caso de estudio Puntilla de Lonquén

Manzo Olmos, Camilo 2015 (has links)
Memoria para optar al título de Geógrafo La presente investigación se define como un trabajo exploratorio destinado a estudiar las territorialidades de Derechos Sociales promovidas por la Política Social Anti-Pobreza chilena (PSAP) en las áreas de salud y vivienda, para el período 1925-1990. Con este propósito se realiza la revisión de documentos de Estado y se toma como caso de estudio la localidad rural de Puntilla de Lonquén, en la comuna de Isla de Maipo, Chile central. Desde la Geografía Política Crítica, la política social anti-pobreza (PSAP) es evaluada como política espacial de expansión y contención del régimen moderno de bienestar y la economía de mercado, propiciando las intervenciones sociales más masivas del S.XX y la articulación mercantil de los territorios. Por una parte se consideran (de la PSAP) sus principales contingencias históricas, fundamentos y dispositivos territoriales de salud y habitación; Por otra parte se analizan algunos de sus impactos en la reestructuración de dinámicas políticas y sociales locales, en la territorialidad habitacional y de salud de la localidad mencionada. A nivel metodológico, la revisión de documentos de Estado emplea al Archivo Nacional de la Administración, mientras que el trabajo territorial es enmarcado por la Cartografía Social y las Entrevistas en profundidad. La información levantada es analizada con genealogía del poder y redes de poder, respectivamente, dando cuenta de las variaciones históricas y pautas territoriales de la política social anti-pobreza, así como algunos de sus efectos sobre la configuración de espacios socialmente desiguales y mercantilizados.
77

'A black play can take you there' : the question of embodiment in African American women's drama

Khuzam, Maria 2015 (has links)
This research is concerned with the question of embodiment and body representation in plays written by African American women playwrights during the twentieth century. It starts with the early 1920s and ends around the turn of the twentyfirst century. This project negotiates issues of bodily manifestations and the evolvement of this manifestation from one decade to the next. My research is divided into an introduction, six chapters, and a conclusion; each chapter is concerned with examining bodily representation in a certain era. Chronologically presented, the chapters attempt to answer how embodiment at the beginning and at the close of the twentieth century differs. Although the better-known playwrights Susan-Lori Parks, Adrienne Kennedy and Ntozake Shange and the lesser-known playwrights Alice Childress, Sonia Sanchez (better known as a poet), and Marita Bonner share a concern with what might be called the “raced body,” they also seem to share a certain type of maternal heritage passed from one playwright to another. Therefore, this research contributes to the existing scholarship by, firstly, establishing a literary genealogy between African American women playwrights through their shared interest in the utilisation of the body-in-the-world as a form of resistance. Secondly, I present these playwrights as phenomenologists; through using this political body as a way of experiencing the world and experimenting with it, as a way of being in the world, those playwrights –in both modern and postmodern eras—become interpreters of and experimenters with meaning. Their perpetual commitment to defining the position of African American subject, especially that of African American woman, is entwined with an experimental approach of a black body that lives, registers, interprets, and attempts to re-write the hyphenated body (body-in-the-world).
78

The emergence of mood in Heidegger's phenomenology

Hadjioannou, Christos 2015 (has links)
This thesis offers a genealogical-exegetical account of Heidegger's phenomenology of mood (Stimmung), focusing on his Freiburg and Marburg lectures from 1919 to 1925. In Being and Time, moods manifest the transcendental factical ground of “thrownness” (Geworfenheit) in which an understanding of Being is constituted. However, throughout Heidegger's work, moods have operated as the ground for disclosure, the origin of authentic ontological understanding, the defining character of each historical epoch and as the enactmental urgency that will bring about an ‘other' beginning. This thesis contextualizes Heidegger's accounts of mood within the broader phenomenological project concerning the constitution and grounding of meaning. The first part of the thesis examines the neo-Kantian challenges to philosophy as well as Husserl's response. It further explores the problems Heidegger identifies in Husserl's phenomenology and shows how Heidegger offers a grounding of phenomenological understanding in lived experience, in order to provide a concrete account of a phenomenological “beginning” (Anfang). Heidegger's turn to affects constitutes a radicalization, rather than a repudiation, of Husserlian insights. The second part of the thesis explores Heidegger's earliest accounts of affective phenomena in his interpretations of St. Augustine and Aristotle, where the terminology of Being and Time is developed for the first time. This involves an analysis of Heidegger's accounts of love (Liebe) and joy (Freude) as they figure in the 1920 lecture course Phenomenology of Religious Experience, and analyses the emergence of Angst and other grounding moods (Grundstimmungen). The thesis then looks at Heidegger's early interpretation of Plato and Aristotle in the lecture courses immediately prior to Being and Time, where the technical notion of disposition (Befindlichkeit) emerges, as well as his first analysis of fear (Furcht).
79

Politics between public and private : land ownership transfer in socialist Beijing (1950s - 1970s)

Liu, Chaoqun 2015 (has links)
This research concerns the relations and tensions among the state as an institutional public power, the people congregating as a collective, and private individuals. It intends to investigate these relations through two land politics cases in the Socialist Beijing, set against the historical background of the city and Chinese conceptual contexts. Suggesting certain similarities to public/private demarcation, the thesis starts with a genealogy of the Chinese gong-si division, arguing the moral superiority of the abstract ideas of gong over si; it argues that changing understandings of gong/public and the intricate connections between various gong and si embodiments (i.e. state, collective, family, individual) contribute – and in some ways constitutes -- politics. Based on data acquired by archival work, in-depth interviews and literature reviews, the thesis then grounds the issue into two empirical cases: the land ownership nationalisation in the expansion of Tiananmen Square, and the struggles over property in the Bell&Drum Towers area from the 1950s to 1970s. The thesis argues that the significant power of the state, particularly the compulsory power to expropriate land, depends on moral and political authority attained by its status as a gong embodiment, is dependent on: its constant practice of constructing other bodies such as family and individual as si embodiments; constructing private property and private economy as flawed si; and also on its suppression of other public/gong entities, especially the collective and the city. However, it also argues, challenges from the private/si category and from other potential public/gong bodies always exist too. This is reflected in private people’s strategic use of the normative gong in their daily practices related to property and in many collective practices. It is the divergence between gong and si and the simultaneous intimacy between them that generates politics.
80

Transcriptomic analysis of the copepod by next generation sequencing (Apocyclops royi and Acartia bilobata ) 以次世代定序分析橈足類之基因轉錄體(短角異劍水蚤與雙葉紡錘水蚤)

Yu-MinJu, 朱育民 2015 (has links)
博士 國立成功大學 生命科學系 103 SUMMARY Copepods play an important role in the aquatic food web in marine and fresh water environments. Among the various species in copepods, Apocyclops royi and Acartia bilobata are very good live feed for fish larvae because of their small size and rich in long chain unsaturated fatty acid. In this study, we used the NGS approach to study the transcriptome of A. royi and A. bilobata, the codon usage bias was also analyzed, and another 3 copepods were selected (Calanus rogercresseyi, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Tigriopus japonicus) to reconstruct the phylogeny of these species with outgroup of Daphnia pulex. Base on the results, we suggested that 1) A. royi may be able to synthesize DHA and EPA by using linoleic acid (C18:3 n-3) through fatty acid synthesizing pathway; 2) A. bilobata showed a higher expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, H+-ATPase and ATP synthase in diluted seawater; 3) In the codon usage bias pattern, genes of A. bilobata were biased, whereas A. royi was less biased, indicating that A. bilobata might be under compositional translational selection; 4) The estimated coalescence time for the five copepod species was about 454.3-457.4 myr (million years). Our data provided much important information for future copepod study. INTRODUCTION Copepods (Arthropoda: Crustacea) are among the most abundant metazoans in the oceans. They are a very ancient group and are considered to have diverged from other arthropod taxa about 388-522 million years ago. Ten orders comprise the subclass Copepoda, including Calanoida, Cyclopoida, and Harpacticoida, and a total of about 13,000 species are recognized. Copepods play an important role in the aquatic food web in marine and fresh water environments. They are also the best live feed for early stage of fish larvae because of their small size and rich in long chain unsaturated fatty acid, such as DHA and EPA. However, genome resources for copepods are only available for very few species. The information on genomic DNA sequences is increasingly important, especially for non-model organisms such as copepods. Recently, next generation sequencing (NGS) technology enables us to obtain extensive DNA or cDNA sequence information in a short period of time. In this study, we used an NGS approach to study the transcriptome for Apocyclops royi and Acartia bilobata, the codon usage bias was also analyzed, and another 3 copepods were selected (Calanus rogercresseyi, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Tigriopus japonicus) to reconstruct the phylogeny of these species with outgroup of Daphnia pulex. MATERIALS AND METHODS A. royi and A. bilobata were collected from Tungkang Biotechnology Research Center of Fisheries Research Institute, Taiwan. The experiment was started with salinity acclimation of 20 psu and 30 psu for A. royi and A. bilobata, respectively, and transferred to 15 psu for 5 days. mRNAs were isolated from total RNA using oligo-dT and then converted to double-stranded cDNA. The samples were sequenced using Illumina HiSeqTM 2000. De-novo assembly of transcriptome was carried out using software Trinity. The GO, COG and KEGG annotations for the two copepod species were performed using the automatic annotation tool Blast2GO. The expression level of a transcript was quantified in read per kilobase of the transcript per million mapped reads (RPKM). We analyzed the codon usage bias in A. royi and A. bilobata, the frequency of 59 codons code for 18 amino acids (exclude Met, Trp and termination codons) were determined for all the selected genes. Five codon usage indices, relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), G+C content at the third position of synonymous codons (GC3s), effective number of codons (ENc), correspondence analysis (COA), and optimal codons, were used to analyze the codon usage in this study. The sequences of A. royi and A. bilobata from annotated unigenes, as well as the sequences of C. rogercresseyi, L. salmonis, T. japonicus and D. pulex (outgroup) obtained from NCBI, were used in reconstructing phylogenetic trees with neighbor-joining method and maximum likelihood method in software MEGA 5.2. Maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses were conducted with 1000 replicates, while the values greater than 70% were shown on trees. The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) under an MCMC Bayesian approach was estimated with the BEAST 1.7.5. All simulations were performed using the HKY+G model and strict molecular clock with Fixed Rate Model. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this study, we obtained 53,363,934 and 55,433,040 NGS reads for A. royi and A. bilobata, respectively, generating 35,363 unigenes (mean size: 941 bp, N50 size: 1,547 bp) and 35,442 unigenes (mean size: 878 bp, N50 size: 1,600 bp) by de novo assembly. By mapping to databases, 20,062 and 17,214 unigenes could be annotated to NCBI Nr, 15,017 and 13,771 unigenes hadKEGG annotations, 8,317 and 8,219 had COG annotations, 4,064 and 3,327 had GO annotations. Some related enzymes involving in synthesizing long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were identified, revealing that A. royi may be able to synthesize DHA and EPA through fatty acid synthesizing pathway. Since salinity is an important environmental factor for crustacean survival, we further analyzed the genes (Na+/K+-ATPase, H+-ATPase and ATP synthase) related to osmoregulation and found significant differences in gene expression between the two species. A. bilobata showed a higher expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, H+-ATPase and ATP synthase in diluted seawater. Analysis of codon usage bias indicated some biases occurred at the genes of A. bilobata, whereas genes of A. royi was less biased, suggesting a complex pattern in codon usage in copepods. The result implied that A. bilobata was under compositional translational selection. The genealogical analysis of 31 orthologous genes displayed 20 tree topologies, 14 trees of which showed that C. rogercressyi and L. salmonis were most closely related. Furthermore, the estimated coalescence time for the five species was about 454.3-457.4 myr (million years) ago. CONCLUSION The A. royi and A. bilobata transcriptome analyzed using the next generation sequencing technique enhance our knowledge on the copepods genes, which will facilitate our understanding of the crustacean genome, and advances the studies on copepod.

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