Gewinnung von Ethanol aus wässriger Lösung durch Membranextraktion und enzymatischer Esterbildung mit langkettigen CarbonsäurenBurfeind, Jens. January 1998 (has links) (PDF)
Hannover, Universiẗat, Diss., 1998.
Dynamic tracer studies on the pharmacokinetics of ethanol an experimental investigation using ¹¹C- labelled ethanol /Keinänen, Matti T. January 1981 (has links)
Thesis (doctoral)--Turku, 1981.
Giessen, Universiẗat, Diss., 2000. / Dateiformat: tar.gz, Dateien im PDF-Format.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1953. / Typescript. Vita. eContent provider-neutral record in process. Description based on print version record. Includes bibliographical references (leaves -113).
Diss. (sammanfattning) Stockholm : Karol. inst. / Härtill 5 uppsatser.
Smith, Nicola Jane
No description available.
Hassaballah, A. A.
No description available.
Cormier, Benjamin R.
25 April 2007
A bio-refinery is a processing facility that produces liquid transportation fuels and/or value-added chemicals and other products. Because of the dwindling resources and escalating prices of fossil fuels, there are emerging situations in which the economic performance of fossil-based facilities can be enhanced by retrofitting and incorporation of bio-mass feedstocks. These systems can be regarded as bio-refineries or integrated fossilbio- refineries. This work presents a retrofitting analysis to integrated bio-refineries. Focus is given to the problem of process modification to an existing plant by considering capacity expansion and material substitution with biomass feedstocks. Process integration studies were conducted to determine cost-effective strategies for enhancing production and for incorporating biomass into the process. Energy and mass integration approaches were used to induce synergism and to reduce cost by exchanging heat, material utilities, and by sharing equipment. Cost-benefit analysis was used to guide the decision-making process and to compare various production routes. Ethanol production from two routes was used as a case study to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach and the results were bio-refinery has become more attractive then fossil-refinery.
17 September 2007
The U.S. has a history of producing surplus corn, but the current and projected growth in ethanol production combined with strong feed and export demand is causing an overall increase in corn utilization. Although livestock feeders are projected to remain the largest users of corn, corn utilization can be reduced if ethanol co-products are used to replace a portion of corn in finishing rations. The objective of this study was to determine the economic trade-offs for cattle feeders when facing higher corn prices and increasing supplies of ethanol co-products. A stochastic partial budget model was used to determine the impact on the cost of gain when ethanol co-products are substituted into rations at varying inclusion rates. The model was built for all four major cattle feeding states: Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, and Colorado. Ration scenarios were developed for each state, based on the research results of feedlot nutrition and personal communication with feedlot operators. The various scenarios were simulated to determine the impacts of changing corn prices, corn processing costs, cattle performance, and feeding and transportation costs for Wet DistillerÃ¢ÂÂs Grains with Solubles (WDGS) on the key output variable, cost of gain. The model results indicated when 15 percent WDGS (on a dry matter basis) replaces a portion of corn and protein supplement, the simulated cost of gain is lower than the base ration scenario when the feedlot is located within 200 miles of ethanol production. When feedlots are located more than 200 miles from an ethanol plant, Dried DistillerÃ¢ÂÂs Grains with Solubles (DDGS) can be fed to lower the cost of gain; therefore, ethanol co-products can be fed to help offset potential increases in corn prices. The partial budget model is a useful tool for livestock, corn, and ethanol producers who are attempting to determine the impacts of ethanol expansion on corn price and utilization. Policy makers can also benefit from the model analysis as they face decisions in the future regarding ethanol and farm policy alternatives.
The term biofuel is referred to as liquid or gasous fuels for the transport sector that are produced from biomass. Producing biofuels from cellulose- rich materials are considered as relevant technology nowadays. There is a research and technological development project for years at Malardalens Högskola about bioethanol and biogas production, and the university joined to the Vaxtkraft project in Vasteras, Sweden, aims to produce biogas out of ley crop and organic waste. The purpose of my study was to analyse the efficiency of producing transportation fuels, spezifyed ethanol and biogas from straw. Extraction of sugar from straw under different conditions with respect to pH, temperature and extraction time were studied. Thereafter biogasification with bacteria to form CH4 and ethanol fermentation with Saccharomyces was performed and the gas production measured. The extractions were carried out separately at 121 °C and 140-145 °C, with 20, 40, 60, 120 minutes extraction time. The pH during the processes was set to 5 and 3 with buffer solution. To consider the extraction rate, the better conditions are lower pH, higher temperature and longer extraction time. The results show the optimal extraction is performed at 140-145 °C for 120 minutes with pH 3. The gasification was carried out at 37 °C with using Baker’s yeast. The results indicate that in contrast to the extraction, the gasification is better with the samples which extraction was carried out at lower temperature and higher pH. The best gasification was achieved by the samples with 121°C and pH 5 extraction irrespectively of the extraction time, although they had the worst extraction rate results. More research and detailed quality analysis are needed to determine the reason of this seeming contradiction
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