Brown, Anne Patricia
No description available.
Encouraging environmentally sustainable food consumption : limitations, potential and possibilities of community-based consumer co-opsBihari, Pranav 2016 (has links)
This thesis explores the conditions under which community-based consumer food co-ops can foster pro-environmental food practices. Case study methodology is employed to study five UK food co-ops and identify opportunities and challenges to developing capacities in those co-ops towards: building a shared sense of purpose around environmentally sustainable food consumption; making sustainable food choices accessible and affordable; and, encouraging member participation. Additionally, life history interviews were undertaken with 18 individuals who were already making environmentally friendly food choices to illuminate how community food co-ops can develop strategies to engage their members and promote sustainable food consumption. Building a co-op community with a shared purpose around sustainable food consumption is more likely when there is clarity of focus on the prioritisation of environmental objectives among members and the leadership team; however, high overhead costs may shift the focus to commercial survival. Co-ops can be more price-competitive in the category of fresh produce and unpackaged wholefoods than in packaged and convenience foods. Members' labour can reduce overhead costs, but getting members to participate is a considerable challenge. Democratic structure alone is not enough. Participation was motivated primarily by the need to belong to a community and a commitment to co-ops' perceived values. There was limited evidence at the studied co-ops of systematic efforts to create opportunities for social learning and relationship-building among members towards strengthening volunteering commitment and developing practice-relevant knowledge and skills. Life history accounts of sustainable food practitioners illustrated how factors such as parents and peers, work, education, books and media, living environment, and ethical concerns, worked through key mechanisms of influence, including direct experience, knowledge, social learning, facilitating contexts and personal agency, to shape sustainable food practices over time. Understanding these factors and mechanisms suggests a number of practical strategies for food co-ops to effectively engage their members with environmental objectives. As well as removing structural constraints, effective strategies will be alert to the bi-directional nature of attitude-behaviour relationships and the formative processes that underpin a range of self-transcendent values aligned with environmentally responsible food consumption.
This research explores the reformed UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) as an institution addressing a changed world, and as an illustration of evolving global food security governance. The research sets out to answer the extent to which the CFS is realising its reform objectives and how it is positioning itself within a changing architecture of global food security governance. Informed by literature on global governance and embedded neoliberalism, the inquiry centres around three case studies – Civil Society Mechanism, Voluntary Guidelines for the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests, and the Global Strategic Framework – which serve to highlight the operationalization of key reform objectives while simultaneously providing insight into broader policy processes and dynamics. Data was collected through document analysis, participant observation, and interviews. The resulting analysis provides clear evidence of the impact of enhanced participation on policy outcomes and concludes that the policy recommendations emerging from the CFS are amongst the most comprehensive and useful in terms of applicability and uptake at the national and regional level. The analysis also reveals that despite its methods, outcomes and mandate, the CFS is being systematically undermined by other actors seeking to maintain influence and sustain neoliberal hegemony across food security policies at the global level. The research contributes to global governance theory by describing the functioning of a mechanisms that can address democratic deficits in global governance while elucidating related opportunities and challenges. The research also contributes to scholarship on global food security policy by challenging the application of previous analyses to the contemporary reality. The research addresses limitations in global governance literature by mapping the complexity of social and political relations across sites of negotiation, contestation and compromise between actors. The policy implications derived from this thesis focus on the need to further problematize food security and for policies to target structural causes of food insecurity. Building on the experiences of the CFS, this thesis concludes that transparent, participatory mechanisms need to be created which acknowledge, and seek to rectify, existing imbalances in power relations in policy-making processes.
This thesis examines the enduring problem of food insecurity in Africa, with a particular focus on Ethiopia and Kenya. It considers food insecurity both in acute terms - the occurrence of famine and chronic terms - famine vulnerability. More specifically it provides a new interpre~tion of the causes of food insecurity in East Africa, with respect to some of the causal factors and viable solutions. It does so by locating the occurrence of famine, and countries vulnerability to it, in the context of the global food system. The global food system is, as yet, an under-examined factor in contemporary famine analysis, particularly in East Africa and this thesis aims to explore it more comprehensively than hitherto. This thesis also makes a substantive contribution to understanding the concept of Food Sovereignty in an African context. Food Sovereignty deserves to be a more significant part of contemporary narratives that at present dominate the political and social dilemmas about food insecurity. However there are serious obstacles such as political relationships, land tenure and the industrial system of agriculture that hinder the development of Food Sovereignty as a viable option. Natural disasters, demographic pressures and ill conceived economic policies are an ongoing part of the story but in essence food insecurity is ultimately political. This thesis concludes that Food Sovereignty should be explored as a political . solution to a political problem.
Towards a dignified food security? : discourses of dignity, development and culture in New York City and BogotáAshe, Leah M. 2015 (has links)
In light of a severe, changing and globally implicative New Food Equation marked perhaps above all else by the dynamics of a new, bimodal food insecurity and the simultaneous rising importance of cities, new approaches to address food security at urban scales suggest promise. But as such efforts are relatively new, the discourses and activities of urban actors are understood to only a limited extent. Moreover, while attention to food security per se is robust and growing, attention to the discursive and narrative dimensions that ultimately construct both the real nutritional achievements and the real experiential implications of such policy is not. In this research, I apply analytical methods informed by the interpretive, critical and ethnographic traditions to understand (some of) the cultural, ideological and philosophical particularities of these new dynamics and contexts, examining the cases of two large cities in the North and South, New York City and Bogotá. Tandem to the empirical work, I explore the philosophical tenets that ground food security efforts in the two studied cities and more generally, and I finally settle upon the purposefully normative appeal for motion towards a new concept: dignified food security.
Colhendo os frutos : dificuldades e conquistas da modalidade do PAA compra-institucional em uma Universidade PúblicaPaula, Natália Ferreira de 2016 (has links)
Orientadora : Profª. Drª. Islandia Bezerra Coorientadora : Profª Dra. Mônica de Caldas Rosa dos Anjos Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Alimentação e Nutrição. Defesa: Curitiba, 27/07/2016 Inclui referências : f. 72-79;81-89 Resumo: O Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos da Agricultura Familiar (PAA) foi criado no Brasil em 2003, a partir de proposições da sociedade civil e adotado como uma estratégia de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (SAN) por parte do governo federal da época. Após as primeiras avaliações o PAA passou a ter destaque nacional e internacional. Atualmente experiências semelhantes estão sendo executadas em cinco países da África. Durante os primeiros nove anos o PAA foi realizado a partir de quatro modalidade díspares, e em 2012 foi criada a quinta modalidade, denominada Compra Institucional (CI), que possibilita a comercialização dos produtos da agricultura familiar (AF) nos mercados institucionais com dispensa de licitação, utilizando por sua vez, a Chamada Pública (CP), instrumento menos burocrático, que possui o objetivo facilitar o processo de compras. A partir desta nova modalidade (PAA-CI) presídios, universidades, hospitais públicos e outras instituições das diferentes esferas (municipal, estadual e federal) que fornecem refeições regularmente podem adquirir produtos diretamente da AF. O PAA ao longo de sua execução foi objeto de estudo de inúmeras pesquisas. Porém, pela sua especificidade - de ainda estar em processo de implementação - a modalidade PAACI que oferece distintas possibilidades de análises pode ser considerada potencial para investigação. Neste sentido esta pesquisa objetivou identificar dificuldades e conquistas desta modalidade executada em Universidade Pública localizada no Sul do Brasil. A Universidade foi a pioneira na adesão da modalidade e tornou-se modelo para instituições que aderiram posteriormente. A metodologia foi pautada na pesquisa social qualitativa. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semiestruturadas e observação participante. Os dados foram organizados por meio da análise de conteúdo e categorizados através da análise temática. A escolha dos sujeitos participantes das entrevistas esteve diretamente relacionada ao envolvimento dos mesmos com a implementação do PAA-CI. Após a análise do discurso dos entrevistados foi sendo avaliada a necessidade de inserção dos sujeitos subsequentes. Trabalhou-se com um grupo de 5 sujeitos, sendo estes gestores e administradores, coordenação de alimentação e nutrição, almoxarife, comissão de licitação e presidente de uma organização da AF. As dificuldades evidenciadas foram: entregas de gêneros alimentícios em grandes volumes, execução da quantidade total do contrato de compra de alimentos, utilização do critério menor preço para seleção das propostas da CP, associação dos processos de CP e Licitação, padrão de identidade e qualidade dos alimentos, inadequação entre demanda e produção, elaboração da CP de hortifrútis, aumento do número de documentos das CP e exigência do Sistema de Cadastramento Unificado de Fornecedores. As principais conquistas foram: promoção da comercialização direta dos produtos da AF, aproximação entre quem produz e quem consome, aumento da qualidade da alimentação dos comensais do restaurante universitário e aumento dos itens demandados na CP. O presente estudo contribui para a compreensão da execução do PAA-CI, revelando as principais dificuldades e conquistas de sua implementação e sugere alguns caminhos a fim contribuir para sua efetividade. Por fim foi proposto um Referencial Metodológico para a execução do PAA-CI. Palavras-chave: Segurança alimentar e nutricional. Desenvolvimento rural. Política Social. Mercados institucionais. Agricultura familiar e camponesa. Abstract: The "Family Food Purchase Program" (Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos - PAA) was created in Brazil in 2003, from propositions of the civil society and adopted as a strategy of "Food and Nutritional Security (FNS)" by the federal government of the time. After the first evaluations the PAA started being a national and international standout. Currently, similar experiments are being executed in five countries in Africa. During the first nine years the PAA was accomplished from four disparate modalities, and in 2012 it was created the fifth modality, named "Institutional Purchase (IP)", that allows the commercialization of the "family farming (FF)" products in institutional markets with bidding waiver, using for its part, the "Public Call (PC)", a less bureaucratic tool, that intends to make the purchase process easier. From this new modality on, (PAA-IP), prisons, universities, public hospitals and other institutions of different ranges (municipal, state and federal) that provide meals regularly can acquire products directly from FF. The PAA throughout its execution was the study object of various researches. Nevertheless, due to its specificity - of still being in implementation process - the PAA-IP modality that offers distinct analysis possibilities can be considered a potential investigation. In this sense this research aimed to identify limits and potentialities of this modality executed in Public University located in the South of Brazil. The University was the pioneer of the modality endorsement and became a role model for institutions that adopted it later. The methodology was based on the qualitative social research. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The data were organized over the content analysis and categorized through thematic analysis. The choice of the interviews participant subjects was directly related to their involvement in the implementation of the PAA-IP. After the interviewers' speech analysis it was being evaluated the necessity of these subsequent subjects insertion. It was worked on a group of 5 subjects, these being managers and administrators, coordination of nourishment and nutrition, storekeeper, commission of bidding and a president of FF. The evidenced limits were: delivery of foodstuff in big bulk, execution of the total amount of the food purchase contract, use of the lowest price criterion for proposals selection of the PC, association of the PC with bidding processes, food quality and identity standard, mismatch between demand and production, PC horticultural development, raise of the PC documents amount and requirement of the Suppliers Unified Registration System. The potentialities were: promotion of the direct FF product commercialization, approach between who produces to who consumes, raise of the university restaurant users' nourishment quality and raise of the PC demanded items. This study contributes to the comprehension of the PAA-IP execution, revealing the main limits and potentialities of its implementation and it suggests some ways in order to pitch in its effectiveness. Lastly a Methodological Reference was proposed for the PAA-IP execution. Key-words: Food and Nutritional Security. Rural development. Public Policy. Institutional markets. Family farming and peasant.
Miller, Wendy M.
Alternative food networks (AFNs) are the focus of an ‘explosive growth’ of research in Europe (Goodman 2004), and the term covers a wide range of activities, from food banks, community gardens, and farmers’ markets, to community supported or organic agriculture. However, there is an impasse in differing positions over whether AFNs represent an exclusionary place-based ‘quality turn’ (Ilbery and Kneafsey 2000), or whether they contribute to inclusive local communities, sustainability and food security (Tregear 2011, Kirwan and Maye 2013). This research aimed to clarify these debates, through exploration of UK allotments as a benchmark for AFNs, using the case of Plymouth, SW England. A political ecology perspective of social-ecological systems (Ostrom 2008) was used to investigate the activities, relations and governance involved in allotments and AFNs, organised through the concepts of multidimensional capital assets (Bebbington 1999). This research demonstrates how activities on allotments involve human, social, cultural, natural and political capital assets, encompassing both basic food security and a quality turn towards ‘good food’ (Sage 2003). Taking the long view, it is seen that the relative importance of the different asset dimensions are contingent on wider socio-political settings. Relations on allotments illustrate the building of social capital, which extends to wider communities of interest, practice and place (Harrington et al. 2008), and which involves values of social justice that can be explained as diverse or care economies (Gibson-Graham 2008, Dowler et al. 2010). However, the politics and governance of allotments are largely influenced by neoliberal policies that favour oligopolistic and transnational food systems and restrict urban land allocations for place-based food initiatives. Present-day urban population densities are at levels far higher than envisaged for the original garden cities. Nevertheless, alliances at neighbourhood, city, regional, national and transnational scales are coalescing around the values represented in the original setting up of the UK allotment system: of self-reliance, human-scale settlements and the restorative value of the natural environment. Any realization of the potential contribution of allotments and AFNs to the sustainability and resilience of food supplies for urban populations (Armitage et al. 2008, Folke et al. 2010) ultimately depends on multilevel responses to a large range of challenges. Finally, the thesis contends that, in the present day, evidence is building up around the potential of allotments and many other AFN activities, or place-based food systems, to meet multiple policy objectives through aligned values.
Parental migration, care-giving practices and left-behind children's nutritional health in rural China : a mixed-methods approachZhang, Nan 2016 (has links)
China’s rural-urban migration has resulted in 61 million children living apart from their parent(s) in rural communities. Previous studies have failed to examine the long-term effects of parental migration on left-behind children’s nutritional health, and have not examined the gender differences (of parents and children) in those associations. This research uses a mixed-methods design that incorporates quantitative and qualitative techniques to explore links between parental migration, care-giving arrangements and left-behind children’s nutritional health in rural China. The quantitative analyses draw on a longitudinal dataset – the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009) to examine the relationships between children’s nutritional outcomes and different patterns of parental migration including being left behind in different stages of childhood, and being left behind by the father or the mother. The qualitative component consists of analyses of interviews with 32 caregivers (21 grandparents, 9 mothers, and 2 uncles/aunts), and children’s diaries (26 children aged 6-12, 21 left-behind children and 5 non-left-behind children) to explore the care-giving practices for left-behind children from the perspectives of a group of children and their caregivers in rural northern central China. Results of the quantitative analyses show negative associations between parental migration, especially maternal migration, and left-behind children’s nutritional outcomes indicated by anthropometric measures and macronutrient intakes, and this is particularly true for boys left behind during early life in rural China. The qualitative findings highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors, since there seems to be a paradox of intergenerational obligations for boys in a culture where sons are more valued than daughters. This is because parents migrate to save for their sons’ adult lives, reducing the remittances sent to support their sons who stay behind. There is less pressure to save for daughters’ adult lives and so more potential for remittances to support their nutrition. The research also recognizes the importance of grandparents as carers, and their experiences and beliefs about healthy eating for children. Grandparents, particularly on the paternal side, are expected to fulfil social obligations to care for left-behind grandchildren even without immediate financial returns. Inadequate financial support from the migrant parents of left-behind boys in rural China, in particular boys cared for by paternal grandparents, may result in greater risk of poor nutrition during the early childhood. This potentially renders such left-behind boys vulnerable to developmental delays. These findings are important for policy-makers to develop effective interventions to improve left-behind children’s nutritional well-being in rural China.
5 September 2014
Η παρούσα μεταπτυχιακή εργασία αναλύει τα αίτια, τους παράγοντες και τις προεκτάσες του προβλήματος της σπατάλης τροφίμων. Εξετάζει τη συμπεριφορά του καταναλωτή σε σχέση με το τρόφιμο και τη σπατάλη τροφίμων. Τέλος, περιλαμβάνει ποσοτική έρευνα σχετικά με τη συμπεριφορά του καταναλωτή απέναντι στο τρόφιμο, τη σπατάλη τροφίμων και τις προεκτάσεις του προβλήματος της σπατάλης τροφίμων στην Ελλάδα. This thesis analyzes the causes, factors and implications of the problem of food waste. Examines consumer behavior in relation to food and food wastage. Finally, it includes quantitative research on consumer behavior towards food, food waste and implications of the problem of food wastage in Greece.
Imagining the state through digital technologies : a case of state-level computerization in the Indian public distribution systemMasiero, Silvia 2014 (has links)
The study of e-governance in developing nations is informed by the idea that new technologies, reshaping the very nature of public services, can generate better outcomes in their provision. Beyond objective changes in governance infrastructures, the subjective perception of the state, as it is constructed by service recipients, is exposed to a parallel process of change, whose study has generated a novel research domain in the field of egovernance for development. With a view of contributing to this domain, this thesis studies the role of ICTs in processes of image formation on the state, as experienced by citizens in a developing country context. The theory on which the thesis is developed views technology as embedded in its sociopolitical context, and conceives e-governance as implicated in the reconstruction of images of the state. This vision is applied to the computerization of the main food security programme in India, the Public Distribution System (PDS), as it has been devised and implemented in the state of Kerala. Through an interpretive case study of the object at the core of computerization, known as the Electronic Public Distribution System or e-PDS, the thesis investigates the ICT-led processes of image construction by the state, and the ways in which citizens, confronted with new images, structure their perception of these. Through inclusion of front-end PDS services in existing infrastructure, and through the inscription of a clear problem-solution nexus in e-PDS, the state is found, as expected, to be using e-governance as a means to reconstruct its own image. At the same time, though, the loci of image formation that are found in citizens (direct experience, social networks, and political circuits) systematically escape control by governmental action, and seem to be, in fact, only marginally touched by the ICT-induced reinvention of governance. The thesis results, therefore, in an extension of existing theory in this respect: the capability of the state to reconstruct its image, through the usage of new technologies, is limited by the spaces of image formation which citizens experience in their daily lives.
Page generated in 0.0831 seconds