Towards a dignified food security? : discourses of dignity, development and culture in New York City and BogotáAshe, Leah M. 2015 (has links)
In light of a severe, changing and globally implicative New Food Equation marked perhaps above all else by the dynamics of a new, bimodal food insecurity and the simultaneous rising importance of cities, new approaches to address food security at urban scales suggest promise. But as such efforts are relatively new, the discourses and activities of urban actors are understood to only a limited extent. Moreover, while attention to food security per se is robust and growing, attention to the discursive and narrative dimensions that ultimately construct both the real nutritional achievements and the real experiential implications of such policy is not. In this research, I apply analytical methods informed by the interpretive, critical and ethnographic traditions to understand (some of) the cultural, ideological and philosophical particularities of these new dynamics and contexts, examining the cases of two large cities in the North and South, New York City and Bogotá. Tandem to the empirical work, I explore the philosophical tenets that ground food security efforts in the two studied cities and more generally, and I finally settle upon the purposefully normative appeal for motion towards a new concept: dignified food security.
Colhendo os frutos : dificuldades e conquistas da modalidade do PAA compra-institucional em uma Universidade PúblicaPaula, Natália Ferreira de 2016 (has links)
Orientadora : Profª. Drª. Islandia Bezerra Coorientadora : Profª Dra. Mônica de Caldas Rosa dos Anjos Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Alimentação e Nutrição. Defesa: Curitiba, 27/07/2016 Inclui referências : f. 72-79;81-89 Resumo: O Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos da Agricultura Familiar (PAA) foi criado no Brasil em 2003, a partir de proposições da sociedade civil e adotado como uma estratégia de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (SAN) por parte do governo federal da época. Após as primeiras avaliações o PAA passou a ter destaque nacional e internacional. Atualmente experiências semelhantes estão sendo executadas em cinco países da África. Durante os primeiros nove anos o PAA foi realizado a partir de quatro modalidade díspares, e em 2012 foi criada a quinta modalidade, denominada Compra Institucional (CI), que possibilita a comercialização dos produtos da agricultura familiar (AF) nos mercados institucionais com dispensa de licitação, utilizando por sua vez, a Chamada Pública (CP), instrumento menos burocrático, que possui o objetivo facilitar o processo de compras. A partir desta nova modalidade (PAA-CI) presídios, universidades, hospitais públicos e outras instituições das diferentes esferas (municipal, estadual e federal) que fornecem refeições regularmente podem adquirir produtos diretamente da AF. O PAA ao longo de sua execução foi objeto de estudo de inúmeras pesquisas. Porém, pela sua especificidade - de ainda estar em processo de implementação - a modalidade PAACI que oferece distintas possibilidades de análises pode ser considerada potencial para investigação. Neste sentido esta pesquisa objetivou identificar dificuldades e conquistas desta modalidade executada em Universidade Pública localizada no Sul do Brasil. A Universidade foi a pioneira na adesão da modalidade e tornou-se modelo para instituições que aderiram posteriormente. A metodologia foi pautada na pesquisa social qualitativa. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semiestruturadas e observação participante. Os dados foram organizados por meio da análise de conteúdo e categorizados através da análise temática. A escolha dos sujeitos participantes das entrevistas esteve diretamente relacionada ao envolvimento dos mesmos com a implementação do PAA-CI. Após a análise do discurso dos entrevistados foi sendo avaliada a necessidade de inserção dos sujeitos subsequentes. Trabalhou-se com um grupo de 5 sujeitos, sendo estes gestores e administradores, coordenação de alimentação e nutrição, almoxarife, comissão de licitação e presidente de uma organização da AF. As dificuldades evidenciadas foram: entregas de gêneros alimentícios em grandes volumes, execução da quantidade total do contrato de compra de alimentos, utilização do critério menor preço para seleção das propostas da CP, associação dos processos de CP e Licitação, padrão de identidade e qualidade dos alimentos, inadequação entre demanda e produção, elaboração da CP de hortifrútis, aumento do número de documentos das CP e exigência do Sistema de Cadastramento Unificado de Fornecedores. As principais conquistas foram: promoção da comercialização direta dos produtos da AF, aproximação entre quem produz e quem consome, aumento da qualidade da alimentação dos comensais do restaurante universitário e aumento dos itens demandados na CP. O presente estudo contribui para a compreensão da execução do PAA-CI, revelando as principais dificuldades e conquistas de sua implementação e sugere alguns caminhos a fim contribuir para sua efetividade. Por fim foi proposto um Referencial Metodológico para a execução do PAA-CI. Palavras-chave: Segurança alimentar e nutricional. Desenvolvimento rural. Política Social. Mercados institucionais. Agricultura familiar e camponesa. Abstract: The "Family Food Purchase Program" (Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos - PAA) was created in Brazil in 2003, from propositions of the civil society and adopted as a strategy of "Food and Nutritional Security (FNS)" by the federal government of the time. After the first evaluations the PAA started being a national and international standout. Currently, similar experiments are being executed in five countries in Africa. During the first nine years the PAA was accomplished from four disparate modalities, and in 2012 it was created the fifth modality, named "Institutional Purchase (IP)", that allows the commercialization of the "family farming (FF)" products in institutional markets with bidding waiver, using for its part, the "Public Call (PC)", a less bureaucratic tool, that intends to make the purchase process easier. From this new modality on, (PAA-IP), prisons, universities, public hospitals and other institutions of different ranges (municipal, state and federal) that provide meals regularly can acquire products directly from FF. The PAA throughout its execution was the study object of various researches. Nevertheless, due to its specificity - of still being in implementation process - the PAA-IP modality that offers distinct analysis possibilities can be considered a potential investigation. In this sense this research aimed to identify limits and potentialities of this modality executed in Public University located in the South of Brazil. The University was the pioneer of the modality endorsement and became a role model for institutions that adopted it later. The methodology was based on the qualitative social research. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The data were organized over the content analysis and categorized through thematic analysis. The choice of the interviews participant subjects was directly related to their involvement in the implementation of the PAA-IP. After the interviewers' speech analysis it was being evaluated the necessity of these subsequent subjects insertion. It was worked on a group of 5 subjects, these being managers and administrators, coordination of nourishment and nutrition, storekeeper, commission of bidding and a president of FF. The evidenced limits were: delivery of foodstuff in big bulk, execution of the total amount of the food purchase contract, use of the lowest price criterion for proposals selection of the PC, association of the PC with bidding processes, food quality and identity standard, mismatch between demand and production, PC horticultural development, raise of the PC documents amount and requirement of the Suppliers Unified Registration System. The potentialities were: promotion of the direct FF product commercialization, approach between who produces to who consumes, raise of the university restaurant users' nourishment quality and raise of the PC demanded items. This study contributes to the comprehension of the PAA-IP execution, revealing the main limits and potentialities of its implementation and it suggests some ways in order to pitch in its effectiveness. Lastly a Methodological Reference was proposed for the PAA-IP execution. Key-words: Food and Nutritional Security. Rural development. Public Policy. Institutional markets. Family farming and peasant.
This thesis addresses multi-scale approaches for improving food security with nutritional health. It argues that four key themes: scale, nutrition, trade, and governance are not given adequate attention in food security and nutrition studies. A multi-scale framework links the overriding thematic structure, bridges gaps, and enriches analysis. It facilitates a blended approach of analysis for food security and nutrition studies, public policy, and critical geography. Nutrition is at the centre of the inquiry and addresses the triple burden of malnutrition: hunger, micronutrient malnutrition, and obesity. Nutrition is hampered by an incomplete understanding of dietary diversity. Trade and governance are complimentary and cover dynamic commodity exchanges which might develop along with improved programme delivery. At the structural core of the work are four research papers which interact with established and emergent food security indicators and data for: the international system, nations, Indian states, and districts within Karnataka. Each paper uses specific methodological tools which are most compatible with the unique characteristics of the relevant scale. The first paper applies benchmarking and compares international FAO food security indictors with the EIU and other best practice sources to argue for improved data. In order to inform malnutrition beyond hunger, the second paper inputs FAOSTAT national food balance sheet data into a dietary food supply model of key nutritional food groups for medium activity individuals. The third paper employs Indiastat data to construct a food potential model representative of major components of the Indian food system, and compares it with production information for pulse varieties for inclusion in the NFSA. The fourth paper creates a nutritional HDI, compares it against the production of cereals and pulses, and considers weather conditions. Results illustrate that the FAO does not give proper attention to including governance indicators or capturing dietary diversity beyond hunger. Food balance sheet data shows that the majority of the world lacks the proper supply of key food groups to sustain a medium activity lifestyle, with fruit & vegetable deficits equally present in developed and developing nations. In India, states with the lowest food potential are located in the north and east of the country while some neighbouring states contain pulse production advantages. Further opportunities exist to use digital technologies to improve the administration of the programme. Similarly, northern districts of Karnataka require more direct NFSA intervention while the southern and coastal districts have the potential for increased production and trade of pulses. Implications for this study are centred on the development of future food security and nutritional health studies, policy, and administration. When possible, food security and nutrition studies can broaden their conclusions by expanding their base of indicators and data to take into account multi-disciplinary information. Possibilities for richer studies are evident through the development of more robust governance and dietary diversity indicators. These could focus on measurable programme results and take into account the impact of food groups and nutritional supply on various types of malnutrition. Multi-scale analysis might inspire cross-boundary policy formulation and assist in the development and trade of food system resources. The administration of food security programmes might improve with further study and the use of technology as a tool for delivery. This thesis clarifies how multi-scale approaches to food security and nutrition can be advanced through conceptual, methodological, and empirical work combining critical engagement, data analysis, and public policy.
Miller, Wendy M.
Alternative food networks (AFNs) are the focus of an ‘explosive growth’ of research in Europe (Goodman 2004), and the term covers a wide range of activities, from food banks, community gardens, and farmers’ markets, to community supported or organic agriculture. However, there is an impasse in differing positions over whether AFNs represent an exclusionary place-based ‘quality turn’ (Ilbery and Kneafsey 2000), or whether they contribute to inclusive local communities, sustainability and food security (Tregear 2011, Kirwan and Maye 2013). This research aimed to clarify these debates, through exploration of UK allotments as a benchmark for AFNs, using the case of Plymouth, SW England. A political ecology perspective of social-ecological systems (Ostrom 2008) was used to investigate the activities, relations and governance involved in allotments and AFNs, organised through the concepts of multidimensional capital assets (Bebbington 1999). This research demonstrates how activities on allotments involve human, social, cultural, natural and political capital assets, encompassing both basic food security and a quality turn towards ‘good food’ (Sage 2003). Taking the long view, it is seen that the relative importance of the different asset dimensions are contingent on wider socio-political settings. Relations on allotments illustrate the building of social capital, which extends to wider communities of interest, practice and place (Harrington et al. 2008), and which involves values of social justice that can be explained as diverse or care economies (Gibson-Graham 2008, Dowler et al. 2010). However, the politics and governance of allotments are largely influenced by neoliberal policies that favour oligopolistic and transnational food systems and restrict urban land allocations for place-based food initiatives. Present-day urban population densities are at levels far higher than envisaged for the original garden cities. Nevertheless, alliances at neighbourhood, city, regional, national and transnational scales are coalescing around the values represented in the original setting up of the UK allotment system: of self-reliance, human-scale settlements and the restorative value of the natural environment. Any realization of the potential contribution of allotments and AFNs to the sustainability and resilience of food supplies for urban populations (Armitage et al. 2008, Folke et al. 2010) ultimately depends on multilevel responses to a large range of challenges. Finally, the thesis contends that, in the present day, evidence is building up around the potential of allotments and many other AFN activities, or place-based food systems, to meet multiple policy objectives through aligned values.
Parental migration, care-giving practices and left-behind children's nutritional health in rural China : a mixed-methods approachZhang, Nan 2016 (has links)
China’s rural-urban migration has resulted in 61 million children living apart from their parent(s) in rural communities. Previous studies have failed to examine the long-term effects of parental migration on left-behind children’s nutritional health, and have not examined the gender differences (of parents and children) in those associations. This research uses a mixed-methods design that incorporates quantitative and qualitative techniques to explore links between parental migration, care-giving arrangements and left-behind children’s nutritional health in rural China. The quantitative analyses draw on a longitudinal dataset – the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009) to examine the relationships between children’s nutritional outcomes and different patterns of parental migration including being left behind in different stages of childhood, and being left behind by the father or the mother. The qualitative component consists of analyses of interviews with 32 caregivers (21 grandparents, 9 mothers, and 2 uncles/aunts), and children’s diaries (26 children aged 6-12, 21 left-behind children and 5 non-left-behind children) to explore the care-giving practices for left-behind children from the perspectives of a group of children and their caregivers in rural northern central China. Results of the quantitative analyses show negative associations between parental migration, especially maternal migration, and left-behind children’s nutritional outcomes indicated by anthropometric measures and macronutrient intakes, and this is particularly true for boys left behind during early life in rural China. The qualitative findings highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors, since there seems to be a paradox of intergenerational obligations for boys in a culture where sons are more valued than daughters. This is because parents migrate to save for their sons’ adult lives, reducing the remittances sent to support their sons who stay behind. There is less pressure to save for daughters’ adult lives and so more potential for remittances to support their nutrition. The research also recognizes the importance of grandparents as carers, and their experiences and beliefs about healthy eating for children. Grandparents, particularly on the paternal side, are expected to fulfil social obligations to care for left-behind grandchildren even without immediate financial returns. Inadequate financial support from the migrant parents of left-behind boys in rural China, in particular boys cared for by paternal grandparents, may result in greater risk of poor nutrition during the early childhood. This potentially renders such left-behind boys vulnerable to developmental delays. These findings are important for policy-makers to develop effective interventions to improve left-behind children’s nutritional well-being in rural China.
5 September 2014
Η παρούσα μεταπτυχιακή εργασία αναλύει τα αίτια, τους παράγοντες και τις προεκτάσες του προβλήματος της σπατάλης τροφίμων. Εξετάζει τη συμπεριφορά του καταναλωτή σε σχέση με το τρόφιμο και τη σπατάλη τροφίμων. Τέλος, περιλαμβάνει ποσοτική έρευνα σχετικά με τη συμπεριφορά του καταναλωτή απέναντι στο τρόφιμο, τη σπατάλη τροφίμων και τις προεκτάσεις του προβλήματος της σπατάλης τροφίμων στην Ελλάδα. This thesis analyzes the causes, factors and implications of the problem of food waste. Examines consumer behavior in relation to food and food wastage. Finally, it includes quantitative research on consumer behavior towards food, food waste and implications of the problem of food wastage in Greece.
Imagining the state through digital technologies : a case of state-level computerization in the Indian public distribution systemMasiero, Silvia 2014 (has links)
The study of e-governance in developing nations is informed by the idea that new technologies, reshaping the very nature of public services, can generate better outcomes in their provision. Beyond objective changes in governance infrastructures, the subjective perception of the state, as it is constructed by service recipients, is exposed to a parallel process of change, whose study has generated a novel research domain in the field of egovernance for development. With a view of contributing to this domain, this thesis studies the role of ICTs in processes of image formation on the state, as experienced by citizens in a developing country context. The theory on which the thesis is developed views technology as embedded in its sociopolitical context, and conceives e-governance as implicated in the reconstruction of images of the state. This vision is applied to the computerization of the main food security programme in India, the Public Distribution System (PDS), as it has been devised and implemented in the state of Kerala. Through an interpretive case study of the object at the core of computerization, known as the Electronic Public Distribution System or e-PDS, the thesis investigates the ICT-led processes of image construction by the state, and the ways in which citizens, confronted with new images, structure their perception of these. Through inclusion of front-end PDS services in existing infrastructure, and through the inscription of a clear problem-solution nexus in e-PDS, the state is found, as expected, to be using e-governance as a means to reconstruct its own image. At the same time, though, the loci of image formation that are found in citizens (direct experience, social networks, and political circuits) systematically escape control by governmental action, and seem to be, in fact, only marginally touched by the ICT-induced reinvention of governance. The thesis results, therefore, in an extension of existing theory in this respect: the capability of the state to reconstruct its image, through the usage of new technologies, is limited by the spaces of image formation which citizens experience in their daily lives.
Sustainability, resilience and governance of an urban food system : a case study of peri-urban WuhanDolley, Jonathan 2017 (has links)
While it is clear that urban food systems need to be made resilient so that broader sustainability goals can be maintained over time, it has been a matter of debate as to how resilience should be conceptualised when applied to social-ecological systems. Through a case study of peri-urban Wuhan, this research develops and applies a resilience based conceptual framework for periurban food systems analysis in order to explore the potential for an enhanced understanding of resilience that can contribute to promoting sustainability in urban food systems. The evidence of this thesis suggests that the current approach to governance of Wuhan's periurban vegetable system is building an increasingly exclusionary pattern of resilience. It is a form of resilience building which is likely to undermine broader normative sustainability goals around social justice and environmental integrity and have mixed future implications for food system resilience as a whole, particularly in relation to livelihood outcomes for peri-urban farmers and food safety outcomes for urban consumers in general. The key lessons from this research are that the concept of resilience can be used to support either a narrowing down or an opening up of normative framings of system outcomes and can contribute to obscuring or revealing the multiple processes of change unfolding across the levels of system context, structures and actors. These dualities in the way that resilience thinking can contribute to normative and analytical framings need to be explicitly acknowledged if serious unintended consequences of resilience building interventions are to be avoided. Six important principles for conceptualising resilience in urban food systems are suggested: to 1) disaggregate system outcomes, 2) differentiate function and structure, 3) analyse positive and negative resilience, 4) identify external and structural shocks and stresses, 5) analyse resilience in relation to multiple and multi-scale processes of change and 6) recognise the impacts of those processes on marginalised system actors. Finally, a heuristic framework is presented for guiding the design of resilience analyses of human dominated social-ecological systems.
Capabilities meet regulation : the compliance processes of Mexican food supply chains with United States biosecurity regulationsBorbon Galvez, Yari 2013 (has links)
This thesis explores how Mexican fresh produce supply chains have responded to US bio-security regulations designed to prevent the intentional and accidental contamination of imported food. It explores the compliance processes, which are theorised using a framework drawn from the Resource-Based View (RBV) and the Supply Chain Governance (SCG) literatures. The constructs developed herein regarding capabilities and supply chain ‘governance structures' complement previous Regulation Studies (RS) explaining compliance behaviour. The thesis analysed 12 case studies, and tested causal conditions of compliance using a multi-value Qualitative Comparative Analysis (mvQCA) method. The main results show: 1) the pathways to meet the regulatory requirements; 2) the limited diversity of capabilities associated with higher levels of compliance; and 3) the importance of tight supply chain coordination to source and exchange knowledge for compliance, regardless of how or who governs the supply chain. The thesis contributes to various academic debates. It removes the RVB assumptions that resources and capabilities are intrinsically valuable and complementary, and therefore contributes towards making the theory less tautological. It shows how SCG benefits when the effects of supply chain integration and coordination are examined independently. It differentiates between firms lacking willingness and firms lacking capabilities to comply, making it possible to define suitable regulatory strategies for each type of firm. The thesis makes a methodological contribution as it is one of the first studies applying the mvQCA in Science, Technology and Innovations Studies (STIs). The new methodology is used here to test the causal conditions of compliance, but can also be applied to innovative performance more generally. The thesis concludes by showing how US regulations were effective in achieving their regulatory aims without significant negative consequences, and suggesting that STI regulatory policies can be used to increase business engagement to prevent the intentional and accidental contamination of the food chain.
Construction sociotechnique et relationnelle d'une gouvernance alimentaire territoriale Socio-technical and relational construction of a territorial food governanceFournie, Sandrine 16 December 2016 (has links)
Les Systèmes Agroalimentaires Localisés représentent des formes d'organisation de productionet de consommation particulières. Ils se différencient des systèmes agro-industriels dans larelation singulière qui unit les hommes, les produits et le territoire, dans la valorisation deressources spécifiques et dans des modalités de coordination géographiquement et socialementsituées. Un nombre croissant d'initiatives cherchent à les mettre en œuvre au travers descircuits courts, des circuits de proximité ou des projets alimentaires territoriaux.Nos travaux proposent d'éclairer d'un regard sociologique les mécanismes de construction deces systèmes alimentaires à partir de l'étude fine d'expériences pionnières. Nous mobilisons lescadres d'analyse déployés par la sociologie de l'innovation et de l'acteur-réseau d'une part, etpar la sociologie des réseaux d'autre part. L'expérience de la coopérative agricole Fermes deFigeac témoigne des processus d'activation du lien entre l'agriculture, l'alimentation et leterritoire, et de valorisation des ressources spécifiques. Ils se matérialisent dans les réseauxsociotechniques qui portent les circuits alimentaires territorialisés. Inspirés du modèle de lacoopération agricole, les responsables de l'organisation soutiennent l'expérimentation d'unedémarche de gouvernance alimentaire afin de coordonner les stratégies individuelles dans desstratégies coopératives pour répondre aux enjeux collectifs de développement.Les analyses révèlent les processus de traduction, de transformation et de médiation quiinterviennent au sein des organisations et à leurs frontières. Ces opérations s'avèrentnécessaires aux constructions collectives et aux coordinations des acteurs (humains et objets,individus et collectifs). Nous montrons le rôle des positions intermédiaires dans l'articulationdes stratégies et les capacités d'adaptation et d'innovation. Nous rendons également compte dela diversité et la variabilité des formes relationnelles qui accompagnent ces dynamiques.Menés dans le cadre d'une recherche-action, nos travaux s'inscrivent dans la volonté de coproductionthéorique et empirique. D'un point de vue opérationnel, nous attirons l'attentionsur l'importance des médiations (animations, documents, échanges…) dans les processuscollectifs et coopératifs et de l'indétermination (imprévisibilité) des dynamiques de changement.Nous proposons de tenir compte des réseaux secondaires et d'identifier les acteursintermédiaires (au-delà des représentants formels) dans les analyses de gouvernance alimentaireterritoriale. Local Agri-Food System (SYAL) represents a particular form of organization of production andconsumption. SYAL differs from agro-industrial system as it encompass the singular web ofrelationship which unit people, the qualification of products and territory through the valuationof specific resources and the types of coordination that are geographically and socially situated.An increasing number of initiatives try to implement them, through short food circuits,proximity supply chains or local food projects.Our work proposes an empirical journey and a sociological theorizing of the mechanismsthrough which a particular local agri-food system has been enhanced. We mobilize theframeworks of Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) on one hand and by the Social Network Analysis(SNA) on the other hand. We took the opportunity of an in depth study of an agriculturalcooperative named “Fermes of Figeac” to decipher processes of structuration of associationbetween farming practices, food provisioning, territorial human agency and valuation'sprocesses of the specific resources. Those associations are materialized in socio-technicalnetworks, which supported territorialized food supply chain. Inspired by the foundationalmodel of agricultural cooperation, the managerial core set of the organization has experimentedan approach of food provision governance in order to transform individual strategies in cooperativestrategies with the aim to answer sustainable challenge at the local level.Analyses based on ANT and SNA methodology assess translation's, transformation's andmediation's processes that intervene within organizations and on their borders. Going beyond afunctional analysis, we also analyze the collective construction and the coordination of humanagency and objects, at both individual and collective levels. We particularly shed light on therole of intermediation positions in strategic articulations and of the capacities of adaptation andinnovation. We also report the diversity and the variability of the relational forms that sustaindynamics of change.Released in an action-research approach, our work intends to articulate theoretical andempirical production. From an operational point of view, we draw attention to mediations(animations, documents, exchanges…) in the collective and co-operative processes and to theunpredictability of dynamics of change. This leads to take into account secondary networks andto identify intermediaries (beyond the formal core set of managers) in the analysis of territorialfood governance.
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