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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Harmonika u narodnoj i školskoj praksi: fenomenologija i pedagoški aspekti / The Accordion in Traditional and School Practice: Phenomenology and Educational Aspects

Ivkov Vesna 16 September 2016 (has links)
<p style="text-align: justify;">Ova istraživanja posvećena načinima učenja harmonike svoju opravdanost nalaze u naučnoj sferi, praktičnoj potrebi i ličnom interesovanju istraživača. Naučna opravdanost proističe ne samo iz činjenice da harmonika nije bila dovoljno zastupljena u etnomuzikolo&scaron;kim i pedago&scaron;kim istraživanjima, nego je u ovom slučaju bitan aspekt posmatranja harmonike kao fenomena i načina učenja sviranja ovog instrumenta.<br />Cilj ovog istraživanja je utvrditi pedago&scaron;ko-muzičke karakteristike dva osnovna najče&scaron;će zastuplja modela praktično primenjivih u učenju sviranja harmonike: slobodni-neinstitucionalni, ili izvan&scaron;kolski model i institucionalni, ili &scaron;kolski. Op&scaron;ta hipoteza: Pretpostavlja se da nema statistički bitnih razlika u organizacionim, metodičkim i drugim aspektima učenja sviranja harmonike između van&scaron;kolskog i &scaron;kolskog modela učenja. U skladu sa op&scaron;tom, formirane su posebne hipoteze:&nbsp;</p><p style="text-align: justify;">h1: Pretpostavlja se da nema statistički značajnih razlika u pogledu osnovnog cilja podučavanja između van&scaron;kolskog i &scaron;kolskog učenja sviranja harmonike.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">h2: Pretpostavlja se da nema statistički značajnih razlika u pogledu vremenskog trajanja časa i socijalnog oblika nastave u &scaron;kolskom i van&scaron;kolskom učenju sviranja harmonike.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">h3: Pretpostavlja se da nema statistički značajnih razlika u pogledu odabira vrste učenja (iz nota, na sluh) u van&scaron;kolskom i &scaron;kolskom učenju sviranja harmonike.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">h4: Pretpostavlja se da nema statistički značajnih razlika u pogledu primene pojedinih nastavnih, tehničkih i drugih sredstava, koja se koriste u podučavanju u van&scaron;kolskom i &scaron;kolskom učenju sviranja harmonike.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">h5: Pretpostavlja se da nema statistički značajnih razlika u pogledu faktora koji utiču na organizaciju časa u van&scaron;kolskom i &scaron;kolskom učenju sviranja harmonike.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">h6: Pretpostavlja se da nema statistički značajnih razlika u pogledu primene pojedinih postupaka motivacije učenika na času u van&scaron;kolskom i &scaron;kolskom učenju harmonike.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">h7: Pretpostavlja se da nema statistički značajnih razlika u postignućima, u pogledu odabira vrste instrumenta i vrste muzike na početku učenja sviranja u van&scaron;kolskim i &scaron;kolskim uslovima.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">h8: Pretpostavlja se da nema statistički značajnih razlika u pogledu značaja pojedinih faktora koji utiču na uspeh ili postignuće učenika u sviranju harmonike u van&scaron;kolskom i &scaron;kolskom učenju.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">h9: Pretpostavlja se da nema statistički značajnih razlika u pogledu prednosti i nedostataka učenja harmonike u van&scaron;kolskim i &scaron;kolskim uslovima.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">h10: Pretpostavlja se da nema statistički značajnih razlika u vrednovanju statusa instrumenta, dru&scaron;tvenog položaja izvođača i učitelja u van&scaron;kolskom i &scaron;kolskom učenju sviranja harmonike.<br />U gradskim i seoskim sredinama na području Srbije sprovedena su terenska istraživanja u periodu od 2014-2016. godine. Tehnikom intervjua, specijalno pripremljenog za potrebe ovih istraživanja, dobijeni su podaci o međusobnom odnosu učitelja harmonike, učenika i roditelja, o časovima harmonike, načinu rada i efektima učenja sviranja harmonike. Uzorak je činilo 30 ispitanika, od kojih se jedan deo ispitanika bavi podučavanjem učenika u sferi narodne muzike neinstitucionalno (privatno) i izvođa&scaron;tvom, a drugi deo ispitanika čine nastavnici i profesori harmonike koji se podučavanjem bave institucionalno, na različitim nivoima muzičkog &scaron;kolovanja.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">Za potrebe prikupljanja podataka upotrebljena je i tehnika skaliranja i njoj pripadajući instrument skala procene. Uzorak je takođe mali, činilo ga je 30 ispitanika, od kojih se jedan deo bavi podučavanjem sviranja harmonike u &scaron;koli, a drugi deo ispitanika se bavi podučavanjem van &scaron;kole. Ispitanici su birani na osnovu sledećih kriterijuma: da su muzičko &scaron;kolovanje ili radno iskustvo kao nastavnici i profesori harmonike stekli u Muzičkoj &scaron;koli &bdquo;Isidor Bajić― u Novom Sadu, odnosno da kao učitelji / nastavnici harmonike žive i deluju u Novom Sadu.<br />U van&scaron;kolskom i &scaron;kolskom učenju sviranja harmonike cilj podučavanja je isti. U pogledu pojedinih socijalnih oblika rada primećuje se da su rad u grupi učenika i kombinovanje vi&scaron;e oblika rada zastupljeni u &scaron;kolskom okruženju. Ispitanici koji podučavaju u &scaron;kolskom okruženju smatraju da je bitnije da se učenici tokom učenja oslanjanju na note, nego da uče po sluhu. Učenju po sluhu veću prednost daju ispitanici koji podučavaju van &scaron;kole. Svi spitanici procenjuju da isti faktori imaju podjednak uticaj na organizaciju časa u van&scaron;kolskom i &scaron;kolskom učenu sviranja harmonike. Sredstva motivacije učenika, kao &scaron;to su korektno ocenjivanje postignuća učenika, javni nastupi učenika i primereno kori&scaron;ćenje kazne zastupljenija su u &scaron;kolskom tipu učenja. Svi ispitanici su se složili u mi&scaron;ljenju da je za učenika prednost paralelno učenje narodne i klasične muzike, da je za učenika najbolje da prva znanja dobije u &scaron;koli. U van&scaron;kolskom okruženju se kao prednosti ističu učenje vrste muzike po želji i odabir učitelja koji će podučavati, a u &scaron;kolskom učenju se kao prednosti izdvajaju kompetencija nastavnika, obaveza vođenja dnevnika rada, sticanje svedočanstva o pohađanju &scaron;kole, dostupnost &scaron;tampanih muzikalija / udžbenika, učenje predmeta (muzička teorija, solfeđo) / disciplina, koje pomažu ukupni muzički razvoj pojedinca, nadzor podučavanja od strane stručnih organa, nabavka harmonike sa bariton sistemom, kao i prisutnost udžbenika za metodiku nastave harmonike. Ispitanici koji podučavaju van &scaron;kole procenjuju da instrument harmonika zauzima vi&scaron;i status u dru&scaron;tvu, a time i finansiranje izvođačke delatnosti i medijska promocija izvođača, za razliku od mi&scaron;ljenja koje zastupaju ispitanici koji podučavaju u &scaron;koli.<br />Za ovu doktorsku disertaciju je značajno to &scaron;to se na interdisciplinaran način, sa aspekta etnomuzikologije i muzičke pedagogije, objedinjuje problematika učenja sviranja harmonike. Rezultati i podaci dobijeni ovim istraživanjem, između ostalog, donose nova saznanja u oblasti metodike nastave harmonike. Oni mogu biti značajan dokument u strategiji dinamičnijeg i, na teritoriji Srbije, ravnomernog uvođenja harmonike na sve nivoe &scaron;kolovanja, imajući pritom u vidu zastupljenost ovog instrumenta u vi&scaron;e muzičkih žanrova.</p> / <p style="text-align: justify;">The present study, which is focusing on the ways accordion is learned, is justified by its scientific contribution, practical need and the personal interest of the researcher. The scientific justification stems not only from the fact that there is an insufficient body of research on the accordion in the field of ethnomusicology, but, more importantly, this study focuses on the aspect of the accordion as a phenomenon and the way the playing on this instrument is learned. The present study is aimed at determining pedagogical-musical features of the two predominant models that are practiced in learning the accordion playing: free- non-institutional or outside-of-school model and institutional or school model. The general hypothesis: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in organisational, methodological and other aspects of learning the accordion playing between the outside-of-school and school models of learning. Stemming from the general hypothesis, the following specific hypothesis have been formulated:</p><p style="text-align: justify;">h1: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in the primary teaching objectives between the outside-of-school and the school learning of the accordion playing.<br />h2: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in the lesson duration and the social form of teaching between the outside-of-school and school learning of the accordion playing.<br />h3: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in terms of choice of learning types (from musical scores, by ear) between the outside-of-school and school learning of the accordion playing.<br />h4: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in terms of educational, technical and other resources used in teaching in the outside-of-school and school learning of the accordion playing.<br />h5: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in terms of the factors that affect the organisation of lesson in the outside-of-school and school learning of the accordion playing.<br />h6: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in terms of the use of student motivation procedures between the out-of-school and school learning the accordion.<br />h7: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in the achievements, as well as the selection of the instrument and music types at the beginning of learning in the outside-of-school and school conditions.<br />h8: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in the importance of certain factors that affect the student success and/or achievement in playing the accordion in the outside-of-school and school learning.<br />h9: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in terms of the advantages and disadvantages of the accordion learning in the outside-of-school and school conditions.<br />h10: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in the evaluation of the status of the instrument, social status of artists and teachers in the out-of-school and learning of the accordion playing.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">A field research was carried out in urban and rural communities in the territory of Serbia in the period 2014 &ndash; 2016. A technique of interview, which was designed for the needs of the present study, was used to obtain the data on the interpersonal relationship of the accordion teachers, students and their parents, on accordion lessons, method of work and learning of the accordion playing outcomes. The sample comprised 30 interviewees. One segment of the sample consisted of musicians who are engaged in teaching traditional music to students outside of school (private tutors) and performing music, while the other group consisted of accordion teachers and professors engaged in institutional teaching on different levels of music education.<br />For the purposes of data collection, the technique of scaling with an appropriate evaluation scale was used. The sample was small, consisting of 30 respondents, some of whom teach the accordion at school while others teach it outside of school. The respondents were selected on the basis of the following criteria: that they have received their music education or gained their work experience as accordion teachers and professors at Music School &bdquo;Isidor Bajic‖ in Novi Sad, and/or that as the accordion teachers/professors they live and work in Novi Sad.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The teaching aims in the out-of-school and school accordion playing are the same. In regard to certain social forms of work it is noticeable that group work and combination of several forms of work are present in the school environment. The respondents who teach at school put emphasis on the importance of students&lsquo; relying on musical scores in comparison to playing by ear during the learning process. Learning to play by ear is given preference by the respondents who teach outside of school. The methods of motivating students, such as fair evaluation of their achievement, students&lsquo; public performances and an appropriate use of punishment, are preferred in the school type of teaching. All the respondents agree that it is beneficial for students to learn traditional and classical music in parallel have an advantage.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">What is emphasised as an advantage of the out-of-school environment is learning the desired music with a chosen teacher, while in the school learning among the identified advantages are teachers&lsquo; competences, the mandatory records of lessons, obtaining a certificate of school attendance, availability of printed musical scores/textbooks, learning different subjects (music theory, solfeggio) /disciplines which facilitate the overall music development of students, supervision of teaching by professional bodies, obtaining an accordion with a baritone system, as well as the existence of textbooks for the accordion teaching methodology. The respondents who teach outside of school consider that the accordion as an instrument has a higher social status, thus contributing to the financing of performances and media promotion of performers, on the contrary to the predominant opinion of the respondents who teach at school.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The significance of this doctoral thesis lies in the fact that the learning of the accordion playing is observed from the point of view of ethnomusicology and music pedagogy in an interdisciplinary way providing a complete overview of the subject. The results and data obtained from this research, among other things, bring new insights into the accordion teaching methodology. These insights can serve as a significant document in the strategy of a more dynamic and, in the territory of Serbia, more even introduction of the accordion on all educational levels, bearing in mind the fact that this instrument is present in several music genres.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><br />&nbsp;</p> / <p>The present study, which is focusing on the ways accordion is learned, is justified by its scientific contribution, practical need and the personal interest of the researcher. The scientific justification stems not only from the fact that there is an insufficient body of research on the accordion in the field of ethnomusicology, but, more importantly, this study focuses on the aspect of the accordion as a phenomenon and the way the playing on this instrument is learned. The present study is aimed at determining pedagogical-musical features of the two predominant models that are practiced in learning the accordion playing: free- non-institutional or outside-of-school model and institutional or school model. The general hypothesis: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in organisational, methodological and other aspects of learning the accordion playing between the outside-of-school and school models of learning. Stemming from the general hypothesis, the following specific hypothesis have been formulated:</p><p>h1: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in the primary teaching objectives between the outside-of-school and the school learning of the accordion playing.<br />h2: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in the lesson duration and the social form of teaching between the outside-of-school and school learning of the accordion playing.<br />h3: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in terms of choice of learning types (from musical scores, by ear) between the outside-of-school and school learning of the accordion playing.<br />h4: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in terms of educational, technical and other resources used in teaching in the outside-of-school and school learning of the accordion playing.<br />h5: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in terms of the factors that affect the organisation of lesson in the outside-of-school and school learning of the accordion playing.<br />h6: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in terms of the use of student motivation procedures between the out-of-school and school learning the accordion.<br />h7: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in the achievements, as well as the selection of the instrument and music types at the beginning of learning in the outside-of-school and school conditions.<br />h8: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in the importance of certain factors that affect the student success and/or achievement in playing the accordion in the outside-of-school and school learning.<br />h9: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in terms of the advantages and disadvantages of the accordion learning in the outside-of-school and school conditions.<br />h10: It is assumed that there are no statistically significant differences in the evaluation of the status of the instrument, social status of artists and teachers in the out-of-school and learning of the accordion playing.</p><p>A field research was carried out in urban and rural communities in the territory of Serbia in the period 2014 &ndash; 2016. A technique of interview, which was designed for the needs of the present study, was used to obtain the data on the interpersonal relationship of the accordion teachers, students and their parents, on accordion lessons, method of work and learning of the accordion playing outcomes. The sample comprised 30 interviewees. One segment of the sample consisted of musicians who are engaged in teaching traditional music to students outside of school (private tutors) and performing music, while the other group consisted of accordion teachers and professors engaged in institutional teaching on different levels of music education.<br />For the purposes of data collection, the technique of scaling with an appropriate evaluation scale was used. The sample was small, consisting of 30 respondents, some of whom teach the accordion at school while others teach it outside of school. The respondents were selected on the basis of the following criteria: that they have received their music education or gained their work experience as accordion teachers and professors at Music School &bdquo;Isidor Bajic‖ in Novi Sad, and/or that as the accordion teachers/professors they live and work in Novi Sad.</p><p>The teaching aims in the out-of-school and school accordion playing are the same. In regard to certain social forms of work it is noticeable that group work and combination of several forms of work are present in the school environment. The respondents who teach at school put emphasis on the importance of students&lsquo; relying on musical scores in comparison to playing by ear during the learning process. Learning to play by ear is given preference by the respondents who teach outside of school. The methods of motivating students, such as fair evaluation of their achievement, students&lsquo; public performances and an appropriate use of punishment, are preferred in the school type of teaching. All the respondents agree that it is beneficial for students to learn traditional and classical music in parallel have an advantage.</p><p>What is emphasised as an advantage of the out-of-school environment is learning the desired music with a chosen teacher, while in the school learning among the identified advantages are teachers&lsquo; competences, the mandatory records of lessons, obtaining a certificate of school attendance, availability of printed musical scores/textbooks, learning different subjects (music theory, solfeggio) /disciplines which facilitate the overall music development of students, supervision of teaching by professional bodies, obtaining an accordion with a baritone system, as well as the existence of textbooks for the accordion teaching methodology. The respondents who teach outside of school consider that the accordion as an instrument has a higher social status, thus contributing to the financing of performances and media promotion of performers, on the contrary to the predominant opinion of the respondents who teach at school.</p><p>The significance of this doctoral thesis lies in the fact that the learning of the accordion playing is observed from the point of view of ethnomusicology and music pedagogy in an interdisciplinary way providing a complete overview of the subject. The results and data obtained from this research, among other things, bring new insights into the accordion teaching methodology. These insights can serve as a significant document in the strategy of a more dynamic and, in the territory of Serbia, more even introduction of the accordion on all educational levels, bearing in mind the fact that this instrument is present in several music genres.</p>

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