Význam parametrov a inovácii dopravných lietadiel na trhu leteckého priemyslu a jeho smerovanie / Important factors within the airline market that can innovate directions of the aviation industry.Turányiová, Zuzana January 2012 (has links)
This final thesis deals with the analysis of the most important aspects which, through the technical side, influence the economic side. The thesis also shows the mistakes of manufacturers which have caused their prototypes to not succeed in civil or army aviation. The main goal is to connect the technical side of aviation with the economical because their very narrow connection influcences the future of aviation which is becoming more and more part of our lives. The thesis structure is: First theoretical part of the thesis deals with aviation terms because the knowledge of these terms connects to the second part. In the next part there is theoretical knowledge applied into practice. Used methods of comparativeness and analysis brought new results which has helped to fulfill the goal of this thesis.
Technicko-provozní porovnání letounů pro dopravu aerotaxi / Technical and operational comparison of aerotaxi aircraftObuch, Matej January 2010 (has links)
This diploma work deals with Technical and operational comparison of aerotaxi aircraft. I picked out this theme because of SkyService company, which plans to locate upon this form of transportation. In diploma work I attend to basic factors that affect selection of aeronautical technics, also economics and technical calculation
The investigation contained herein is a part of a larger, long-term project: The Development of SMART Aircraft Bolts. Structural failures, at highly stressed components, arc common in some of the aircraft used by the South African Air force. The strength of one such component, the wing bolts on the C-130 aircraft, is analysed and compared to the stress distribution in a bolt which has a small hole drilled through the centre of the bolt (which will be used to insert a sensing device). The results of this analysis will be used as input into further phases of the project, e.g., SMART material selection and the development of sensing devices. Due to the complex physics of a bolted joint, advanced analysis of the bolt under conservative loading was performed, after conducting thorough research into bolted joint design and analysis methods, in order to provoke the final recommendations. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of Natal, Durban, 2000.
Fulton, Neale Leslie, Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering, Australian Defence Force Academy, UNSW
There has been almost fifteen years of political controversy surrounding changes to the rules and procedures by which aircraft conduct their flight within regional Australia. Decisions based on a predominately heuristic (rule of thumb) approach to design have had many adverse consequences for the integrity of the proximity warning function. A sound mathematical model is required to establish this function on a mature engineering foundation. To achieve this, the proximity warning function has been investigated as a hybrid-system. This approach recognises the dual nature of the design: that aircraft dynamics give rise to continuous mathematical models while the communication protocols controlling proximity require discrete mathematical approaches. The blending of each aspect has yielded a deeper insight into the operational limitations and failure modes of this function. The presentation of the thesis follows a design thread through the function. It begins with a description of existing standards and implementations. Risk models are then developed. The pilot interface is recognised as a primary design constraint. Mathematical models are then developed to describe the topology of flow, proximity dynamics, and the scheduling constraints associated with visual, voice, and data-link communications required by the proximity warning function. These analyses show that many aspects of design can be bounded by analytical formulae that bring new robustness to the design and resolve some of the misconceptions arising from the often inaccurate perceptions of present airspace operations. Failure modes, unaccounted for in existing designs are found to actually aggravate failure in the very situations in which the airspace design should be robust and should act to prevent collisions. In particular, there are divergences of performance between the demands required by the system design and the ability of the pilot to deliver such performances. In some cases, these failures may be traced to policy decisions such as service between Instrument Flight Rule and Visual Flight Rule category aircraft. On the basis of the conclusions of this research, a formal engineering review of the proximity warning function is required to assure the containment of the likelihood of mid-air collision for all future operations.
Structural Health Monitoring Of Thin Plate Like Structures Using Active And Passive Wave Based MethodsGangadharan, R 05 1900 (has links) (PDF)
Aerospace structures comprising of metals and composites are exposed to extreme loading and environmental conditions which necessitates regular inspection and maintenance to verify and monitor overall structural integrity. The timely and accurate detection, characterization and monitoring of structural cracking, corrosion, delaminating, material degradation and other types of damage are of major concern in the operational environment. Along with these, stringent requirements of safety and operational reliability have lead to evolutionary methods for evaluation of structural integrity. As a result, conventional nondestructive evaluation methods have moved towards a new concept, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). SHM provides in-situ information a bout the occurrence of damage if any, location and severity of damage and residual life of the structure and also helps in improving the safety, reliability and confidence levels of critical engineering structures. While the concepts underlying SHM are well understood, development of methods is still in a nascent stage which requires extensive research that is challenging and has been the main motivating factor for undertaking the work reported in the thesis. Under the scope of the investigations carried out in this thesis, an integrated approach using Ultrasonic (active) and Acoustic Emission (passive) methods has been explored for SHM of metallic and composite plate structures using a distributed array of surface bonded circular piezoelectric wafer active sensors(PWAS). In ultrasonic method, PWAS is used for actuation and reception of Lamb waves in plate structures. The damage detection is based on the interaction of waves with defects resulting in reflection, mode conversion and scattering. In acoustic emission (AE) technique, the same sensor is used to pick up the stress waves generated by initiation or growth of defects or damage. Thus, both the active and passive damage detection methods are used in this work for detection, location and characterization of defects and damage in metallic and composite plates with complex geometries and structural discontinuities. And, thus the strategy adopted is to use time-frequency analysis and time reversal technique to extract the information from Lamb wave signals for damage detection and a geodesic based Lamb wave approach for location of the damage in the structure. To start with experiments were conducted on aluminum plates to study the interaction of Lamb waves with cracks oriented at different angles and on a titanium turbine blade of complex geometry with a fine surface crack. Further, the interaction of Lamb wave modes with multiple layer delaminations in glass fiber epoxy composite laminates was studied. The data acquired from these experiments yielded complex sets of signals which were not easily discern able for obtaining the information required regarding the defects and damage. So, to obtain a basic understanding of the wave patterns, Spectral finite element method has been employed for simulation of wave propagation in composite beams with damages like delamination and material degradation. Following this, time-frequency analysis of a number of simulated and experimental signals due to elastic wave scattering from defects and damage were performed using wavelet transform (WT) and Hilbert-Huang transform(HHT).And, a comparison of their performances in the context of quantifying the damages has given detailed insight into the problem of identifying localized damages, dispersion of multi-frequency non-stationary signals after their interaction with different types of defects and damage, finally leading to quantification. Conventional Lamb wave based damage detection methods look for the presence of defects and damage in a structure by comparing the signal obtained with the baseline signal acquired under healthy conditions. The environmental conditions like change in temperature can alter the Lamb wave signals and when compared with baseline signals may lead to false damage prediction. So, in order to make Lamb wave based damage detection baseline free, in the present work, the time reversal technique has been utilized. And, experiments were conducted on metallic and composite plates to study the time reversal behavior ofA0 andS0Lamb wave modes. Damage in the form of a notch was introduced in an aluminum plate to study the changes in the characteristics of the time reversed Lamb wave modes experimentally. This experimental study showed that there is no change in the shape of the time reversed Lamb wave in the presence of defect implying no breakage of time reversibility. Time reversal experiments were further carried out on a carbon/epoxy composite T-pull specimen representing a typical structure. And, the specimen was subjected to a tensile loading in a Universal testing machine. PWAS sensor measurements were carried out at no load as also during different stages of delamination due to tensile loading. Application of time reversed A 0 and S0 modes for both healthy and delaminated specimens and studying the change in shape of the time reversed Lamb wave signals has resulted in successful detection of the presence of delamination. The aim of this study has been to show the effectiveness of Lamb wave time reversal technique for damage detection in health monitoring applications. The next step in SHM is to identify the damage location after the confirmation of presence of damage in the structure. Wave based acoustic damage detection methods (UT and AE) employing triangulation technique are not suitable for locating damage in a structure which has complicated geometry and contains structural discontinuities. And, the problem further gets compounded if the material of the structure is anisotropic warranting complex analytical velocity models. In this work, a novel geodesic approach using Lamb waves is proposed to locate the AE source/damage in plate like structures. The approach is based on the fact that the wave takes minimum energy path to travel from the source to any other point in the connected domain. The geodesics are computed numerically on the meshed surface of the structure using Dijkstra’s algorithm. By propagating the waves in reverse virtually from these sensors along the geodesic path and by locating the first inter section point of these waves, one can get the AE source/damage location. Experiments have been conducted on metallic and composite plate specimens of simple and complex geometry to validate this approach. And, the results obtained using this approach has demonstrated the advantages for a practicable source location solution with arbitrary surfaces containing finite discontinuities. The drawback of Dijkstra’s algorithm is that the geodesics are allowed to travel along the edges of the triangular mesh and not inside them. To overcome this limitation, the simpler Dijkstra’s algorithm has been replaced by a Fast Marching Method (FMM) which allows geodesic path to travel inside the triangular domain. The results obtained using FMM showed that one can accurately compute the geodesic path taken by the elastic waves in composite plates from the AE source/damage to the sensor array, thus obtaining a more accurate damage location. Finally, a new triangulation technique based on geodesic concept is proposed to locate damage in metallic and composite plates. The performances of triangulaton technique are then compared with the geodesic approach in terms of damage location results and their suitability to health monitoring applications is studied.
Cheema, John Singh
(has links) (PDF)
Zweck - In dieser Bachelorarbeit werden die öffentlich nicht zugänglichen Technologieparameter von Passagierflugzeugen näherungsweise bestimmt. Das sind maximaler Auftriebsbeiwert bei Start und Landung, maximale Gleitzahl und spezifischer Kraftstoffverbrauch im Reiseflug. Folgende Flugzeuge werden paarweise untersucht und verglichen: A340-300 und IL-96-300, Boeing 727-200 Advanced und TU-154M, Fokker 100 und MD-82, A319-100 und An-72. --- Methodik - Die Berechnung erfolgt mit dem Excel-basierten Werkzeug "Passenger Jet Reverse Engineering" (PJRE). Grundlage der Berechnung ist die aus dem Flugzeugentwurf bekannte Dimensionierung mit dem Entwurfsdiagramm. Für die ausgewählten Passagierflugzeuge werden die erforderlichen Eingangsparameter recherchiert. Die zunächst unbekannten Technologieparameter werden dann mit PRJE sowohl ermittelt als auch verifiziert. --- Ergebnisse - Die Ergebnisse aus dem Reverse Engineering stimmen recht gut überein mit den Werten aus der Verifikation. Lediglich die Werte der maximalen Gleitzahl im Reiseflug sind berechnet aus der Verifikation oft deutlich höher als berechnet aus dem Reverse Engineering. Der spezifische Kraftstoffverbrauch im Reiseflug hat sich über die Jahrzehnte der Flugzeugentwicklung stark verringert. --- Bedeutung für die Praxis - Durch die Konkurrenzsituation der Flugzeughersteller können viele Flugzeugparameter nicht öffentlich zur Verfügung gestellt werden. Die Anwendung von PJRE zeigt, wie diese Parameter trotzdem näherungsweise ermittelt werden können. --- Soziale Bedeutung - Eine detaillierte Diskussion über Flugkosten, Ticketpreise und die Umweltverträglichkeit des Flugverkehrs setzt detaillierte Kenntnisse über die Flugzeuge voraus. Durch ein Reverse Engineering können Verbraucher diese Diskussion mit der Industrie auf Augenhöhe führen. --- Originalität / Wert - Nach der Entwicklung von PJRE wird die Methode hier zum ersten Mal angewandt.
De Grave, Emiel
(has links) (PDF)
This thesis explains how the classified design parameters of existing passenger jets can be determined. The classified design parameters are; the maximum lift coefficient for landing and take-off, the maximum aerodynamic efficiency and the specific fuel consumption. The entire concept is based on the preliminary sizing of jet powered civil aeroplanes. This preliminary sizing is explained in detail because it is the foundation of the final result. The preliminary sizing is combined using reverse engineering which is not a strict method. Therefore, only the basics are explained. By applying reverse engineering on the preliminary sizing and aiming for the classified design parameters as output, formulas are derived to calculate the maximum lift coefficients, the maximum aerodynamic efficiency and the specific fuel consumption. The goal is to calculate these parameters, using only aircraft specifications that are made public by the manufacturer. The calculations are complex with mutual relations, iterative processes and optimizations. Therefore, it is interesting to integrate everything in a tool. The tool is built in Microsoft Excel and explained in detail adding operating instructions. The program is executed for miscellaneous aeroplanes, supported with the necessary comments. Investigated aeroplanes are: Caravelle 10B (Sud-Aviation), Boeing 707-320C, BAe 146-200 (British Aerospance), A320-200 (Airbus), "The Rebel" (based on A320), Boeing SUGAR High, Boeing 747-400, Blended Wing Body VELA 2 (VELA) and Dassault Falcon 8X.
Basic Comparison of Three Aircraft Concepts: Classic Jet Propulsion, Turbo-Electric Propulsion and Turbo-Hydraulic PropulsionRodrigo, Clinton January 2019 (has links) (PDF)
Purpose - This thesis presents a comparison of aircraft design concepts to identify the superior propulsion system model among turbo-hydraulic, turbo-electric and classic jet propulsion with respect to Direct Operating Costs (DOC), environmental impact and fuel burn. --- Approach - A simple aircraft model was designed based on the Top-Level Aircraft Requirements of the Airbus A320 passenger aircraft, and novel engine concepts were integrated to establish new models. Numerous types of propulsion system configurations were created by varying the type of gas turbine engine and number of propulsors. --- Findings - After an elaborate comparison of the aforementioned concepts, the all turbo-hydraulic propulsion system is found to be superior to the all turbo-electric propulsion system. A new propulsion system concept was developed by combining the thrust of a turbofan engine and utilizing the power produced by the turbo-hydraulic propulsion system that is delivered via propellers. The new partial turbo-hydraulic propulsion concept in which 20% of the total cruise power is coming from the (hydraulic driven) propellers is even more efficient than an all turbo-hydraulic concept in terms of DOC, environmental impact and fuel burn. --- Research Limitations - The aircraft were modelled with a spreadsheet based on handbook methods and relevant statistics. The investigation was done only for one type of reference aircraft and one route. A detailed analysis with a greater number of reference aircraft and types of routes could lead to other results. --- Practical Implications - With the provided spreadsheet, the DOC and environmental impact can be approximated for any commercial reference aircraft combined with the aforementioned propulsion system concepts. --- Social Implications - Based on the results of this thesis, the public will be able to discuss the demerits of otherwise highly lauded electric propulsion concepts. --- Value - To evaluate the viability of the hydraulic propulsion systems for passenger aircraft using simple mass models and aircraft design concept.
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