Thesis (MPhil (Ancient Studies)--University of Stellenbosch, 2006. This thesis is a study of five books (Jubilees, 1 and 2 Maccabees, the Damascus Document and Josephus Jewish Antiquities) that represent the literature dealing with the issue of the Sabbath in significant ways, written between 200 B.C.E. and 100 C.E. In this study the author is determined to find the most prominent ways in which various Jews of the period treated the Sabbath, considering both its theological significance and actual practical application. The author seeks to apply the literary-critical method to the study of these books by identifying how the Sabbath pericopes fit into the larger structure of each book and contribute to the overall argument of each work. After dealing with introductory issues, such as terms, methods, historical settings and methodology, the author then works through the major Sabbath-related pericopes in each book followed by a concluding summary for each book. Then author moves from detailed individual conclusions to general summaries, seeking to deduce the “big picture” of the Judaisms represented in the five works that he researched. Throughout the thesis the author is asking all of the texts the following questions: Was there a major Jewish view of the Sabbath or were the views varied within Judaisms? Was the Sabbath one of the most important issues facing the Jewish Community or was it rather a peripheral one? What was the place of Covenant with YHWH in the Sabbath thought of the day? What was the impact of the historical events of the period on the views of the Sabbath? Was the understanding(s) of the Sabbath legalistic or was there a depth of heartfelt spirituality accompanying Sabbath observance? Were the rules with regard to the Sabbath actually carried out or were they largely ignored? At the conclusion he attempts to answer these questions point by point based upon the data that he collected by studying the passages related to the Sabbath observance within the books mentioned above. This study is preliminary in nature, since it attempts to provide only some background information to the question: Did the Jewish Christians of the first century change the day of worship from Saturday to Sunday? If so, how did they do so while managing to avoid any kind of major debate over the change? This question the author plans to pursue in his forthcoming research.
La Vie de la bienheureuse Vierge Marie dans les traditions apocryphes syro-orientales The Life of the blessed Virgin Mary in the Syro-Oriental apocryphal traditionsAriño-Durand, Miguel 27 November 2014 (has links)
Femme à la destinée unique, la Vierge Marie a suscité intérêt, passion et engouement tout au long des siècles de l’Ère chrétienne. Elle a inspiré artistes, écrivains et prédicateurs et sa vie a fait l’objet de récits exemplaires. La Vie de la Vierge traverse l’histoire de la littérature syriaque. Ce ne sont pas moins de 23 manuscrits syro-orientaux qui sont parvenus jusqu’à nous. Relativement récents puisqu’ils ont été copiés de 1243 à 1917 AD, ils plongent leurs racines dans des textes bien plus anciens. Dans un premier volume, la copie d’un manuscrit de la fin du XIIIe siècle, conservé au monastère Notre-Dame des Semences d’Alqoš, dans l’Irak actuel, a été choisie, en raison de son exhaustivité, pour une édition complète et une première traduction en français. Un apparat critique très important puisqu’il concerne 18 manuscrits – 5 manuscrits ne sont malheureusement pas accessibles actuellement – vient compléter ce travail d’édition et permet l’établissement d’un stemma qui met en lumière l’existence de quatre familles de manuscrits, avec un manuscrit singulier, copie d’une version syro-orientale originelle aujourd’hui perdue. Dans un second volume, le commentaire de l’œuvre souligne la singularité de ce texte apocryphe chrétien syro-oriental. Il s’agit bien pour son auteur d’annoncer le Christ Jésus qui, par son incarnation, vient rétablir la création déchue dans son harmonie originelle et racheter l’humanité. Il le fait en présentant la vie de Marie, sa mère. Elle est alors la femme qui transcende toutes époques et tous lieux et devient une incarnation de l’éternel féminin. A woman with a singular destiny, the Virgin Mary has caused interest, enthusiasm and even passion throughout the centuries of the Christian era. She has inspired artists, writers and preachers; and her life has been the object of narratives to be imitated. The Life of the Virgin can be found over the course of the history of Syriac literature. There are no fewer than 23 Syro-Oriental manuscripts that have come down to us. They are relatively recent. There were copied from 1243 to 1917 AD, with roots in much older texts. In the first volume, a copy of a manuscript from the end of the 13th century, kept at the monastery of Our Lady of the Seeds in Alqoš, in modern day Iraq, has been chosen, because of its exhaustiveness to serve as a complete edition and a first translation into French. It contains a very important critical apparatus since it compares 18 manuscripts, unfortunately, however, 5 manuscripts are not accessible currently. This apparatus complements this edition and allows for the establishment of a stemma which clarifies the existence of four families of manuscripts, with a single manuscript, that is a copy of an original Syro-Oriental version now lost. In the second volume, the commentary on the text underlines the uniqueness of this Syro-Oriental Christian apocryphal writing. It is clear that its author wants to announce Jesus Christ who, by his incarnation, comes to restore fallen creation to its original harmony and to redeem humanity. He does this by presenting the life of Mary, his mother. She is then the woman who transcends all times and places and becomes the incarnation of the éternel féminin.
L’usage du thème apocryphe de la diuisio apostolorum dans la construction des représentations chrétiennes du temps et de l’espace (Ier-IXe siècles) Use of the Apocryphal Theme of diuisioapostolorum in the Development of the Christian Representations of Time and Space (1st-9th Century AD)Levillayer, Amaury 26 January 2012 (has links)
La diuisioapostolorum (« dispersion apostolique ») est un thème apocryphe qui traverse l’ensemble des lettres et des arts chrétiens de l’Antiquité et du Moyen Âge. Dans sa plus large acception, il désigne tout ce qui se rapporte au partage du monde entre les apôtres (réunion, tirage au sort), à son évangélisation (envoi et réalisation de la mission), à la fondation de sanctuaires ainsi qu’à la mort et au tombeau de ces prestigieuses figures, amiciDei. En se plaçant au niveau des représentations chrétiennes du temps et de l’espace, l’analyse de la documentation textuelle grecque et latine entre le Ier et le IXe siècle – en particulier des catalogues d’apôtres et de disciples – nous a permis de montrer que l’usage de ce thème par les lettrés témoigne à la fois de la diffusion universelle du projet chrétien de société et d’un processus double de spatialisation et de temporalisation du sacré, en ce qu’il promeut un certain nombre de loci en rapport avec la mémoire d’une communauté. Par l’établissement de parallèles entre les catalogues et d’autres genres de textes (acta, historia, gesta episcoporum), nous avons souligné que ce processus, du fait qu’il bénéficie d’abord à l’autorité dont dépend le locus valorisé, est potentiellement soutenu par elle : on a donc traité également la question de l’accaparement de l’identité civique par l’évêque. Diuisioapostolorum (« Apostles’ dispersion ») is a recurrent apocryphal theme throughout ancient and medieval Christian humanities and arts. In the widest sense, it refers to everything concerning the division of the world between the Apostles (reunions, draws), the evangelization of the world (sending and mission), and the foundation of sanctuaries, as well as the death and tombs of these prestigious figures: amici Dei. With a focus on Christian representations of time and space, our analysis of 1st-9th Century Greek and Latin Textual documentation – in particular, lists of Apostles and disciples – has enabled us to show that the use of this theme is a testimony to both the universal dissemination of the Christian vision of society, and a dual process of spatialization and temporalization of the sacred, as it promotes a number of loci linked to the memory of a community. Paralleling the lists with other types of written works (acta, historia, gestaepiscoporum), we have highlighted the fact that this process, by benefiting in the first place the authority under which the locus is placed, was potentially supported by said authority. For this reason, we have also dealt with the question of the monopolizing of civil identity by the bishops.
30 June 2008
The dissertation identifies the beacons of canon development during the first five hundred years of Christianity. These beacons are processes, events and certain persons from general as well as dogmatic history, which played a formative role in canon development. The beacons are placed within the historical, geographical and theological milieu, in which it took place. It especially emphasises the role of human conduct and decisions in the process of canon development. It provides a background of the development of a complex Judaism as the origin of Christianity, and demonstrates the continuous impact of Judaism on Christian canon development. The differences presented between these two independent religions are also mentioned. Systematic Theology & Theological Ethics M. Th. (Systematic Theology & Theological Ethics)
Contest and community : wonder-working in Christian popular literature from the second to the fifth centuries CESchwartzman, Lauren J. 2013 (has links)
In this thesis, I hope to demonstrate that what I call the magic contest tradition, that is the episodes of competitive wonder-working that appear in a wide variety of apocryphal and non-canonical Christian texts, made an important contribution to the development of Christian thought during the second to the fifth centuries CE. This contribution was to articulate ‘the way’ to be a Christian in a world which was not isolated from the secular, and not insulated from the reality of the Roman empire. First, I demonstrate that a tradition of texts which feature magic contests exists within the broader scope of non-canonical Christian literature (looking at this literature across communities, regions and time periods). Second, I identify what the major features of the traditions are, e.g. what form the narratives take, what the form for a magic contest is, and what the principles used to build the magic contests are, and how these principles feature in the texts. The principles I identify are power, authority, ritual, and conversion, as well as their use as historical exempla. Third, I discuss what the texts did in the context of the time period, and for the communities that produced and read them: in other words, how did the this tradition work? I show that they served multiple purposes: as tests of faith, religious truth and ways to proclaim such; as constructors and markers of group identity (and the perilous task of identifying the insiders and those who should be outsiders); as calls to unity within the overarching diversity of the times and places, and a unified front for the ‘battle’ against evil. I suggest that the texts present a model for how one could decide what the ‘true faith’ was and how one could practice it in the turbulent environment that early Christians faced both before and after Constantine.
30 June 2008
The dissertation identifies the beacons of canon development during the first five hundred years of Christianity. These beacons are processes, events and certain persons from general as well as dogmatic history, which played a formative role in canon development. The beacons are placed within the historical, geographical and theological milieu, in which it took place. It especially emphasises the role of human conduct and decisions in the process of canon development. It provides a background of the development of a complex Judaism as the origin of Christianity, and demonstrates the continuous impact of Judaism on Christian canon development. The differences presented between these two independent religions are also mentioned. Philosophy, Practical and Systematic Theology M. Th. (Systematic Theology & Theological Ethics)
Apokryfní Bartolomějovo evangelium ve slovanské tradici The Apocryphal Gospel of Bartholomew in the Slavonic TraditionChromá, Martina 2016 (has links)
The Apocryphal Gospel of Bartholomew in the Slavonic Tradition (Martina Chromá) Abstract The thesis deals with the Slavonic translation of the apocryphal Gospel of Bartholomew (Questions of Bartholomew), which is a literary monument written in Greek most likely in the 3rd century. The text of the monument has survived in two known Greek, two Latin and six Slavonic manuscripts. These Slavonic manuscripts are dated between the 14th - 18th centuries, with two of them pertaining to the Russian redaction of the Old Church Slavonic and the other two to the Serbian redaction. The objective of the thesis is to identify the most probable place and time assignment of the original Slavonic translation of the monument, and an outline of lines by which the manuscripts were spread in the Slavonic environment. By a detailed textological and lexical analysis we come to the conclusion that all the Slavonic manuscripts containing the text of the monument stemmed from one common archetype originated most likely in Bulgaria during the 10th century. The Slavonic translation was later moved from Bulgaria to Kievan Rusʼ, where the manuscripts were further spread and where the text of the monument was adjusted; this is how the manuscripts can be divided into two separate redactions. The manuscripts were also spread from Russia to...
Paul among the apocalypses? : an evaluation of the 'apocalyptic Paul' in the context of Jewish and Christian apocalyptic literatureDavies, James P. 2015 (has links)
One of the most lively and enduring debates in New Testament studies is the question of the significance of ‘apocalyptic' thought in Paul. This has recently given birth to a group of scholars, with a common theological genealogy, who share a concern to emphasise the ‘apocalyptic' nature of Paul's gospel. Leading figures of this group are J. Louis Martyn, Martinus de Boer, Beverly Gaventa and Douglas Campbell. The work of this group has not been received without criticism, drawing fire from various quarters. However, what is often lacking (on both sides) is detailed engagement with the texts of the Jewish and Christian apocalypses. This dissertation attempts to evaluate the ‘apocalyptic Paul' movement through an examination of its major theological emphases in the light of the Jewish apocalypses 1 Enoch, 4 Ezra, 2 Baruch and the Christian book of Revelation. Placing Paul in this literary and historical context confirms his place as an apocalyptic thinker, but raises important questions about how this is construed in these recent approaches. Each chapter will address one of four interrelated themes: epistemology, eschatology, cosmology and soteriology. The study intends to suggest that the ‘apocalyptic Paul' movement is characterised at key points in each area by potentially false dichotomies, strict dualisms which unnecessarily screen out what Paul's apocalyptic thought affirms.
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