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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of UVA and UVB radiation on some physiological and pathogenic characteristics of fungal biocontrol agents to enhance mycoherbistat effectiveness

Ghajar, Feridon Ghasem Khan. January 2004 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Western Sydney, 2004. / A thesis submitted in fulfilment of requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Includes bibliography.
42

Eriophyidae (Acari) as potential control agents of South African weeds, with descriptions of a new species of Tegonotus nalepa and of Paraphytoptus nalepa

Craemer, Charnie 18 March 2014 (has links)
M.Sc. (Zoology) / This study centres around the findings on mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) (also referred to as "eriophyids") as potential biological control agents of weeds in South Africa. The use of mites in the biological control of weeds is briefly reviewed. Four species of the family Eriophyidae have been used against weeds in other countries. Seventeen eriophyid species, causing symptoms possibly of significance to biological weed control of 12 plant species regarded as weeds in South Africa, are discussed. Methods to rear and study eriophyids in the laboratory have not yet been fully developed and studying these practically invisible arthropods, very closely associated with their host plants, frequently presents difficulties. Reported methods, and those used for the present study, are reviewed and discussed. The eriophyid, Aceria lantanae (Cook), causing flower and leaf galls on Lantana camara L. could not be successfully established in a quarantine laboratory on potted plants propagated from cuttings of L. camara forms from South Africa. The results obtained during this attempt were inconclusive. The failure of establishment on local L. camara forms could be attributed to a variety of factors, of which rearing methods and host incompatibility are the most likely. Convolvulus arvensis is a troublesome agricultural weed and occurs in especially the Orange Free State and the eastern and southern parts of the Cape Province. Biological control may possibly contribute to curbing this weed in South Africa. The eriophyid, Aceria malherbae Nuzzaci, causing deformation and galling on C. arvensis is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the biological control of this weed. It was imported and successfully established on potted plants in a quarantine laboratory on biotypes of the weed occurring in South Africa. The biology and host specificity of A malherbae are accounted for, by using reported information and data obtained during this study. The biology of A. malherbae broadly conforms to the biology of other eriophyid species. This species has a narrow host range, being restricted to species very closely related to C. arvensis. The symptoms caused by this eriophyid on C. arvensis are described, and seem especially harmful to the reproductive potential of the plant. Two eriophyid species from L. camara from Paraguay, Tegonotus stefneseri and Paraphytoptus magdalenae, are described as new species. An illustrated as well as a dichotomous key to species (Eriophyoidea) described from L. camara, including the two new species, are provided. A key, and a review of known Tegonotus species, incorporated in a compendium based on the original descriptions of 74 species, are included. Shevtchenkella Bagdasarian is considered to be a junior subjective synonym of Tegonotus Nalepa.
43

Identification and documentation of ethnobiological methods used by rural farmers to control stalk borers on maize in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

Skenjana, Nolitha Leonora January 2015 (has links)
Maize contributes substantially to food security in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. It is a staple food to many of the province’s rural and urban inhabitants. Insect pests are one of the factors that hamper its productivity and as a result, deprive farmers of good yields. The adverse effects of insecticides and the high cost associated with them and the cost of transgenic seeds are some of the challenges faced by small-scale farmers in rural areas. Alternative control methods which include the use of indigenous techniques to control pests are now sought. A study to identify and document ethnobiological means used by rural farmers to manage insect pests of maize was conducted in the rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province. A total of 217 participants were interviewed on the matter, using semi-structured but detailed questionnaires. Rural farmers due to their linkage to agriculture activities and the fact that they are considered as custodians of agricultural indigenous knowledge were selected as respondents. Only maize producing and IsiXhosa speaking people were chosen to contribute. Main focus was on the demography of respondents, crop production activities and insect pest control. Pretesting of the questionnaire in order to assess the appropriateness of questions and comprehension by both farmers and enumerators was done. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Fifty five percent (55 %) of the respondents were females and the highest number of participants was from the Chris Hani District Municipality. Majority of the people were unemployed or pensioners. Most had only attended primary school and the mean age was 59 years. Apart from maize, respondents were cultivating other crops such as cabbage, Swiss chard, potatoes etc. Stalk borers followed by cutworms were the main pests of maize in these areas. Respondents used mainly insecticides, followed by alternative substances, which also included cultural control methods such as planting date manipulation. Few respondents used plants as control agents for insect pests. Some people did not control pests even though they were a problem in their fields. The most used plant was Chenopodium ambrosiodes L, while the most used substance was Madubula (a detergent). The most used insecticide was carbaryl from the carbamite family. Respondents listed different preparation techniques for all the control methods mentioned. These techniques revealed different times of preparation, quantities of ingredients, amounts applied on plants, modes of application and intervals of application. Rural farmers in the study areas used different atypical methods which may play a significant role in pest management today. Some of the products may have a positive influence on agriculture, while some are dangerous to humans and environmental health. Further research which will investigate their potential use in pest control needs to be done.
44

Studies on the use of essential oils for the control of Sitophilus Zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera; Curculionidae): a pest of stored maize grains

Odeyemi, Oluwakemi Oluwaseyi January 2008 (has links)
The common maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a well known pest of stored-maize grain in most parts of the world, was identified as one of the major constraints of harvested maize grains in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The use of plants or their products is one of the recent methods being investigated for insect pest control worldwide. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to identify available plants in the Eastern Cape that could be used to combat the problem of Sitophilus zeamais in stored-maize grains. For the realization of the aims of this research, the following studies were carried out; a preliminary survey was conducted to obtain baseline information on the farmers’ knowledge and experience of indigenous insect pest control methods in the Eastern Cape. Also, studies on the insecticidal potential of the essential oils of some plants were investigated against the maize weevil. The quality parameters of maize grains treated with the essential oils was also studied and, using a rat model, the toxicity of the essential oils was investigated. The outcome from this study revealed that there is awareness amongst the farmers in the Eastern Cape on the use of plants or their products to control insect pests. Unfortunately, such methods are currently being neglected and the knowledge of their application was found to be eroding. Among the various essential oils screened were those from Mentha longifolia L. and Tagetes minuta L. which evoked an appreciable level of contact, fumigant and repellent toxicity on the maize weevil. Further work done to determine the effects of the oils on maize stored over a period of three months revealed that the two oils had no adverse effect on the proximate compositions and some quality parameters of the stored maize. However, the toxicological study conducted on rats showed that the oils at tested concentrations exhibited some level of toxicity. It is, therefore, suggested that the essential oils of M. longifolia and T. minuta should not be used to treat maize grains intended for human consumption.
45

Spatial and temporal dynamics of entomopathogenic nematodes

Fairbairn, Jonathan Paul January 2001 (has links)
The life-history and infection parameters of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev)(Nematoda:Rhabditida) and Heterorhahditis megidis (Poinar, Jackson & Klein)(Nematoda:Rhabditida) were examined to provide specific details for the construction of mathematical SI models for biological control of soil insect pests. Laboratory experiments using the Greater Waxmoth, Galleria mellonella as the model host were undertaken to specifically examine the transmission behaviour of infective juvenile nematodes. The proportion of infective juveniles of S. feltiae which infected hosts was dependent on time. Previous studies declared that the proportion of infective juveniles which can infect is static, however, over a period of 5 days most of the infective juveniles infected hosts, demonstrating that the proportion infecting is dynamic. Infection of hosts by both species of nematode was compared using two mathematical representations of the transmission rate. Whereas the most parsimonious form of transmission for H. megidis was the linear Mass Action function, it was evident that, when measured at the individual nematode scale, S. feltiae transmission was non-linear. I postulated that this functional difference is due to the biology of the two species of nematodes. The subsequent effect of including the non-linear response on model predictions were investigated and it was demonstrated that the dynamics of the host nematode interaction became less stable. Spatial models of S. feltiae infection were parameterised from laboratory experiments, and control prediction of these models examined. The horizontal rate of dispersal through sand columns was determined in the presence and absence of hosts. Infective juveniles were found to disperse preferentially towards hosts. The predicted dynamics of pest control using the spatial moqel were highly dependent on the degree of nematode dispersal, host dispersal and the attraction of nematode infective juveniles towards hosts. The overall findings of this thesis have been placed in the context of epidemiological models created elsewhere, and predict that entomopathogenic nematodes may be targeted to specific pest systems with a high degree of success. An understanding of the infection biology of these nematode species is crucial in determining how and when pests may be controlled, and equally importantly, which systems successful control is not predicted.
46

The suitability of Alagoasa extrema Jacoby (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae), as a biological control agent for Lantana camara L. in South Africa

Williams, Hester Elizabeth January 2003 (has links)
Lantana camara Linnaeus (Verbenaceae), commonly known as lantana, is a highly invasive weed in many parts of the world. In South Africa it is naturalized in several provinces where it invades pastures, riverbanks, mountain slopes and valleys and commercial and natural forests, forming dense, impenetrable thickets. Chemical and mechanical control methods are expensive, labour intensive and provide only temporary relief as cleared areas are rapidly reinfested by seedlings and coppice growth. A biological control programme was initiated in South Africa in the 1960s, but despite the establishment of 11 agent species, it was considered to have had limited success. Several factors are thought to restrict the impact of the biocontrol agents. Firstly, L. camara occurs in a range of climatic regions, some of which are unsuitable for the establishment of agent species of tropical and subtropical origin. Secondly, L. camara is the result of hybridization between several Lantana species, forming a complex of hybridized and hybridizing varieties in the field, which match none of the Lantana species in the region of origin. This causes partial insect-host incompatibility, displayed as varietal preference. Thirdly, parasitism appears to have significantly reduced the effectiveness of several natural enemies. In spite of all these constraints, biological control has reduced invasion by L. camara by 26%. However, the weed is still very damaging and additional natural enemies are required to reduce infestations further. A flea-beetle species, Alagoasa extrema Jacoby (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was collected from several sites in the humid subtropical and tropical regions of Mexico, and imported into quarantine in South Africa and studied as a potential biocontrol agent for L. camara. Favourable biological characteristics of this beetle included long-lived adults, several overlapping generations per year, and high adult and larval feeding rates. Observations from the insect’s native range and studies in South Africa suggest that A. extrema would probably be more suited to the subtropical, rather than the temperate areas in South Africa. Laboratory impact studies indicated that feeding damage by A. extrema larvae, over a period spanning the larval stage (16 to 20 days), reduced the above-ground biomass of L. camara plants by up to 29%. Higher larval populations resulted in a higher reduction of biomass. Varietal preference and suitability studies indicated that A. extrema exhibits a degree of varietal preference under laboratory conditions, with one of the white pink L. camara varieties proving the most suitable host. This variety is one of the most damaging varieties in South Africa and is particularly widespread in Mpumalanga Province. Although A. extrema proved to be damaging to L. camara, laboratory host range trials showed it to be an oligophagous species, capable of feeding and developing on several non-target species, especially two native Lippia species (Verbenaceae). The host suitability of these species was marginally lower than that of L. camara and the potential risk to these indigenous species was deemed to be too high to warrant release. It was therefore recommended that A. extrema not be considered for release in South Africa.
47

The characterisation of a nucleopolyhedrovirus infecting the insect Trichoplusia ni

Tobin, Michael January 2019 (has links)
Thesis (MSc (Biomedical Sciences))--Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2019 / Background: Baculoviruses have great potential as alternatives to conventional chemical insecticides. The large scale adoption of such agents has however been hampered by the slow killing times exhibited by these bio-insecticides, limitation to single target insect and difficulty of large scale production of these preparations. Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus (TnSNPV), initially identified in the Eastern Cape region of South Africa, has potential as a biocontrol agent as it possesses a higher speed of kill compared to other baculoviruses. Aims and methods: The main objective of this study was the identification, molecular characterisation and cloning of a structural core gene (polyhedrin) and three auxiliary genes, the inhibitor of apoptosis (iap2 and iap3) and the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) genes, from TnSNPV in order to delineate its phylogenetic relationship to a Canadian isolate of the same virus and to other baculoviruses. In addition, the genes were expressed in an Escherichia coli (E. coli) based system as a prelude to genetic modification to increase the pesticidal property of the virus. Results: The genome size of the South African strain of TnSNPV was estimated at 160 kb and is significantly larger than the Canadian isolate of TnSNPV and may reflect genetic variation as the two strains have adapted to varying environmental conditions. Occlusion bodies of the South African strain of TnSNPV were visualised by Transmission Electron Microscopy and consisted of rod shaped single virions composed of a single enveloped nucleocapsid. Insect bioassays showed that the median lethal time (LT50) of the virus strain averaged 1.8 days which is significantly faster than other baculoviruses. The South African and Canadian strains of TnSNPV share nucleotide similarities greater than 95% for the genes analysed in this study, which indicates that they are closely related. From this analysis, the South African strain of TnSNPV identifies as a Group II NPV with the closest relatives being the Canadian strain of TnSNPV and ChchNPV. The topology of the tree for the polyhedrin protein was better resolved than that of the IAP2, IAP3 and EGT proteins and was comparable to the tree inferred from a concatenated data set consisting of complete polyhedrin/granulin, LEF8, and LEF9 proteins of 48 completely sequenced genomes. For the IAP2, IAP3 and EGT proteins, the separation of the lepidopteran and hymenopteran specific baculoviruses was not evident while the separation of Group I and II Alphabaculoviruses diverged from that observed from the baculovirus core gene polyhedrin as well as the tree inferred from complete polyhedrin/granulin, LEF8, and LEF9 proteins. Five distinct groups relating to IAP-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 could be distinguished from the tree inferred from all IAP proteins from 48 fully sequenced baculoviruses. From this analysis, the IAP protein from the South African isolate of TnSNPV can be designated as an IAP3 due to sequence homology to other IAP3 proteins. Similarly, the IAP2 can be confirmed as an IAP2 protein as it clusters with other IAP2 proteins. RNA transcripts of the four genes were detected by RT-PCR at one hr after induction with Larabinose in BL21-A1 E. coli and persisted until four hrs post induction. Antisera directed against the C-terminal 6X His tag was able to detect the recombinant proteins at two hours after induction confirming the rapid rise in expression of the proteins which persisted at high levels until four hrs after induction. The discrepancy observed with the predicted molecular mass of the EGT protein and the migration on SDS-PAGE may be due to the absence of posttranslational modification in the E. coli expression system and the hydrophobic residues present in the N-terminal signal sequence. Conclusion: Sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggest that the two isolates of TnSNPV have been exposed to similar evolutionary pressures and evolved at similar rates and represent closely related but distinct variants of the same virus. The difference in genome size between the two strains is likely to reflect actual genetic differences as the strains have adapted to their local environments and hosts and the extent of the differences will only be apparent as more sequencing results become available. Phylogenetic analysis of the IAP and EGT proteins yields a tree that varies from the phylogenetic reconstruction observed for the polyhedrin gene as well as the concatenated data set consisting of complete polh/gran, LEF8, and LEF9 proteins and highlights the risks inherent in inferring phylogenetic relationships based on single gene sequences. The tree inferred from the concatenated data set of polh/gran, LEF8, and LEF9 proteins was a quick and reliable method of identification particularly, when whole genome data is unavailable and mirrors the accepted lineage of baculoviruses. Expression of the recombinant IAP2, IAP3, EGT and polyhedrin was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis and rose rapidly after induction and persisted at high levels. It is as yet unclear if the expressed proteins are functional particularly as post translation modifications are lacking in this system.
48

Factors influencing the control of citrophilous mealybug Pseudococcus calceolarie (Maskell) by Coccophagus gurneyi Compere in the Riverland of South Australia

Alfaro Lemus, Ana Lilia. January 2001 (has links) (PDF)
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 102-114) The highly successful biological control of the citrophilous mealybug Pseudococcus calceolarie (Maskell) (CM) by the parasitic wasp Coccophagus gurneyi Compere in several countries led to the release of this parasitoid in the Riverland of South Australia as part of an integrated pest management program. However CM has not been successfully controlled in this region. The results of this study may help to explain the lack of effective biological control of CM in Riverland citrus.
49

Entomopathogenic fungi for control of soil-borne life stages of false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (1912) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Coombes, Candice Anne January 2013 (has links)
False codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta is an extremely important pest of citrus in South Africa and with the shift away from the use of chemicals, alternate control options are needed. One avenue of control which has only recently been investigated against the soil-borne life stages of FCM is the use of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF). In 2009, 12 entomopathogenic fungal isolates collected from South African citrus orchards showed good control potential during laboratory conducted bioassays. The aim of this study was to further analyse the potential of these isolates through concentration-dose and exposure-time response bioassays. After initial re-screening, concentration-dose response and exposure-time response sandconidial bioassays, three isolates were identified as exhibiting the greatest control potential against FCM in soil, Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (G 11 3 L6 and FCM Ar 23 B3) and Beauveria bassiana (G Ar 17 B3). Percentage mycosis was found to be directly related to fungal concentration as well as the amount of time FCM 5th instar larvae were exposed to the fungal conidia. LC50 values for the three isolates were not greater than 1.92 x 10⁶ conidia.ml⁻ₑ and at the LC₅₀, FCM 5th instar larvae would need to be exposed to the fungus for a maximum of 13 days to ensure a high mortality level. These isolates along with two commercially available EPF products were subjected to field persistence trials whereby net bags filled with a mixture of autoclaved sand and formulated fungal product were buried in an Eastern Cape citrus orchard. The viability of each isolate was measured on a monthly basis for a period of six months. All isolates were capable of persisting in the soil for six months with the collected isolates persisting far better than the commercially used isolates. Two of the isolates, G 11 3 L6 and G Ar 17 B3, were subjected to small scale laboratory application trials. Two formulations were investigated at two concentrations. For each isolate, each formulation and each concentration, FCM 5th instar larvae were applied and allowed to burrow into the soil to pupate before fungal application or after fungal application. Contact between fungi and FCM host is essential as, in contrast to pre-larval treatments, percentage mortality in post-larval treatments was low for both formulations and both isolates. For isolate G Ar 17 B3, a conidial suspension applied as a spray at a concentration of 1 x 10⁷ conidia.ml⁻ₑ obtained the highest percentage mortality (80 %). For isolate G 11 3 L6 however, both formulations performed equally well at a high, 1 x10⁷ conidia.ml⁻ₑ concentration (conidial suspension: 60 %; granular: 65 %) The results obtained thus far are promising for the control of FCM in citrus, but if these EPFs are to successfully integrate into current FCM control practices more research, some of which is discussed, is essential
50

Investigation of entomopathogenic fungi for control of false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotrata, Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and Natal fruit fly, C. rosa in South African citrus

Goble, Tarryn Anne January 2010 (has links)
The biology of key citrus pests Thaumatotibia leucotreta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae) includes their dropping from host plants to pupate in the soil below citrus trees. Since most EP fungi are soil-borne microorganisms, the development and formulation of alternative control strategies using these fungi as subterranean control agents, targeted at larvae and pupae in the soil, can potentially benefit existing IPM management of citrus in South Africa. Thus, a survey of occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi was undertaken on soils from citrus orchards and natural vegetation (refugia) on conventionally and organically managed farms in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. A method for baiting soil samples with citrus pest T. leucotreta and C. capitata larvae, as well as with the standard bait insect, Galleria mellonella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was implemented. Sixty-two potentially useful entomopathogenic fungal isolates belonging to four genera were collected from 288 soil samples, an occurrence frequency of 21.53%. The most frequently isolated entomopathogenic fungal species was Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (15.63%), followed by Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (3.82%). Galleria mellonella was the most effective insect used to isolate fungal species (χ2=40.13, df=2, P≤ 0.005), with a total of 45 isolates obtained, followed by C. capitata with 11 isolates, and T. leucotreta with six isolates recovered. There was a significantly (χ2=11.65, df=1, P≤ 0.005) higher occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soil samples taken from refugia compared to cultivated orchards of both organically and conventionally managed farms. No significant differences were observed in the recovery of fungal isolates when soil samples from both farming systems were compared. The physiological effects and host range of 21 indigenous fungal isolates obtained in the Eastern Cape were investigated in the laboratory to establish whether these isolates could be effectively used as biological control agents against the subterranean life stages of C. rosa, C. capitata and T. leucotreta. When these pests were treated with a fungal concentration of 1 x 10⁷ conidia ml⁻¹, the percentage of T. leucotreta adults which emerged in fungal treated sand ranged from 5 to 60% (F=33.295; df=21; P=0.0001) depending on fungal isolate and the percentage of pupae with visible signs of mycosis ranged from 21 to 93% (F= 96.436; df=21; P=0.0001). Based on fungal isolates, the percentage adult survival in C. rosa and C. capitata ranged from 30 to 90% and 55 to 86% respectively. The percentage of C. rosa and C. capitata puparia with visible signs of mycosis ranged from 1 to 14% and 1 to 11% respectively. Deferred mortality due to mycosis in C. rosa and C. capitata adult flies ranged from 1 to 58% and 1 to 33% respectively, depending on fungal isolate. Entomopathogenic fungal isolates had a significantly greater effect on the adults of C. rosa and C. capitata than they did on the puparia of these two fruit fly species. Further, C. rosa and C. capitata did not differ significantly in their response to entomopathogenic fungi when adult survival or adult and pupal mycosis were considered. The relative potency of the four most virulent Beauveria isolates as well as the commercially available Beauveria bassiana product, Bb Plus® (Biological Control Products, South Africa), were compared against one another as log-probit regressions of mortality against C. rosa, C. capitata and T. leucotreta which all exhibited a dose-dependent response. Against fruit flies the estimated LC50 values of all five Beauveria isolates ranged from 5.5 x 10¹¹ to 2.8 x 10¹² conidia/ml⁻¹. There were no significant differences between the relative potencies of these five fungal isolates. When T. leucotreta was considered, isolates: G Moss R10 and G 14 2 B5 and Bb Plus® were significantly more pathogenic than G B Ar 23 B3 and FCM 10 13 L1. The estimated LC₅₀ values of the three most pathogenic isolates ranged from 6.8 x 10⁵ to 2.1 x 10⁶ conidia/ml⁻¹, while those of the least pathogenic ranged from 1.6 x 10⁷ to 3.7 x 10⁷ conidia/ml⁻¹. Thaumatotibia leucotreta final instar larvae were exposed to two conidial concentrations, at four different exposure times (12, 48, 72 and 96 hrs) and showed an exposure time-dependant relationship (F=5.43; df=3; P=0.001). At 1 x 10⁷conidia/ml⁻¹ two Beauveria isolates: G Moss R10 and G 14 2 B5 were able to elicit a response in 50% of test insects at 72 hrs (3 days) exposure. Although a limited amount of mycosis was observed in the puparia of both fruit fly species, deferred adult mortality due to mycosis was high. The increased incidence of adult mortality suggests that post emergence mycosis in adult fruit flies may play a more significant role in field suppression than the control of fruit flies at the pupal stage. The increased incidence of pupal mortality, as well as the relatively low concentrations of conidia required to elicit meaningful responses in T. leucotreta pupae may suggest that pre-emergent control of false codling moth will play a more significant role in field suppression than the control of adult life stages using indigenous isolates of entomopathogenic fungi. Various entomopathogenic fungal application techniques targeted at key insect pests within integrated pest management (IPM) systems of citrus are discussed.

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