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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Fauna parasitária de capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766) em sistema de criação semi-intensivo, na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul / Fauna parasitária de capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766) em sistema de criação semi-intensivo, na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul

Wendt, Luciana Welter 27 July 2009 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-08-20T14:37:59Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 dissertacao_luciana_wendt.pdf: 2823644 bytes, checksum: cf4f4a14caafbe809001eb7426830a04 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2009-07-27 / The parasites of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in semi-intensive breeding were searched, and examined 39 capybaras (20 young and 19 adults) for ectoparasites, 34 capybaras (13 young and 21 adults) for gastrointestinal helminths. We estimated the parameters of parasitism: prevalence, abundance and mean intensity. Fifty two fecal samples were examined for identification of Eimeria spp. Ticks collected were Amblyomma dubitatum and immature of Amblyomma sp. Among the helminths, four species were identified in young capybaras, with the prevalence and intensity of infection: Capillaria hydrochoeri (46,15% and 11,5 specimens), Hydrochoerisnema anomalobursata (76,92% and 34,2 specimens), Protozoophaga obesa (46,15% and 6,33 specimens) and Monoecocestus hagmanni (23,07% and 1,66 specimens). In adults were found five species: C. hydrochoeri (66,66% and 16,42 specimens), H. anomalobursata (42,85% and 79,88 specimens), P. obesa (100% and 1655,42 specimens), M. hagmanni (14,28% and 38,33 specimens) and Monoecocestus macrobursatum (4,76% and two specimens). Reports of M. hagmanni and M. macrobursatum parasite capybaras in the state of Rio Grande do Sul are unpublished. P. obesa had significantly higher parameters in adult capybaras. In fecal samples, were identified: Eimeria trinidadensis (88,46%) with oocysts that measured 21,02μm (±1,03μm) length and 19,15 (±1,42μm) wide, and Eimeria ichiloensis (79,92%), with oocysts that measured 25,19μm (±1,77μm) length and 19,7μm (±1,3μm) wide. The diversity of founded parasites show the importance of control programs in semi-intensive breeding of capybaras. / A fauna parasitária de capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) em sistema de criação semi-intensivo no município de Capão do Leão, RS foi pesquisada. Foram examinadas 39 capivaras (20 filhotes e 19 adultas) para ectoparasitos, e 34 capivaras (13 filhotes e 21 adultas) para helmintos gastrintestinais, sendo estimados os parâmetros de parasitismo: prevalência, abundância e intensidade média. Também 52 amostras fecais foram analisadas para identificação de Eimeria spp. Observou-se adultos de Amblyomma dubitatum e imaturos de Amblyomma sp. Quatro espécies de helmintos foram identificadas nas capivaras filhotes, com a seguinte prevalência e intensidade de infecção: Capillaria hydrochoeri (46,15% e 11,5 espécimes), Hydrochoerisnema anomalobursata (76,92% e 34,2 espécimes), Protozoophaga obesa (46,15% e 6,33 espécimes), e Monoecocestus hagmanni (23,07% e 1,66 espécimes). Nas capivaras adultas houve cinco espécies: C. hydrochoeri (66,66% e 16,42 espécimes), H. anomalobursata (42,85% e 79,88 espécimes), P. obesa (100% e 1655,42 espécimes), M. hagmanni (14,28% e 38,33 espécimes) e Monoecocestus macrobursatum (4,76% e dois espécimes). Os relatos de M. hagmanni e de M. macrobursatum, parasitando capivaras no estado do Rio Grande do Sul são inéditos. P. obesa apresentou parâmetros significativamente superiores nas capivaras adultas. Nas amostras fecais identificou-se: Eimeria trinidadensis (88,46%) com oocistos subesféricos que mediram em média 21,02μm (±1,03μm) de comprimento e 19,15μm (±1,42μm) de largura, e Eimeria ichiloensis (79,92%), com oocistos que mediram em média 25,19μm (±1,77μm) de comprimento e 19,7μm (±1,3μm) de largura. A diversidade de parasitos encontrados evidencia a necessidade de medidas de controle em criações semi-intensivas de capivaras.
42

Controle de helmintos de frangos de corte utilizando as plantas Mentha piperita, Carapa guianensis, Artemisia absinthium e Chenopodium ambrosioides / Helminths Control of Chickens utilizing the plants Mentha piperita, Carapa guianensis, Artemisia absinthium and Chenopodium ambrosioides

Golynski, Anselmo Afonso 27 February 2003 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:15:23Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2003-Anselmo Afonso Golynski.pdf: 830387 bytes, checksum: 5f01749f12aaea6f6f65d51724969296 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2003-02-27 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior / A hundred chicken of the breeds Rubro negra and Hubbard were necropsied with medium age of 65 days e medium weight of 2 kg. These chickens were utilized for the evaluation of the anthelmintic activity of four species of plants, three cultivated and one native, that can be utilized, in the future, for the control of helminths in an organic production system. The plant extract was used as suspension and ground, administered in the stomach or put together with the food for chicken naturally infected with the most frequent parasites. The doses utilized were 0,5; 1 and 2 g/kg/pv for Carapa guianensis (Andiroba) and 3/kg/pv for Mentha piperita, (Hortel?), Artemisia absinthium (Losna) and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Erva-de-Santa Maria) during three consecutive days, except for C. ambrosioides that was for five consecutive days. The anthelminthic effect of the plants was evaluated from the controlled method, with efficacy for Ascaridia galli of 90,45%, 76,7o% and 55,00% for erva-de-santa- maria, hortel? and extract hex?nic and andiroba at a dose rate of 2 g/kg/pv respectively. For the control of Raillietina sp. the efficacy was 87,93% and 62,90% for extract hex?nic and andiroba at a dose rate of 2g/kg/pv and hortel? respectively. About Heterakis gallinarum the plants had a moderate anthelmintic effect, the extract hex?nic the andiroba at a dose rate of 1g and 2g/kg/day had 29,09% and 55,45%. For the species Oxyspirura mansoni, Tetrameres confusa and Capillaria sp., there was no anthelmintic efficacy by the plants. / Foram necropsiadas 100 frangos das linhagens Rubro negra e Hubbard com idade m?dia de 65 dias e peso m?dio de 2kg. Essas aves foram utilizadas para avalia??o da atividade anti-helm?ntica de quatro esp?cies de plantas sendo tr?s cultivadas e uma nativa, que poder?o ser utilizadas no futuro para o controle de helmintos dentro de um sistema de produ??o org?nico. O extrato vegetal foi empregado sob a forma de suspens?o e triturada, administrada p?r via intrag?strica ou incorporada a ra??o em 0,5, 1 e 2g/kg/ peso vivo para Carapa guianensis (Andiroba) e 3g/kg para Mentha piperita, (Hortel?), Artemisia absinthium (Losna) e Chenopodium ambrosioides (Erva-de-Santa Maria) durante tr?s dias consecutivos, com exce??o da planta C. ambrosioides que foi de cinco dias consecutivos, em frangos naturalmente infectados com os principais helmintos de galinhas. O efeito anti-helm?ntico exercido pelas plantas foi avaliado pelo m?todo controlado, registrando-se os seguintes resultados em termos de efic?cia m?dia para A. galli 90,45%, 76,70% e 55,00% para erva-de-santa-maria, hortel? e extrato hex?nico de andiroba, respectivamente. Para o controle Raillietina sp 87,93% e 62,90% para extrato hex?nico de andiroba e hortel? respectivamente. Com rela??o ao Heterakis gallinarum as plantas tiveram um efeito anti-helm?ntico moderado, o extrato hex?nico de andiroba na dosagem de 1g e 2g/kg/peso vivo obtiveram percentuais de 29,09% e 55,45%, respectivamente. Para as esp?cies de Oxyspirura mansoni, Tetrameres confusa e Capillaria sp, n?o foi observada nenhuma atividade anti-helm?ntica pelas plantas testadas.
43

Avalia??o da susceptibilidade do carrapato Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) a acaricidas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro / Avaliation of the susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) ticks to acaricides, in the state of Rio de Janeiro

Fernandes, K?tia Roberta 28 February 2003 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:15:23Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2003-Katia Roberta Fernandes.pdf: 342140 bytes, checksum: e0a9b9e260d5d0a6cd41c984d6cfada1 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2003-02-28 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior / There were made sensibility-tests in vitro of acaricides in engorged female Boophilus microplus, ticks coming from 12 cattle farms localized in different municipes in Rio de Janeiro-state, from March to September 2002. The following active principles, with the respective concentrations, were tested: Amitraz 250 ppm, cipermetrine high CIS 250 ppm, cipermetrine high CIS + DDVP 500 ppm and clorpyrifos + DDVP 500 ppm. Two groups of 10 engorged female ticks were used for each principle. Two groups with 10 females were used as controls, being treated with destilled water. The found results of the medium efficacy and the range (on amplitude) were: amitraz 45.40% (10.16 87.54); cipermetrine high CIS 37.61% (13.62 61.71); cipermetrine high CIS + DDVP 42.27% (23.87 76.87) and clorpyrifos + DDVP 88.95% (62.76 99.73). The active principles amitraz, cipermetrine high CIS and cipermetrine high CIS + DDVP were less efficient than the product containing clorpyrifos + DDVP, who proved out to being 11 of the studied cattlefarms. These differences in efficient treatment and control of tick B. microplus point out to the necessity of tests as well as for permanent monitoring control in order to find out the best acaricides for each farm. / Realizaram-se testes de sensibilidade in vitro a acaricidas em amostras de f?meas ingurgitadas de Boophilus microplus procedentes de 12 propriedades pecu?rias com atividade leiteria e de corte, localizadas em diferentes munic?pios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, no per?odo de mar?o a junho de 2002. Para a an?lise da susceptibilidade das amostras de carrapatos, foram utilizados os princ?pios ativos nas seguintes concentra??es: amitraz 250 ppm, cipermetrina high CIS 250 ppm, cipermetrina high CIS + DDVP 500 ppm e clorpirif?s + DDVP 500 ppm; empregando-se dois grupos de 10 f?meas ingurgitadas para cada princ?pio ativo e um grupo controle (dois grupos de 10 f?meas ingurgitadas) submetido ? imers?o em ?gua destilada. Os resultados obtidos da m?dia de efic?cia e a amplitude foram, respectivamente: amitraz - 45,40% (10,16 - 87,54); cipermetrina high CIS - 37,61% (13,62 61,71); cipermetrina high CIS + DDVP- 42,27% (23,87 76,87) e clorpirif?s + DDVP - 88,95% (62,76 - 99,73). Os princ?pios ativos amitraz, cipermetrina high CIS e cipermetrina high CIS + DDVP foram os menos eficazes, e o produto a base de clorpirif?s + DDVP mostrou-se o mais eficiente em 11 das propriedades estudadas. A grande variabilidade na efic?cia dos princ?pios ativos avaliados no controle do carrapato B. microplus, demonstra a import?ncia de um monitoramento permanente para a indica??o dos acaricidas mais apropriados para cada propriedade.
44

Avalia??o da sensibilidade de c?es com dermatite al?rgica aos extratos alerg?nicos padronizados de ?caros da poeira domiciliar / Evaluation of the sensibility from dogs with allergic dermatitis towards standardized allergenic extracts of house dust mites

Cunha, Victor do Espirito Santo 22 February 2006 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:15:24Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2006- Victor do Espirito Santo Cunha.pdf: 1132781 bytes, checksum: 5edd69d626ede6488b658d61c07e111b (MD5) Previous issue date: 2006-02-22 / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico / The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate whether allergenic extracts from five species of house dust mites standardized for humans may be taken into account in the diagnosis of the canine atopic dermatitis. Extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae have been evaluated through intradermal testing on 45 dogs, from which 20 belonged to the control group and 25 suffered from allergic dermatitis. There was a significant difference on the response pattern between the two groups (p<0,05). Only one dog (5%) from the control group has reacted to the intradermal test, whereas from the allergic group, 14 dogs (56%) have presented at least one positive reaction (odds ratio = 24,2). Most of the positive reactions observed in the allergic group were to the extracts of T. putrescentiae or L. destructor, each one inducing reactions on ten dogs (40%). The D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus e B. tropicalis extracts were responsible for positive reactions on 7 (28%), 3 (12%) and 3 (12%) dogs, respectively. The intradermal testing sensitivity and specificity were 56% and 95%, respectively, and the positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 93% and 63%, respectively. / O presente estudo do tipo caso-controle teve como objetivo avaliar se extratos alerg?nicos de cinco esp?cies de ?caros da poeira domiciliar padronizados para humanos podem ser utilizados no diagn?stico da dermatite at?pica canina. Extratos de Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Lepidoglyphus destructor e Tyrophagus putrescentiae foram avaliados atrav?s de testes intrad?rmicos em 45 c?es, dos quais 20 controles e 25 com dermatite al?rgica. Uma diferen?a significativa foi observada no padr?o de respostas entre os dois grupos (p<0,05). Apenas um animal (5%) do grupo controle reagiu ao teste cut?neo, enquanto que no grupo dos al?rgicos 14 c?es (56%) apresentaram pelo menos uma rea??o positiva (odds ratio = 24,2). As maiores freq??ncias de rea??es positivas observadas no grupo dos al?rgicos foram aos extratos de T. putrescentiae ou L. destructor, cada um induzindo rea??es em 10 (40%) c?es. Os extratos de D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus e B. tropicalis foram respons?veis por rea??es positivas em 7 (28%), 3 (12%) e 3 (12%) c?es, respectivamente. A sensibilidade e a especificidade dos testes intrad?rmicos foram de 56% e 95%, respectivamente e, o valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo de 93% e 63%, respectivamente. .
45

Aspectos biol?gicos de Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) mediante infesta??es experimentais em eq?inos. / Biological aspects of Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) starting from experimental infestations in equines.

Franque, Marcos Pinheiro 28 February 2007 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:15:26Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2007-Marcos Pinheiro Franque.pdf: 2601170 bytes, checksum: cef61cb976b6652b0e5f4fe212f81de9 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2007-02-28 / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico / This work aimed the evaluation of biological parameters of parasitic and non-parasitic phases of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (= Boophilus microplus) in equine. Four equines were individually infested with approximately 40,000 larvae obteined of R. (B.) microplus females engorged in bovines, being in two of them established three infestations. In the place of larvae fixation, it was noticed development of an intense itchy reaction and the larvae involved in a serum exudates. A larval mortality of approximately 90% was observed, with a small number of larvae changing to nymph stage. The mortality of nymphs was around 60%, with reduction of the itchy reaction, and in the adult stage was observed approximately 30% of mortality. As for the susceptibility, it was observed that two equine were resistant, one moderately resistant and one sensitive to the establishment of infestation by R. (B.) microplus. In the equine considered sensitive, were made observations of parasitic and non-parasitic phase of this ixodid. According to the parameters of the parasitic phase of R. (B.) microplus, of the three experimental infestations, the day at the beginning of detachment of females occurred among infestations were 28 and 31 days, during 12 days at first infestation and 20 days at second and thirst infestation, presentin modal day at 32?; 36? and 37? day, respectively. Were recovered 179 females of R. (B.) microlus at first infestation, 187 and 358 at the second and thirst infestation, corresponding to a mean recovery rate between 0.90 and 1.79%. The means periods of parasitic phase increase among infestations, during between 33. 27 and 38.51 days, being obteined females with mean weight of 90.0mg at the first infestation, 81.5 mg at second and 109.4mg at thirst infestation, considering all females recovered. For the estudy of the non-parasitic phase were selected form each infestation 20, 49, 71 females, presenting means weights of 151.8; 121.1 and 147.8 mg, respectively. The means periods of pre-posture were between 2.8 and 3.5 days. The means periods of posture were of 13.6; 11.7 and 13.4 days, respectively, with pick of posture occurring at the 3rd day after the beginning at three infestations. The means weights of posture were verified between 57.3 and 80.6mg corresponding to 1,146.9 and 1,611.4 eggs produced. The means periods of incubation of eggs produced by R. (B.) microplus studied females occurred between 23.7 and 29 days, presenting hatch means rates decreasing of 67% in the first infestation to 54.7% at the thirst infestation. The means of reprodutive efficiency index also decreased among infestations of 35.5% to 26.9% at the last infestation. It was verified that the means periods between the infestation date and the beginning of the larval appearance were between 60.0 and 64.9 days. These results demonstrate that, starting from experimental infestation in equine, R. (B.) microplus is able to complete the biological cycle for at least one generation, resulting in a number of larvae enough to infest pastures. / Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar par?metros biol?gicos de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (= Boophilus microplus) mediante infesta??es expermentais em eq?inos. Foram utilizados quatro eq?inos infestados individualmente com aproximadamente 40.000 larvas, obtidas de f?meas de R. (B.) microplus alimentadas em bovino, sendo realizadas tr?s infesta??es em dois destes equinos. No local de fixa??o das larvas notou-se desenvolvimento de uma intensa rea??o pruriginosa e as larvas envolvidas em um exsudato seroso. Foi observada uma mortalidade larval de aproximadamente 90%, com um pequeno n?mero larvas mudando para o est?gio de ninfa. A mortalidade de ninfas ocorreu em torno de 60%, com redu??o da rea??o pruriginosa, e no est?gio adulto notou-se mortalidade de aproximadamente 30%. Quanto ? susceptibilidade, observou-se que dois eq?inos foram resistentes, um moderadamente resistente e um sens?vel ao estabelecimento da infesta??o por R. (B.) microplus. No eq?ino considerado sens?vel, foram realizadas as observa??es de fase parasit?ria e n?o parasit?ria deste ixod?deo. Em rela??o aos par?metros da fase parasit?ria de R. (B.) microplus, nas tr?s infeta??es, o dia de in?cio do desprendimento das f?mas ocorreu entre 28 e 31 dias, durando 12 dias na primeira infesta??o e 20 dias na segunda e terceira infesta??es, apresentando dia modal no 32?, 36? e 37? dia respectivamente, ap?s as infesta??es com as larvas. Foram recuperadas 179 f?meas de R. (B.) microplus na primeira infesta??o, 187 na segunda e 358 na terceira infesta??o, correspondendo a uma taxa de recupera??o entre 0,90 e 1,79%. O per?odo m?dio da fase parasit?ria aumentou entre a primeira e terceira infesta??es, ocorrendo entre 33,27 e 38,51 dias, verificando-se f?meas com peso m?dio de 90,0mg na primeira infesta??o, 81,5mg na segunda e 109,4mg na terceira infesta??o, considerando-se todas as f?meas recuperadas. Para o estudo da fase n?o parasit?ria foram selecionadas respectivamente 20, 49 e 71 f?meas de cada infesta??o que apresentaram peso m?dio, respectivamente, de 151,8mg; 121,1 mg e 147,8mg. Observou-se um per?odo m?dio de pr?-postura entre 2,8 e 3,5 dias. O per?odo m?dio de postura foi de 13,6; 11,7 e 13,4 dias, respectivamente, entre as infesta??es, com pico de postura ocorrendo no 3? dia ap?s seu in?cio. Verificou-se um peso m?dio de postura entre 57,3 a 80,6mg, nas infesta??es, o que corresponde ? produ??o m?dia de ovos entre 1.146,9 e 1.611,0. O per?odo m?dio de incuba??o dos ovos das f?meas estudadas de R. (B.) microplus, durou entre 23,7 e 29 dias, apresentando uma taxa de eclos?o m?dia decrescendo de 67% na primeira infesta??o, para 54,7% na terceira infesta??o. O ?ndice m?dio de efici?ncia reprodutiva tamb?m decresceu ente as infesta??es de 35,5%, para 26,9% na ?ltima infesta??o. Verificou-se que o per?odo m?dio entre a data de infesta??o e o in?cio da eclos?o larval ocorreu entre 60 e 64,9 dias. Estes resultados demonstram que, a partir de infesta??es experimentais em eq?inos, R. (B.) microplus ? capaz de completar seu ciclo biol?gico por pelo menos uma gera??o, resultando em um n?mero de larvas suficiente para infestar parstagens.
46

Imunomodula??o e a??o anti-Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis por Ouratea cuspidata (Ochnaceae) / Immunomodulation and action anti-Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes by Ouratea cuspidata (Ochnaceae)

Ribeiro, Renata da Silva 27 February 2007 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:15:26Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2007-Renata da Silva Ribeiro.pdf: 705558 bytes, checksum: e16373fa17f99c734d58ede2a54543c6 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2007-02-27 / Ouratea cuspidata (Ochnaceae) crude extracts were added to experimental systems containing either host macrophages, or Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes (L566). The biological effect by the use of the hexane (OCH), methanol (OCMeH) and ethyl-acetate (OCAcEt) extracts added at different concentrations: 2mg/mL; 4mg/mL; 8mg/mL, 16mg/mL e 32mg/mL. The OCMeOH was the only fraction to which the anti parasitic potentiality was achieved at doses rates that generated bio protective effects in the host cells. The parasiticide action, due by direct exposure of promastigotes to OCMeOH, as well as the parasitic growth, and morphological alterations intermediary metabolism alterations (mitochondrial activity) were concomitantly measured. Biological macrophagic functions were also evaluated using Cricetus cricetus peritoneal macrophages as a model (Mf). Bio-protective assays were carried out in order to determine the free radical generation by the extract constituents. The results were compared with non treated L566 and Mf. 78% of the 16 mg/106 Mf/mL treated Mf were viable but a significant decrease of their phagocytosis capability (92%) was detected. Such alterations were evident in 62% of the cells treated with 32mg/106 Mf/mL. At this concentration cells were 70% viable and presented 98% phagocytosis suppression. The macrophages enzymatic- mitochondrial activity was gradually diminished, with 87% activity at exposures to 8mg/106 Mf/mL; 66,3% at exposures to 16mg/106 Mf/mL, and 49% at exposures to 32mg/106 Mf/mL, respectively. The anti parasitic effects were not associated to the promastigotes lack of viability. Instead, a significant rising on the L566 cells counting was detected when compared to control non treated parasites, from the first 6 hours treatment until 24 hours exposure. Morphological changes were detected in 62% of the 8mg/106 L566/mL parasite treated cells; 78% after 16mg/106 L566/mL treatment, and 98% of the cells presented morphological changes after 32mg/106 L566/mL treatment. Cells were either round-shaped, showing incomplete mitosis, or presenting double flagella, suggesting that the present extract containing substances that might interfere in the parasitic topoisomerase function. The parasitary mitochondrial activity evidenced the occurrence of a metabolic acceleration due by the OCMeOH treatment. The mitochondrial enzymatic activity was of 220% at exposures to 8mg/106 L566/mL; 389% at exposures to 16mg/106 L566/mL and of 480% at exposures to 32mg/106 L566/mL, respectively, when compared to the non treated parasites (100%). The anti parasitic potential (Therapeutic Index) was considered to be positive (acceptable) (TI=4,0) when estimated in function of the morphological changes observed at the extract concentration of 32mg/106 Mf/mL (LD62%), and at 8mg/106 L566/mL (ED62%), respectively. Since bi-flavonoids are the main constituents present in the OCMeOH, results were suggestive the anti parasitic effect was due to this group of secondary metabolites. As such biologically active molecules are known COX2 selective inhibitors, its internal use should be avoided. Otherwise, bi- flavonoids are good candidate substances to be applied as topical medicine to treat the American Tegumentar Leishmaniasis. / Os efeitos dos extratos de Ouratea cuspidata (Ochnaceae) foram avaliadas a partir da exposi??o de c?lulas hospedeiras e de promastigotas de Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L566) ?s fra??es oriundas da sua parti??o hex?nica (OCH), metan?lica (OCMeOH) e acetato de et?lica (OCAcEt). Dentre estas, a fra??o OCMeOH foi a ?nica que apresentou potencial antiparasit?rio em doses que geraram bioprote??o aos sistemas hospedeiros. Assim, procederam-se an?lises de a??o parasiticida direta do extrato OCMeOH sobre formas promastigotas, onde, tamb?m, foram avaliados o crescimento, altera??es morfol?gicas e fun??es do metabolismo mitocondriais. Do mesmo modo, foram realizadas observa??es semelhantes em macr?fagos peritoneais de hamsters Cricetus cricetus (Mf) afim de se determinar a toxicidade relativa para o hospedeiro. Finalmente, foram realizados ensaios complementares de bioprote??o e gera??o de radicais livres, com a finalidade de confirmar a poss?vel aplica??o terap?utica dos constituintes presentes no extrato. Em todas as etapas experimentais, foram utilizadas cinco concentra??es de OCMeOH (2mg/mL; 4mg/mL; 8mg/mL; 16mg/mL e 32mg/mL), sendo que os resultados obtidos foram comparativamente avaliados em rela??o a sistemas de controle (L566 e Mf n?o tratados). Os (Mf) tratados com 16 mg/106 Mf/mL do extrato sofreram uma diminui??o significativa (92%) de sua capacidade fagocit?ria, mas permaneceram vi?veis, em sua maioria (78%). As altera??es morfol?gicas mostraram-se mais evidentes em 62% das c?lulas tratadas com 32mg/106 Mf/mL, com 70% de viabilidade e 98% de inibi??o da fagocitose. A atividade enzim?tica-mitocondrial macrof?gica apresentou diminui??o gradativa, com a preserva??o de 87% das fun??es enzim?ticas nas c?lulas tratadas com 8mg/106 Mf/mL; 66,3% daquelas tratadas com 16mg/106 Mf/mL e 49% das tratadas com 32mg/106 Mf/mL. As L566 n?o apresentaram a perda da viabilidade ap?s exposi??o de 24horas ?s diferentes concentra??es de OCMeOH. Ao contr?rio, houve um aumento significativo no n?mero de promastigotas que, a partir de seis horas de cultivo, mostraram-se sempre superiores ? quantidade de parasitos n?o tratados. Foram detectadas altera??es morfol?gicas em 62% das L566 tratadas com 8mg/106 L566/mL; 78% daquelas tratadas com 16mg/106 L566/mL e 98% das tratadas com 32mg/106 L566/mL. As promastigotas tratadas apresentaram-se arredondadas, com mitose incompleta, ou apresentando dois flagelos, sugerindo que as subst?ncias presentes no extrato podem interferir nas topoisomerases parasit?rias. A atividade mitocond rial parasit?ria evidenciou a ocorr?ncia de acelera??o metab?lica induzida pelo tratamento com OCMeOH. A atividade enzim?ticamitocondrial foi de 220% no tratamento com 8mg/106 L566/mL; de 389% com 16mg/106 L566/mL e 480% com 32mg/106 L566/mL quando comparadas ao controle (100%). O potencial antiparasit?rio (Indice Terap?utico) foi considerado positivo (IT=4,0) em fun??o das altera??es morfol?gicas observadas nas concentra??es de 32mg/106 Mf/mL (LD62%), e 8mg/106 L566/mL (ED62%). Sendo biflavon?ides os constituintes presentes em maior propor??o, atribuiu-se a este grupo de subst?ncias a a??o antiparasit?ria e imunot?xica observadas para OCMeOH. Os bi-flavon?ides presentes no extrato metan?lico de Ouratea cuspidata est?o entre os inibidores seletivos de COX2, sugerindo o desenvolvimento de pesquisas que visem sua utiliza??o t?pica em animais naturalmente infectados.
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Avalia??o in vitro dos efeitos de Isaria farinosa, I. fumosorosea, Paecilomyces lilacinus e Lecanicillium lecanii sobre Boophilus microplus. / In vitro evaluation of the effects of Isaria farinosa, I. fumosorosea, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Lecanicillium lecanii toward Boophilus microplus.

Angelo, Isabele da Costa 26 February 2007 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:15:27Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2007-Isabele da Costa Angelo.pdf: 1629986 bytes, checksum: 663b35706e830a57e185c3e0a68096c9 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2007-02-26 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior / Boophilus microplus is an ectoparasite which causes great economic losses around the world. The exclusive use of acaricides and the inadequate management have conducted the development of resistance in ticks populations, environmental and food contamination by acaricides and their residues. The use of entomopathogenic fungi to arthropods control has shown interesting responses. Several studies have proved the pathogenicity of fungi toward various ticks species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Isaria farinosa, I. fumosorosea, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Lecanicillium lecanii toward engorged females, eggs and larvae of B. microplus tick. The isolates were cultured on malt extract medium at 25 ? 1?C and 80% of relative humidity for 15 days. Conidial suspensions were prepared in Tween 80 water solution (0.1% v/v). There were 4 treatment groups according to the following conidial concentrations: 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia mL-1. The control group was made up of water and Tween 80 only (0.1% v/v). Treatment was based on immersion of the specimen in 1 mL of the conidial suspension. Each treatment group was made up of 10 repetitions. Changes in biology of engorged females, eggs viability and larvae mortality, were observed every 5 days up to the 20th day after treatment. The results have shown that L. lecanii changed biological parameters in engorged females through the reduction in posture period, nutritional rate, eggs production rate, and increase of incubation period. Isaria farinosa has shown reduction in posture period and in nutritional rate. Paecilomyces lilacinus was the unique isolate able to reduce the eclosion period of larvae from infected females. Isaria fumosorosea has reduced the nutritional rate and was the unique isolate that changed significantly in eclosion period when eggs were infected. Conidial concentrations reduced reproduction capacity of engorged females. The isolates of I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii have presented major potential to control B. microplus engorged females. All tested isolates have shown pathogenicity toward unfed larvae of B. microplus after in vitro infection. / Boophilus microplus ? um ectoparasito que causa grandes perdas na pecu?ria mundial. A utiliza??o exclusiva de produtos qu?micos no controle de carrapatos, associada ao manejo inadequado tem conduzido o desenvolvimento de popula??es de carrapatos resistentes, e a contamina??o dos produtos de origem animal e do ambiente pelos seus res?duos. O uso de fungos entomopatog?nicos no controle de artr?podes tem se tornado uma abordagem cada vez mais atrativa. In?meros trabalhos comprovam experimentalmente a patogenicidade dos fungos sobre diversas esp?cies de carrapatos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito in vitro de Isaria farinosa, I. fumosorosea, Paecilomyces lilacinus e Lecanicillium lecanii sobre f?meas ingurgitadas, ovos e larvas de B. microplus. Os fungos foram repicados em meio de cultura extrato de malte, e mantidos em c?mara climatizada sob temperatura de 25?C ? 1 e umidade relativa de 80% por quinze dias. Suspens?es conidiais foram preparadas a partir do crescimento do fungo, cujos con?dios foram adicionados a solu??o de ?gua destilada e Tween 0,1%. As concentra??es 105, 106, 107 e 108 con?dios mL-1 formaram os grupos tratamento, juntamente com o grupo controle, constitu?do por ?gua destilada est?ril e Tween 0,1%. O tratamento constituiu-se de um mililitro da concentra??o conidial testada, e cada grupo foi formado por 10 repeti??es. Os par?metros de avalia??o observados para demonstrar o efeito dos fungos sobre o carrapato foram as altera??es biol?gicas de f?meas ingurgitadas, viabilidade de ovos tratados e percentual de mortalidade de larvas, acompanhado a cada cinco dias at? o 20? dia ap?s infec??o. Os resultados mostraram que L. lecanii causou altera??es nos par?metros biol?gicos de f?meas ingurgitadas, diminuindo o per?odo de postura, o ?ndice nutricional, o ?ndice de produ??o de ovos, e aumentando o per?odo de incuba??o. Isaria farinosa mostrou redu??o no per?odo da postura e no ?ndice nutricional de f?meas ingurgitadas. P. lilacinus foi o ?nico fungo capaz de reduzir o per?odo de eclos?o das larvas provenientes da infec??o de f?meas ingurgitadas. I. fumosorosea reduziu o ?ndice nutricional e foi o ?nico isolado que causou altera??o significativa no per?odo de eclos?o de larvas provenientes da infec??o de ovos. Diferentes concentra??es dos entomomopat?genos reduziram o potencial reprodutivo das f?meas ingurgitadas dos grupos tratados. Os isolados de I. fumosorosea e L. lecanii apresentaram maior potencial de controle para f?meas ingurgitadas de B. microplus. Todos os isolados testados mostraram patogenicidade para larvas n?o alimentadas de B. microplus ap?s infec??o in vitro.
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Investiga??es preliminares sobre a sesibilidade parasit?ria de duas ra?as de coelhos a Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari:Ixodidae) / Preliminary Investigations on Parasitic Sensitivity of Two Breeds of Rabbits to Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

Pinto, Fl?via Santos 28 February 2000 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:15:28Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2000- Flavia Santos Pinto.pdf: 229877 bytes, checksum: 5ac9dc34947f0f90f514886c5e4e15e0 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2000-02-28 / The natural sensitivity of two breeds of rabbit, White New Zealand (WNZ) e California (CA), and their crossbreeds (CB) to Rhipicephalus sanguineus were compared under experimental conditions. Three rabbits of each breed, without previously tick exposure, were infested once with 2300 larvae, 100 nymphs and 40 adults (20 males + 20 females). The experiment with the parasitic phase was conducted in the environment while the free-living phase was conducted under 27 ? 1? C, 80 ? 10 % relative humidity and scotophase. The dynamic of the sensitivity had in the larvae phase a variation statistically significant (p<0.05) in the pr?ecdise period, with the best performance in the CB group. However, the percentage of recovery was greater in the treatment of WNZ. In the adult phase, females of the WNZ group presented a greater mean weight (p<0.0) e did not differ from the Nutritional Efficiency Index(NEI) from CB, which had the best performance. For larvae of the females in the three treatments the only statistic variation (p<0.05) was with the period hatching, where the CA group presented the smallest period, the CB group presented the greatest and the WNZ group did not change statistically in the both. The life cycle in all three groups was very close, without great differences according to the treatment received. / A sensibilidade natural a Rhipicephalus sanguineus de duas ra?as de coelhos, Nova Zel?ndia e Calif?rnia, e seus mesti?os foi comparada em condi??es experimentais. Tr?s coelhos de cada ra?a, sem contato pr?vio com carrapatos, foram infestados uma ?nica vez com 2300 larvas, 100 ninfas e 40 adultos (20 machos + 20 f?meas). O experimento com a fase parasit?ria foi conduzido no meio ambiente enquanto que o da fase de vida livre foi conduzido a 27 ? 1? C, 80 ? 10 % de umidade relativa e escotofase. A din?mica da sensibilidade obteve na fase larval uma varia??o estatisticamente significativa ( p< 0,05) no per?odo de pr?-ecdise com melhor desempenho no grupo Mesti?o, por?m o percentual de recupera??o foi maior no tratamento Nova Zel?ndia. N?o houve diferen?a estatisticamente significativa (p> 0,05) na fase de ninfas, onde o grupo de melhor desempenho foi o Calif?rnia. Na fase adulta , as f?meas do grupo Nova Zel?ndia apresentaram maior peso m?dio(p<0,05) e n?o diferiram para o ?ndice de Efici?ncia Nutricional do tratamento Mesti?o, o qual teve melhor desempenho. Para larvas oriundas das f?meas que passaram pelos tr?s tratamentos a ?nica varia??o estat?stica (p<0,05) foi com o per?odo de eclos?o, onde o grupo Calif?rnia apresentou menor per?odo, o grupo Mesti?o o maior e Nova Zel?ndia n?o variou estatisticamente destes dois. O ciclo biol?gico nos tr?s grupos foi muito pr?ximo, sem grandes diferen?as de acordo com o tratamento recebido.
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Infec??o patente em c?es adultos com larvas de Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) recuperadas de camundongos experimentalmente infectados. / Patent infection in adult dogs with Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) larvae recovered from experimentally infected mice.

Verocai, Guilherme Gomes 25 February 2008 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:15:29Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2008- Guilherme Gomes Verocai.pdf: 1894302 bytes, checksum: 5ccd7810baade85b48a7205abe9c4126 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2008-02-25 / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico / The objective of the present study was to establish trial infections in adult dogs by administering T. canis larvae recovered from tissues of experimentally infected mice and to evaluate patent infection by determining the pre-patent period (PPP) and the number of recovered nematodes in relation to the different infective larvae doses. T. canis females were collected from naturally infected dogs. These were dissected and the eggs were obtained from their uteri followed by posterior incubation at 27?1? C under 75 ?10% RH. After 60 days, mice were orally infected by the embryonated eggs gathered from the culture. The mice were killed 26 days post-infection (dpi) and then submitted to necropsy. Its organs and carcasses were processed by the Acid-Isolation Technique for the recovery of larvae, which were quantified and subdivided in aliquots for the dogs infection. Twelve adult male Beagle dogs from the Kennel of the Laboratory of Experimental Chemotherapy in Veterinary Parasitology, Department of Animal Parasitology, Veterinary Institute, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro were used in our study. They were considered free from parasitism, however with previous history of exposition. The animals were divided in two groups of six animals each. The dogs from Group I were infected with 60 larvae, and the ones from Group II with 300 larvae, which were recovered from the brains and carcasses of the paratenic hosts. To evaluate the PPP we used the coproparasitological techniques of Centrifugal flotation, Sedimentation and Sedimentation centrifugal flotation on days +8, + 12 and, consecutively between days +16 e + 56. For the recovery of nematodes from feces, the dogs were treated on days +57, +58 e +59 with piperazine. The animals from Group I reached the PPP on 48?5.37 dpi, and Group II on 41.5?5.09 dpi, presenting statistically significant difference between the periods (p<0.05). Ten nematodes were collected from Group I, with the mean intensity of 1.66?1.63, resulting in 2.78?2.73% of recovery. The 85 nematodes collected from Group II, presented mean intensity of 14.17?28.12, resulting in 4.72?9.39% of recovery from the total of administered larvae. Non-statistical difference was noted regarding the total recovered nematodes. It is possible to establish patent T. canis infection in adult dogs by administering larvae recovered from tissues of experimentally infected mice. / O objetivo do presente estudo foi promover a infec??o experimental de c?es adultos atrav?s da administra??o de larvas de T. canis obtidas de tecidos de camundongos experimentalmente infectados. E, conseq?entemente, avaliar a infec??o patente, determinando o per?odo pr?patente (PPP) e o n?mero de nemat?ides recuperados em rela??o as diferentes quantidades de larvas infectantes administradas. F?meas de T. canis foram coletadas de animais naturalmente infectados, estas foram dissecadas para obten??o dos ovos e posterior cultura em solu??o de formalina a 2%, em estufa climatizada do tipo B.O.D. ? temperatura de 27?1? C, com umidade relativa de 75 ?10%. Ap?s 60 dias, camundongos foram infectados com os ovos embrionados oriundos da cultura. Os roedores foram eutanasiados 26 dias p?s-infec??o (dpi), submetidos ? necropsia. Seus ?rg?os e carca?as submetidos ? T?cnica de Isolamento ?cido para recupera??o das larvas, as quais foram subdivididas em al?quotas para infec??o dos c?es. Foram utilizados 12 c?es machos adultos da ra?a Beagle, pertencentes ao Canil do Laborat?rio de Quimioterapia Experimental em Parasitologia Veterin?ria do Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Instituto de Veterin?ria da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Os animais eram comprovadamente livres de infec??o pelo nemat?ide, por?m com pr?vio hist?rico de parasitismo pelo nemat?ide em quest?o. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos de seis animais cada. Sendo os animais do Grupo I infectados com 60 larvas e, os pertencentes ao Grupo II com 300 larvas, sendo estas recuperadas apenas dos c?rebros e carca?a dos hospedeiros parat?nicos. Para avalia??o do per?odo pr?-patente foram empregadas em associa??o, as t?cnicas coproparasitol?gicas de Centr?fugo-flutua??o Simples, Sedimenta??o Simples e Sedimento-centr?fugo-flutua??o nos dias +8, + 12 e, consecutivamente entre os dias +16 e + 56. Para recupera??o dos nemat?ides os animais foram vermifugados nos dias +57, +58 e +59 com um produto a base de piperazina. Os animais do Grupo I atingiram o PPP, em m?dia, aos 48 ?5,37dpi, j? os do Grupo II aos 41,5?5,09 dpi, havendo diferen?a estat?stica entre os per?odos (p<0,05). Foram recuperados ao todo dez nemat?ides dos animais do Grupo I, com uma intensidade m?dia de 1,66?1,63, resultando num total de recupera??o de 2,78?2,73%. Enquanto, no Grupo II, foi recuperado um total de 85 helmintos, com uma intensidade m?dia de 14,17?28,12 parasitos por animal, perfazendo 4,72?9,39% do total de larvas administradas. N?o havendo diferen?a significativa entre os grupos em rela??o ao total de recupera??o de nemat?ides. ? poss?vel estabelecer infec??o patente em c?es adultos a partir da administra??o das diferentes cargas de larvas recuperadas de tecidos de camundongos experimentalmente infectados.
50

Cultura prim?ria in vitro de c?lulas embrion?rias de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus e Amblyomma cajennense como substrato para cultivo de Borrelia burgdorferi. / Primary culture in vitro of embryonic cells of the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Amblyomma cajennense as substratum for culture of Borrelia burgdorferi.

Rezende, Jania de 22 February 2008 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:15:30Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2008- Jania de Resende.pdf: 467062 bytes, checksum: cf6acc7c0e32afbfa397b5b1c07d0d87 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2008-02-22 / Funda??o Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro / Embryonic cells of tick in vitro constitute an important one tool for culture and study of the biology of B. burgdorferi. Spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi is the aetiologic agent of borreliose of Lyme in U.S.A. and Europe, where it is transmitted by tick of the Ixodes genus. The aim of this work was in vitro to cultivate B. burgdorferi (American Cepa G39/40) in primary culture of embryonic cells of Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus and the A. cajennense. From the primary culture of embryonic cells of R. (B.) microplus were performed subculture maintained with medium Leibovitz's (L-15) free of antibiotic, that later it were changed by medium Barbour-Stoener-Kelly (BSK). After the addition of the BSK inoculated B. burgdorferi of and also in Tube of Leighton (TL) with free BSK of cells (control) in a final concentration of 6x106 spirochetes/mL. The embryonic cells of the A. cajennense initially were cultivated in medium L-15 with antibiotic, which was substituted by the BSK. Later, 1,1x107 spirochetes/mL in medium BSK cultivated was inoculated, and also in TL controlled free of cells. All the culture was incubated at 34?C. The development of the culture was observed in microscope of inverted contrast of phase, as well as the countings of B. burgdorferi performed in chamber of neubauer. Cover glass of the TL had been stained with Giemsa. It was evidenced by the observation in microscope of inverted contrast of phase the survival, attach and multiplication of B. burgdorferi, in the embryonic cells of R. (B.) microplus and A. cajennense. It did not have differences in the finale counting of spirochetes cultivated in cells of R. (B.) microplus when compared with the free control of cells, but on with cells of the A. cajennense, the number amount approximately was 1,9x107 spirochetes/mL, and while in the tube it has controlled free of cells was 1x106 spirochetes /mL. The culture of cells of tick R. (B.) microplus and the A. cajennense have potential to be used as substratum for culture of B. burgdorferi, and study of its development. / C?lulas embrion?rias de carrapatos mantidas in vitro constituem uma importante ferramenta para cultivo e estudo da biologia de Borrelia burgdorferi. A espiroquetas B. burgdorferi ? o agente etiol?gico da borreliose de Lyme nos EUA e Europa, onde ? transmitida por carrapatos do g?nero Ixodes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi cultivar in vitro Borrelia burgdorferi (Cepa Americana G39/40) em cultura prim?ria de c?lulas embrion?rias dos carrapatos Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus e Amblyomma cajennense. A partir da cultura prim?ria de c?lulas embrion?rias de R. (Boophilus) microplus foram realizados subcultivos mantidos com meio Leibovitz s L-15 livre de antibi?tico, que posteriomente foi trocado pelo meio Barbour-Stoener-Kelly (BSK). Ap?s a adi??o do BSK na cultura, inoculou-se B. burgdorferi e tamb?m em Tubo de Leighton (TL) com BSK livres de c?lulas (controle), numa concentra??o final de 6x106 espiroquetas/mL. As c?lulas embrion?rias de A. cajennense foram inicialmente cultivadas em meio L-15 com antibi?tico, o qual foi substitu?do pelo BSK. Posteriormente, inoculou-se 1,1x107 espiroquetas/mL cultivadas em meio BSK, e tamb?m em TL controle livre de c?lulas. Todos os cultivos foram incubados em estufa bacteriol?gica a 34?C. O desenvolvimento dos cultivos foram observados em microsc?pio de contraste de fase invertido, assim como as contagens de B. burgdorferi realizados em c?mara de neubauer. As lam?nulas dos TL foram coradas com Giemsa. Foi constatado pela observa??o em microsc?pio de contraste de fase invertido a sobreviv?ncia, ader?ncia e multiplica??o de B. burgdorferi, nas c?lulas embrion?rias de R. (Boophilus) microplus e A. cajennense. N?o houve diferen?as na contagem final de espiroquetas cultivadas em c?lulas de R. (Boophilus) microplus quando comparada ao controle livre de c?lulas, mas sobre c?lulas de A. cajennense o valor total de aproximadamente 1,9x107 espiroquetas/mL, e enquanto no tubo controle livre de c?lulas foi 1x106 espiroquetas/mL. O cultivo de c?lulas do carrapato R. (Boophilus) microplus e A. cajennense t?m potencial para ser utilizado como substrato para cultivo de B. burgdorferi e para estudo de seu desenvolvimento.

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