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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Avalia??o dos Perfis Prot?ico e Lip?dico na Resposta de Rhipicephalus Microplus ? Infec??o com Fungos. / Evaluation of protein and lipid profile in response of Rhipicephalus microplus to infection by fungi.

Angelo, Isabele da Costa 03 March 2011 (has links)
Submitted by Sandra Pereira (srpereira@ufrrj.br) on 2016-06-09T16:27:04Z No. of bitstreams: 1 ISABELE DA COSTA ANGELO.pdf: 4140152 bytes, checksum: bbd35489ea24b040be77df36cd797987 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-06-09T16:27:32Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 ISABELE DA COSTA ANGELO.pdf: 4140152 bytes, checksum: bbd35489ea24b040be77df36cd797987 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-03-03 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior / The study evaluated the protein and lipid profiles of Rhipicephalus microplus engorged females after infection by Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Fusarium oxysporum. The treatments were immersion or inoculation of conidial suspension in R. microplus. The hemolymph was collected 24 and 48 hours after treatment. The cell-free hemolymph was separated of hemocytes by centrifugation and hemocytes resuspended in phosphate buffer pH 7.2. The amount of total protein was determined in both fractions of hemolymph and hemocytes were quantified. The cell-free hemolymph was filtered through a 100 kDa and 10 kDa membranes, and analyzed by electrophoresis and liquid chromatography (HPLC). The proteome of cell-free hemolymph (treatment by injection) was evaluated by 2DPAGE. Changes were observed in amount total protein and the amount of hemocytes, but no difference was observed in the electrophoretic profile (1D-PAGE) of the cell-free hemolymph. In haemocytes, the entomopathogens reduced the amount of serpins, while F. oxysporum caused increased. In 2D-PAGE variations were observed in both expression and presence/absence of protein between the groups. The cell-free hemolymph antimicrobial activity was tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and against the fungus used in the treatment of engorged ticks. The hemolymph collected 48 hours after the immersion treatment with B. bassiana apresented activity anti-B. bassiana with 48 hours of evaluation. This hemolymph was subjected to Superose column to HPLC and peak was collected and analyzed on the analytical column C18. The fractions were collected from the C18 and its apresented activity anti-B. bassiana, but showed no activity against Candida albicans. These fractions were analyzed by Maldi-Tof and most of them had in common an ion with m/z 1,119.5; however, other ions may be involved with this activity antimicrobial. The lipids present in cell-free hemolymph, in the hemocyte and fat body were extracted and analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) or HPTLC for neutral lipids and phospholipids. The classes of neutral lipids in the cell-free hemolymph were cholesterol ester, cholesterol (CHO) and fatty acids (FA), which have varied depending on the fungus used, type of treatment and observation time. Phospholipids found were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, its were not significantly altered after the fungal infection. In hemocytes, the same classes of lipids were found and B. bassiana modified phospholipids, while M. anisopliae s.l. altered FA and CHO. The fat body showed, in addition to these classes of neutral lipids, the triglycerides, which increased significantly 48 hours after inoculation with M. anisopliae s.l. The lipase activity in fat body was measured and it was demonstrated that increased activity 48 hours after inoculation, mainly in the group inoculated with Metarhizium. Therefore, the results showed alterations related to the proteins expression in the hemocytes and the cell-free hemolymph after inoculation with fungi, immunosuppression of hemocytes and antimicrobial peptides induction after infection with B. bassiana, besides changes in the lipid profile of R. microplus after infection. However, further studies are necessary to understand these changes. / O trabalho avaliou os perfis prot?ico e lip?dico de f?meas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus microplus ap?s infec??o com Metarhizium anisopliae s.l., Beauveria bassiana ou Fusarium oxysporum. Os tratamentos foram imers?o ou inocula??o da suspens?o conidial em R. microplus. A hemolinfa foi coletada 24 e 48 horas ap?s os tratamentos. O plasma foi separado dos hem?citos por centrifuga??o e os hem?citos resuspensos em tamp?o fosfato pH 7,2. A concentra??o de prote?na total foi determinada em ambas as fra??es da hemolinfa e os hem?citos quantificados. O plasma da hemolinfa foi filtrado em membrana de 100 kDa e 10 kDa, sendo analisados por eletroforese e cromatografia l?quida de alta efici?ncia (CLAE). O proteoma do plasma da hemolinfa (tratamento por inocula??o) foi avaliado por gel 2D. Foram observadas varia??es na quantidade de prote?na total de ambas as fra??es da hemolinfa, na quantidade de hem?citos bem como na intensidade de prote?nas/pept?deos expressos no plasma da hemolinfa. Nos hem?citos, os entomopat?genos reduziram a quantidade de serpinas, enquanto F. oxysporum causou aumento. No gel 2D foram observadas varia??es na express?o bem como na aus?ncia/presen?a de prote?nas entre os grupos. O plasma da hemolinfa teve sua atividade antimicrobiana testada contra Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus e contra o fungo utilizado no tratamento das f?meas ingurgitadas. A hemolinfa coletada 48 horas ap?s o tratamento por imers?o com B. bassiana apresentou atividade anti-B. bassiana com 48 horas de avalia??o. Esta hemolinfa foi submetida ? coluna Superose de CLAE e o pico coletado analisado na coluna anal?tica C18. As fra??es coletadas da C18 apresentaram atividade anti-B. bassiana, por?m n?o apresentaram atividade contra Candida albicans. Essas fra??es foram analisadas por Maldi-Tof e a maioria delas apresentou um ?on com raz?o m/z 1.119,5; no entanto, outros ?ons podem estar envolvidos com essa atividade antimicrobiana. Os lip?deos presentes no plasma da hemolinfa, nos hem?citos e no corpo gorduroso foram extra?dos e analisados por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD) ou CCD de alta performance para lip?deos neutros e fosfolip?deos. As classes de lip?deos neutros encontradas no plasma da hemolinfa foram colesterol-?ster, colesterol (CHO) e ?cidos graxos (AG), que sofreram altera??es em fun??o do fungo utilizado, tipo de tratamento e tempo de observa??o. Os fosfolip?deos encontrados foram fosfatidilcolina e fosfatidiletanolamina, que n?o foram significativamente alterados ap?s a infec??o f?ngica. Nos hem?citos, as mesmas classes de lip?deos foram encontradas e B. bassiana alterou os fosfolip?deos, enquanto M. anisopliae s.l. alterou os AG e CHO. O corpo gorduroso apresentou, al?m destas classes de lip?deos neutros, o triacilglicerol, que aumentou significativamente 48 horas ap?s a inocula??o com M. anisopliae s.l. A atividade lipase no corpo gorduroso foi mensurada, sendo evidenciado um aumento 48 horas ap?s a inocula??o, principalmente no grupo inoculado com Metarhizium. Portanto, os resultados demonstraram altera??es na express?o de prote?nas no plasma da hemolinfa e nos hem?citos ap?s inocula??o com os fungos, imunossupress?o dos hem?citos, indu??o de pept?deos com atividade antimicrobiana ap?s infec??o com B. bassiana, al?m de altera??es no perfil lip?dico de R. microplus ap?s infec??o. No entanto, maiores estudos s?o necess?rios para o entendimento dessas altera??es.
42

Avalia??o micol?gica e micotoxicol?gica de ra??es fornecidas na dieta de til?pias em criat?rios

Barbosa, Tatiana Salom?o 09 February 2011 (has links)
Submitted by Sandra Pereira (srpereira@ufrrj.br) on 2016-07-29T12:59:33Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Tatiana Salom?o Barbosa.pdf: 562866 bytes, checksum: 6cdcd52bb7ab78c9cb4b4a47f918a85c (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-07-29T12:59:33Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Tatiana Salom?o Barbosa.pdf: 562866 bytes, checksum: 6cdcd52bb7ab78c9cb4b4a47f918a85c (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-02-09 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior- CAPES. / BARBOSA, Tatiana Salom?o. Mycological and mycotoxicological evaluation of feed supplied in the diet of tilapias in breeding. 2011. 37 p. Dissertation (Master?s Degree in Science and Technology of Food). Technology Institute, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Serop?dica, RJ, 2011. Pisciculture is a specific branch of aquaculture aimed at raising fish in captivity. For its great advantages tilapia stand out as the queens of modern pisciculture and its cultivation has been pointed out by experts as a promising activity in the world and especially in Brazil due to its potential hydrological, climatic conditions and excellent satisfactory production of grains used in manufacturing ration. It is known these grains are highly susceptible to fungal contamination with possible formation of mycotoxins, and this constitutes a major problem worldwide. Among the genera evolved in mycotoxins production is Aspergillus, Penicillium e Fusarium. The most prevalent mycotoxins are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes. These are substances capable of affecting the productivity with serious economic losses and risks to animal and human health. Then, this study aimed to determine the water activity and the total contaminant mycoflora, to establish the occurrence of species potentially mycotoxin-producing belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, to determine the presence of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1 and to characterize mycotoxins profile of toxigenic strains isolated from feed supplied in the diet of tilapia in piscicultures. ,Samples (60) were collected from commercial feed directly from the fish-farming properties in Central and South regions of Rio de Janeiro. Water activity was measured . The total mycoflora was determined by serial decimal dilution plate and fungal colonies were identified at genera level. The identification of Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. followed specific taxonomic keys. The profile was conducted to toxigenic strains potentially ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 producers isolated from the samples. The determination of the natural incidence of ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 was performed by thin layer chromatography and fumonisin B1 was determined by ELISA kits. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparisons of means by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The average of the aW of the samples was 0.61 ? 0.041 in the Central Region and 0.58 ? 0.060 in the South, both below the value considered optimal for fungal growth and mycotoxin production. Mean levels of fungal contamination were 1.0 x 103 CFU g-1 in the Central and 4.7 x 103 CFU g-1 in the South region, being within the recommended standards for international Good Manufacturing Practice for feed, which is 1.0 x 104 CFU g-1 The most isolated genera were Cladosporium (85%), Aspergillus (68%) and Penicillium (60%). The most frequent species were P. citrinum (31%), A. niger aggregate (21%) and A. flavus (20%). All isolates of A. niger aggregate were negative for the capacity to produce ochratoxin A. Among the A. flavus strains, 16% were positive for the production aflatoxin B1. Concerning the natural incidence of mycotoxins, the samples had detectable levels of fumonisin B1 (98%), aflatoxin B1 (55%) and ochratoxin A (2%). The detection of mycotoxins in almost all the feed samples analyzed highlights the need to implement good agriculture and manufacturing practices, in order to ensure the safety of feed and to reduce the risk of mycotoxicosis occurrence. / BARBOSA, Tatiana Salom?o. Avalia??o micol?gica e micotoxicol?gica de ra??es fornecidas na dieta de til?pias em criat?rios. 2011. 37 p. Disserta??o (Mestrado em Ci?ncia e Tecnologia de Alimentos). Instituto de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Serop?dica, RJ, 2011. A piscicultura ? um ramo espec?fico da aq?icultura voltada para a cria??o de peixes em cativeiro. Por suas grandes vantagens as til?pias se destacam como as rainhas da piscicultura moderna e seu cultivo vem sendo apontado por especialistas como promissora atividade no mundo e principalmente no Brasil em decorr?ncia do seu potencial hidrogr?fico, condi??es clim?ticas excelentes e produ??o satisfat?ria de gr?os utilizados na fabrica??o de ra??o. Sabese que estes gr?os s?o altamente suscept?veis ? contamina??o f?ngica com poss?vel forma??o de micotoxinas, o constitui um problema de grande import?ncia em n?vel mundial. Dentre os g?neros f?ngicos envolvidos na produ??o de micotoxinas destacam-se o Aspergillus, Penicillium e Fusarium. As micotoxinas de maior preval?ncia s?o as aflatoxinas, ocratoxina A, fumonisinas, zearalenona e tricotecenos. Estas s?o subst?ncias capazes de afetar os par?metros produtivos, com graves perdas econ?micas e riscos para a sa?de animal e humana. Assim, este estudo objetivou determinar a atividade de ?gua e a micobiota total contaminante, estabelecer a ocorr?ncia de esp?cies potencialmente produtoras de micotoxinas pertencentes aos g?neros Aspergillus, Penicillium e Fusarium, determinar a presen?a de aflatoxina B1, ocratoxina A e fumonisina B1 e caracterizar o perfil tox?geno de cepas de esp?cies isoladas de amostras de ra??es fornecidas na alimenta??o de til?pias provenientes de pisciculturas. Para isto, foram coletadas 60 amostras de ra??es comerciais diretamente das propriedades piscicultoras nas regi?es Centro e Sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As amostras tiveram sua atividade de ?gua aferida. Em seguida, a micobiota total foi determinada pelo m?todo de dilui??o decimal seriada em placa. Depois de isoladas, as col?nias foram identificadas em n?vel de g?nero. A identifica??o de Aspergillus spp. e Penicillium spp. seguiu chaves taxon?micas espec?ficas. O perfil tox?geno foi realizado para as cepas potencialmente produtoras de ocratoxina A e de aflatoxina B1 isoladas das amostras. A determina??o da incid?ncia natural destas micotoxinas foi realizada atrav?s de cromatografia em camada delgada. A determina??o da presen?a de fumonisina B1 nas amostras foi feita atrav?s de kits ELISA. Os resultados foram submetidos ? an?lise de vari?ncia (ANOVA) e compara??o de m?dias pelo teste de Tukey (p < 0,05). A m?dia obtida da Aa das amostras foi de 0,61 ? 0,041 na Regi?o Centro e de 0,58 ? 0,060 na Regi?o Sul, ambas abaixo do valor considerado ?timo para o crescimento f?ngico e produ??o de micotoxinas. Os n?veis m?dios de contamina??o f?ngica foram de 1,0 x 103 UFC g-1 no Centro e de 4,7 x 103 UFC g-1 no Sul do Estado, ficando dentro dos padr?es recomendados pelas Boas Pr?ticas de Fabrica??o internacional para a alimenta??o animal, que ? de 1,0 x 104 UFC g-1 de amostra. Os g?neros f?ngicos mais isolados foram Cladosporium (85%), Aspergillus (68%) e Penicillium (60%). As esp?cies mais freq?entes foram P. citrinum (31%), A. niger agregados (21%) e A. flavus (20%). Todas as cepas isoladas de A. niger agregados foram negativas para o teste de capacidade produtora de ocratoxina A. Dentre as cepas de A. flavus isoladas, 16% foram positivas para a produ??o de aflatoxina B1. Quanto ? incid?ncia natural de micotoxinas, 98% das amostras apresentaram n?veis detect?veis de fumonisina B1, 55% de aflatoxina B1 e 2% de ocratoxina A. A detec??o de micotoxinas em quase todas as amostras de ra??o analisadas ressalta a necessidade de implanta??o de boas pr?ticas de agricultura e de fabrica??o, a fim de se garantir um alimento mais seguro e reduzindo os riscos da ocorr?ncia de micotoxicoses.
43

Diversidade de aleurodic?neos no estado do Rio de Janeiro ? Brasil (Hem?ptera: Aleyrodidae, Aleurodicinae)

Trindade, Thiago Dias 28 July 2011 (has links)
Submitted by Sandra Pereira (srpereira@ufrrj.br) on 2016-07-29T14:10:25Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Thiago Dias Trindade.pdf: 25311327 bytes, checksum: 31c6d8973abf784dba92673fcd0bdfbd (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-07-29T14:10:25Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Thiago Dias Trindade.pdf: 25311327 bytes, checksum: 31c6d8973abf784dba92673fcd0bdfbd (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-07-28 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior - CAPES. / The objective of this study was to aleurodic?neos in Rio de Janeiro the State - Brazil and their hosts in environments as diverse as agriculture, urban trees, gardens and Atlantic forest, seeking to contribute to an inventory of the representatives of this subfamily in this unit of the Federation. Samples were collected randomly in the leaves of the host, and looked up the slides incorporated into the Entomological Collection Angelo Moreira da Costa Lima. Aleurodic?neos were collected in 33 municipalities of the State of Rio de Janeiro, pointing to 11 genera and 23 species. We examined 896 slides of material collected on fifty-eight host plants. The botanical family Myrtaceae had the highest number of hosts aleurodic?neos. The whitefly Paraleyrodes bondari had the highest geographical distribution, affecting all regions of the state, as well as larger number of municipalities (18%). Have been reported for the first time in the state Aleurodicus magnificus species, A. trinidadensis, Aleuronudus induratus, Bakerius attenuatus, Ceraleurodicus varus. Aleurodicus trinidadensis is reported for the first time in Brazil. / O objetivo deste trabalho foi conhecer os aleurodic?neos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro - Brasil, bem como seus hospedeiros, em ambientes diversos como culturas agr?colas, arboriza??o urbana, jardins e mata atl?ntica, buscando contribuir para um invent?rio dos representantes desta subfam?lia nesta unidade da Federa??o. As coletas foram realizadas de forma aleat?ria nas folhas dos hospedeiros, bem como consultaram-se as l?minas incorporadas ? Cole??o Entomol?gica Angelo Moreira da Costa Lima. Coletaram-se aleurodic?neos em 33 munic?pios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, assinalando-se 11 g?neros e 23 esp?cies. Foram examinadas 896 l?minas de material coletado em cinq?enta e oito plantas hospedeiras. A Fam?lia bot?nica Myrtaceae apresentou o maior n?mero de hospedeiros de aleurodic?neos. A mosca branca Paraleyrodes bondari apresentou a maior distribui??o geogr?fica, atingindo a todas as regi?es do estado, bem como maior n?mero de munic?pios (18%). Foram assinaladas pela primeira vez no estado as esp?cies Aleurodicus magnificus, A. trinidadensis, Aleuronudus induratus, Bakerius attenuatus, Ceraleurodicus varus. A presen?a de Aleurodicus trinidadensis ? in?dita para o Brasil.
44

Dactylogyr?deos (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) parasitos de tr?s esp?cies de peixes da fam?lia Pimelodidae (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) do rio Mogi Gua?u, Pirassununga, SP, Brasil

Aguiar, Julio Cesar Cenci de 25 March 2011 (has links)
Submitted by Sandra Pereira (srpereira@ufrrj.br) on 2016-08-17T15:02:35Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Julio Cesar C. Aguiar.pdf: 45450784 bytes, checksum: 1dfc0061fe29b0490719d13050e0d545 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-17T15:02:35Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Julio Cesar C. Aguiar.pdf: 45450784 bytes, checksum: 1dfc0061fe29b0490719d13050e0d545 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-03-25 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior - CAPES / This research aimed to study the taxonomy of dactylogyrids species associated with three host species: Pimelodus maculatus Lacep?de, 1803, Pimelodus heraldoi Azpelicueta, 2001 and Iheringichthys labrosus (L?tken, 1874) from Cachoeira de Emas, Mogi Gua?u River, Pirassununga, S?o Paulo, Brazil. The fishes were collected using nets and cast nets in the Cachoeira de Emas and transported to the laboratory of do Centro Nacional de Pesquisa da Conserva??o de Peixes Continentais, Instituto Chico Mendes para Conserva??o da Biodiversidade CEPTA/ICMBio, where they were examined. The parasites were fixed in 4% formalin and processed for identification in the Laboratory of Fish Parasitology of UFRRJ. Fourteen new locality records were included, 12 of them are new hosts records. Among these, five new species were proposed. Ameloblastella sp. n 1 collected from P. maculatus differs from its congeners by having a MCO (Male copulatory organ) with 2 rings, ventral and dorsal anchors with curved shaft and curved point toward to the base and a vagina with a ligule-like structure at the vestibule roof and a duct that leads into the distal portion of the vaginal vestibule. Ameloblastella sp. n. 2 is distinguished from the other species of the genus by a MCO with 2 rings, accessory piece distally divided into two subunits, and anchors with long points surpassing the tip of the superficial root. Seven Demidospermus species were recorded and commented based mainly on morphological and morphometric variations. Pavanelliella sp. n. 1, collected from nasal cavities of P. maculatus differs from its congeners by having a MCO with 2?4 rings and anteriorly directed vagina containing five irregular rings around the vestibule. Pavanelliella sp. n. 2 collected from P. heraldoi, was distinguished from all its congeners by having a robust MCO with 2-3 rings, an accessory piece with an irregular distal portion resembling flames, vaginal canal sinuous with 2-3 loops and vaginal vestibule not differentiated. Pavanelliella sp. n. 3 collected from P. heraldoi is separated from the other species of the genus by having a MCO with 4 rings (2 anterior and 2 posterior to accessory piece), accessory piece with bifurcated distal end, with one end hook-like, vaginal canal with 3 loops and vaginal vestibule not differentiated. Pavanelliella sp. n. 1 showed the highest values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance infestation. Besides the three new Pavanelliella species proposed, some details about the morphology of P. pavanellii were added. Additionally a proposal to amend the diagnosis of the genus Demidospermus and a key to diagnosis of the Dactylogyrinea genera whose haptor presents no bar and no anchors and for Pavanelliella species are included herein. / Visando contribuir para o conhecimento da biodiversidade da regi?o Neotropical, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivos realizar o estudo taxon?mico das esp?cies de dactylogyr?deos associadas a tr?s esp?cies de hospedeiros: Pimelodus maculatus Lacep?de, 1803, Pimelodus heraldoi Azpelicueta, 2001 e Iheringichthys labrosus (L?tken, 1874) de Cachoeira de Emas, rio Mogi Gua?u, Pirassununga, S?o Paulo. Os peixes foram coletados utilizando redes e tarrafas na localidade de cachoeira de Emas e tranportados at? o laborat?rio do Centro Nacional de Pesquisa da Conserva??o de Peixes Continentais, Instituto Chico Mendes para Conserva??o da Biodiversidade CEPTA/ICMBio, onde foram examinados. Os parasitos coletados foram fixados em formol a 4% e processados para identifica??o no laborat?rio de Parasitologia de Peixes da UFRRJ. Cinco esp?cies foram propostas como novas e quatorze novos registros de localidade foram apresentados, dos quais 12 representam novos registros para hospedeiros. Ameloblastella paranaensis, encontrada nas br?nquias das tr?s esp?cies de hospedeiros examinadas, ? registrada e comentada em detalhes. Ameloblastella sp. n. 1 coletada em P. maculatus difere de seus cong?neres por apresentar um OCM (?rg?o copulat?rio masculino) com 2 an?is, ?ncoras ventral e dorsal com l?mina curva e ponta recurvada no sentido da base e uma vagina com uma estrutura epivestibular em forma de l?gula e um ducto que desemboca na por??o distal do vest?bulo vaginal. Ameloblastella sp. n. 2 coletada em P. heraldoi se distingue das demais esp?cies do g?nero por apresentar um OCM com 2 an?is, pe?a acess?ria distalmente dividida em duas subunidades, e ?ncoras com pontas longas ultrapassando a extremidade da raiz superficial. Sete esp?cies de Demidospermus foram registradas e comentadas em detalhes. Pavanelliella sp. n. 1, coletada das cavidades nasais de P. maculatus se diferencia de seus cong?neres por possuir um OCM com 2?4 an?is e a vagina anteriormente direcionada contendo aproximadamente cinco an?is irregulares ao redor do vest?bulo vaginal. Pavanelliella sp. n. 2 coletada em P. heraldoi, se distingui de todos seus cong?neres por apresentar um OCM robusto com 2?3 an?is, uma pe?a acess?ria de extremidade distal irregular em forma de flamas, um canal vaginal sinuoso com 2?3 voltas na por??o distal e vest?bulo vaginal n?o diferenciado. Pavanelliella sp. n. 3 coletada em P. heraldoi se diferencia das demais esp?cies do g?nero por ter um OCM com 4 an?is (2 anteriores e 2 posteriores a pe?a acess?ria), uma pe?a acess?ria com uma extremidade distal bifurcada com uma das pontas em forma de gancho, canal vaginal sinuoso com 3 voltas na sua por??o distal e vest?bulo vaginal n?o diferenciado. Pavanelliella sp. n. 1 foi a que apresentou os maiores valores de preval?ncia, intensidade m?dia e abund?ncia m?dia de infesta??o. Al?m das tr?s novas esp?cies de Pavanelliella propostas, alguns caracteres morfol?gicos s?o adicionados a P. pavanellii. Adicionalmente apresenta-se uma proposta de emenda da diagnose do g?nero Demidospermus e uma chave para diagn?stico dos g?neros de Dactylogyrinea cujo haptor n?o apresenta barras e nem ?ncoras e para as esp?cies de Pavanelliella. O presente estudo revela a riqueza parasit?ria para uma localidade na qual nada se sabia a respeito desses dactylogyr?deos.
45

Avalia??o do efeito hipoglicemico de refresco de maracuj? ado?ados com edulcorantes hipocal?ricos e adicionados de fibra sol?vel sobre a glicemia de ratos Wistar (Ratus novergicus) normais e diab?ticos

Nascimento, Kelly Christine Santos do 28 February 2011 (has links)
Submitted by Sandra Pereira (srpereira@ufrrj.br) on 2016-08-23T12:20:30Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Kelly Christane S do Nascimento.pdf: 1254140 bytes, checksum: 1bc209e640d2d51ff8e4941920868826 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-23T12:20:30Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Kelly Christane S do Nascimento.pdf: 1254140 bytes, checksum: 1bc209e640d2d51ff8e4941920868826 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-02-28 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior - CAPES / The prevalence of mellitus diabetes comes growing with the advance of the technology varying between 7% and 13.4% in different age groups and in some states of Brazil. To improve the patient quality of life it is necessary to replace these foods for others, with acceptable sensorial characteristics and that not contain high-grade of carbohydrates or low glicemic index. The current work evaluated the glicemia of normal and diabetic rats that weigh between 242,0g and 378,4g induced for the saline solution of aloxana that had received ad libitum passion-fruit juice (Passiflora edulis) sweeten with monossodic saccharin and cyclamate sodium e commercial sucrose add with 4 differents type of fibers with totally 8 types of juice?s and 16 groups and fed with rat?s ration. The experiment lasted 21 days where the variations of weights and the glicemias of each animal had been verified for 7 days, being collected a samples: T1, T2, T3. The results had shown that the passion-fruit juice with hypocalorific edulcorante had hypoglycemic effect in healthy rats during the experiment and in diabetic animal in the same period. Almost showed a hyperglycemic effect in goma guar?s edulcorante control group and in goma xantana?s While the juice with sugar and edulcorante control group increased the glucose in both groups. We conclude that the juice sweetened with hypocalorifics edulcorantes in healthy rats can damage the healthy population?s healthy, becoming the guideline for the greaters researches in this field. / A preval?ncia do diabetes mellitus vem crescendo com o avan?o da tecnologia e da modernidade, variando entre 7 % a 13, 4% em diferentes faixas et?rias e determinados estados no Brasil. Para melhorar a qualidade de vida do diab?tico, se faz necess?ria, substituir esses alimentos por outros que contenha reduzido teor de carboidratos ou baixo ?ndice glic?mico e com caracter?sticas sensoriais aceit?veis. O presente trabalho avaliou a glicemia de ratos normais e diab?ticos pesando em m?dia 279,3 g ? 36,7 induzidos pela solu??o salina de aloxana e que receberam ra??o comercial para ratos e refresco de maracuj? ad libitum, sendo que para um grupo a bebida foi ado?ada com sacarose comercial e para o outro com sacarina monoss?dica + ciclamato de s?dio ambos adicionados de 4 fibras sol?veis diferentes totalizando 8 refrescos e 16 grupos; Durante 21 dias foram verificadas em cada animal as varia??es de pesos e das glicemias, no tempo zero (T0) e a cada 7 dias, sendo realizadas 3 coletas T1, T2 e T3. Os resultados mostraram que o refresco de maracuj? com edulcorante hipocal?rico teve efeito hipoglic?mico nos ratos normais e nos animais diab?ticos no mesmo per?odo e efeito hiperglic?mico nos grupos Goma Guar com edulcorante e na Goma Xantana provocou aumento da glicemia nos dois grupos, levando a morte de 20,8% das cobaias diab?ticas. Esses resultados permitem concluir que o refresco ado?ado com sacarina monoss?dica + ciclamato de s?dio administrados ? ratos cobaias normais prejudicial a sa?de dos animais doentes, tornando-se pauta para maiores pesquisas nesse campo.
46

Utiliza??o de pr?ticas pedag?gicas na produ??o animal: percep??o agroecol?gica

Feitosa, Rubenval Francisco de Jesus 19 September 2011 (has links)
Submitted by Sandra Pereira (srpereira@ufrrj.br) on 2016-08-23T13:52:58Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Rubenval Francisco de Jesus Feitosa.pdf: 13455824 bytes, checksum: 95b1e24703c5e57f468f589e100bfb62 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-23T13:52:58Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Rubenval Francisco de Jesus Feitosa.pdf: 13455824 bytes, checksum: 95b1e24703c5e57f468f589e100bfb62 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-09-19 / This study aimed to analyze the perception of agroecology students about the use of teaching practices in animal production. The IF - Campus St. Kitts was the setting for the research with the participation of students in the third series of the Technical Course for Integrated Agricultural Secondary School, in 2010, in an interdisciplinary way, democratic and dialogical, since so- professionals is to interfere in family agriculture and other sectors of agricultural production, disseminating new technologies to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the future. In this context, the relationship between education and work, the motivational factors for the learning process, understanding and transformation of educational practice and the concepts, principles and prospects of agroecology, rural extension, agro-ecological and sustainable family farms as a reference gives theoretical support to this research. We applied the methodology and the qualitativequantitative descriptive method of data collection took place by direct observation of phenomena with the help of literature search, semi-structured forms of employment, teaching practices, lectures, semi-structured questionnaires, seminars and technical visits. In the first stage of the research project was presented to students looking to motivate them and then applied the questionnaire (attached to), to determine the profile of students. In the second stage 60 questionnaires were collected for data analysis, followed by the selection and preparation of implementation schedule of teaching practices used in animal production of relevance to learning. There was the holding of lectures, seminars, technical visits. In the third step, teaching practices were given to students in the Educational Curriculum Unit - Cattle. In the fourth stage 60 questionnaires were applied in order to complete the survey of agroecological awareness of the students, the pedagogical practices employed in animal production. The results are used for reflection, will face disconnection between the student, school and family, inefficient management, the man / nature and production with sustainability, compromising the quality of education. The results in terms of level of awareness of students on the issues already mentioned are suggestive that this work can be used as input for future redirects the politics employed in the educational process of the Campus Saint Kitts, aimed at student success / Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a percep??o agroecol?gica dos alunos, quanto ao emprego das pr?ticas pedag?gicas na produ??o animal. O IFSE - Campus S?o Crist?v?o foi o cen?rio para a realiza??o da pesquisa com a participa??o dos alunos das terceiras s?ries do Curso T?cnico Integrado ao Ensino M?dio em Agropecu?ria, no ano de 2010, de forma interdisciplinar, democr?tica e dial?gica, uma vez que se formam profissionais para interferir na agricultura familiar e demais segmentos da produ??o agropecu?ria, disseminando novas tecnologias capazes de atender ?s necessidades da gera??o presente sem comprometer a futura. Neste contexto, a rela??o educa??o e trabalho; os fatores motivacionais para o processo ensino aprendizagem; a compreens?o e transforma??o da pr?tica educativa; os conceitos, princ?pios e perspectivas da agroecologia; a extens?o rural: desenvolvimento sustent?vel agroecol?gico e a agricultura familiar constituem-se como referencial te?rico que d? sustenta??o a esta pesquisa. Empregou-se a metodologia qualiquantitativa descritiva e o m?todo de coleta de dados se deu pela observa??o direta dos fen?menos com aux?lio de pesquisa bibliogr?fica, entrevista semi-estruturada, emprego de formul?rios, pr?ticas pedag?gicas, aulas te?ricas, question?rios semi-estruturados, semin?rios e visitas t?cnicas. Na primeira etapa da pesquisa, foi apresentado o projeto aos alunos procurando motiv?-los e em seguida aplicou-se o question?rio (anexo a), visando conhecer o perfil dos alunos. Na segunda etapa foram coletados 60 question?rios para an?lise dos dados, seguido da sele??o e elabora??o do cronograma de execu??o das pr?ticas pedag?gicas empregadas na produ??o animal de relev?ncia para o aprendizado. Verificou-se a realiza??o de aulas te?ricas, semin?rios, visitas t?cnicas. Na terceira etapa, foram ministradas as pr?ticas pedag?gicas para os alunos na Unidade Did?tica Pedag?gica ? Bovinocultura. Na quarta etapa foram aplicados 60 question?rios com o prop?sito de concluir o levantamento da percep??o agroecol?gica dos alunos, quanto ?s pr?ticas pedag?gicas empregadas na produ??o animal. Os resultados servem para reflex?es, face ? desarticula??o entre o aluno, a escola e a fam?lia, gest?o pouco eficiente, rela??o homem/natureza e a produ??o com sustentabilidade, comprometendo a qualidade do ensino. Os resultados em termos de n?vel de percep??o dos alunos, quanto ?s quest?es j? mencionadas, s?o sugestivos de que este trabalho pode servir de subs?dios para futuros redirecionamentos das pol?ticas empregadas no processo educativo do Campus S?o Crist?v?o, visando o sucesso do aluno
47

Fungos e micotoxinas presentes em amostras de p?len de abelhas mel?feras do estado do Rio de Janeiro

DEVEZA, Michele Valadares 08 February 2011 (has links)
Submitted by Sandra Pereira (srpereira@ufrrj.br) on 2016-08-23T17:05:27Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Michele Valadares Deveza.pdf: 2385296 bytes, checksum: 127bd8c33d0595f06af98fe22cfc21e1 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-23T17:05:27Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Michele Valadares Deveza.pdf: 2385296 bytes, checksum: 127bd8c33d0595f06af98fe22cfc21e1 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-02-08 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior - CAPES / The bee?s pollen is a product rich in essential nutrients to feed the bees. In the hive it goes through chemical processes and becomes the bee?s bread, of extreme importance for the growth of larvae. Currently, the use of pollen in the human?s cuisine has been increasing for its therapeutic properties, and by its use in the food industry. To produce quality pollen the hive needs to be healthy, and bees, like any other animal, are susceptible to various diseases, parasites and predators, which can affect their development and productivity. The The Brazilian Sac Brood (BSB) is one of these diseases, which in Brazil affects honeybee larvae. In apiaries of Rio de Janeiro state, a high mortality of larvae with symptoms similar to the BSB is occurring, and until now, there is no definite conclusion regarding the etiologic agent of this disease in the state. Therefore, the objectives of this study was to clarify two issues: 1) provide a mycological research, through a study case, of bees? bread samples, adult bees and bees? pollen in areas affected and not affected by the BSB, aiming the elucidation of its etiologic agent, 2) verify the hygienic quality of dehydrated pollen samples sold in Rio de Janeiro state. A total of 48 samples of bees? bread, 15 of adult bees and 12 of pollen were collected from endemic regions of the BSB. The samples were collected in the months before, during and after the period of the disease. The dehydrated pollen samples were also purchased in commercial stores of the state, totaling 27 samples. Fungal species enumeration (cfu g-1) was through decimal dilution method using general culture media and selective ones. The isolation frequency and relative density of species were determined. The toxigenic profile of strains was determined, as also the detection and quantification of aflatoxin B1 in bread and bees? pollen. The results obtained from the study case samples showed that the bees? bread was the best vehicle of contamination for the hive. It was also observed a high fungal counts and the presence of mycotoxins and entomopathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger aggregate and A. fumigatus, which cause a decrease of the immune response, leaving them susceptible to various diseases, including the BSB itself. Pollen dehydrated samples showed a high fungal contamination with 92% of the samples in unsatisfactory hygienic conditions according to legal standards. A total of 25% of the A. flavus strains showed to be aflatoxigenic. The high percentage of unhygienic samples combined with the presence of a large variety of fungal contaminants, including mycotoxin-producing species, evidences that the legislation needs to be updated so that it can be safely commercialized. It is considered that the whole line production of bees? pollen, since its extraction until its storage should be monitored in order to minimize risks to human health. / O p?len ? um produto ap?cola rico em nutrientes essenciais para a alimenta??o das abelhas. Na colmeia ele passa por processos qu?micos e se torna o p?o de abelhas, de extrema import?ncia para o crescimento das larvas. Atualmente, o p?len ap?cola vem se destacando tamb?m na alimenta??o humana, tanto por suas propriedades terap?uticas, quanto pela sua utiliza??o na ind?stria aliment?cia. Para a produ??o de um p?len de qualidade a colmeia precisa estar sadia, e as abelhas, como qualquer outro animal, s?o suscept?veis a v?rias doen?as, parasitas e predadores, que podem prejudicar seu desenvolvimento e produtividade. A Cria Ensacada Brasileira (CEB) ? uma dessas doen?as, que no Brasil acomete larvas de abelhas mel?feras. Em api?rios do estado do Rio de Janeiro v?m ocorrendo uma alta mortalidade de larvas com sintomatologia semelhante a da CEB, e ainda n?o h? uma conclus?o definitiva acerca do agente etiol?gico desta doen?a no estado. Portanto, os objetivos desse estudo visam esclarecer duas problem?ticas: 1) avaliar, atrav?s de estudo de caso, amostras de p?o de abelhas, abelhas adultas e p?len ap?cola em regi?es atingidas e n?o atingidas pela CEB, diagnosticando a presen?a de fungos, visando fornecer informa??es importantes para a elucida??o do agente etiol?gico da CEB no estado do Rio de Janeiro; 2) verificar a qualidade higi?nica das amostras de p?len desidratado comercializado no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Um total de 48 amostras de p?o de abelhas, 15 de abelhas adultas e 12 de p?len ap?cola, foram adquiridas de regi?es end?micas da CEB. As coletas ocorreram nos meses que antecederam, durante e ap?s o per?odo da doen?a. J? as amostras de p?len desidratado foram adquiridas no com?rcio do estado, totalizando 27 amostras. A enumera??o da micobiota (ufc g-1) foi realizada atrav?s do m?todo de dilui??o decimal com semeadura em placas utilizando-se meios de cultivo gerais e seletivos. Foram determinadas a freq??ncia de isolamento dos g?neros f?ngicos e a densidade relativa das esp?cies. Foi determinado o perfil tox?geno de cepas isoladas e foi feita a detec??o e quantifica??o de aflatoxina B1 no p?o de abelhas e p?len ap?cola. Nos resultados obtidos das amostras do estudo de caso, o p?o de abelhas mostrou ser o melhor substrato para o ve?culo de contamina??o para a colmeia. Observou-se tamb?m altas contagens f?ngicas, al?m da presen?a de micotoxinas e fungos entomopatog?nicos, como Aspergillus flavus, A. niger agregados e A. fumigatus o que favorece a queda da imunidade desses insetos deixando-os suscet?veis a diversas doen?as, entre elas a pr?pria CEB. Em rela??o ao p?len desidratado, os resultados mostraram uma alta carga f?ngica com 92% das amostras em condi??es higi?nicas insatisfat?rias segundo os padr?es legais consultados e 25% das cepas de A. flavus mostraram-se potencialmente produtoras de aflatoxinas. Os alt?ssimos percentuais de reprova??o das amostras para a qualidade higi?nica, aliado ? presen?a de grande variedade de fungos contaminantes, incluindo esp?cies produtoras de micotoxinas, ? uma evid?ncia de que a legisla??o necessita ser atualizada, para que este produto possa ser comercializado com seguran?a. Considera-se que toda a linha de produ??o do p?len ap?cola, desde sua coleta at? o armazenamento deva ser monitorada, a fim de minimizar os riscos para a sa?de humana
48

An?lise dos danos de coleoptera em sementes de esp?cies florestais utilizadas em bioj?ias

Pereira, Ellen Aparecida Nogueira 29 August 2011 (has links)
Submitted by Sandra Pereira (srpereira@ufrrj.br) on 2016-08-24T17:14:43Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Ellen Aparecida Nogueira Pereira.pdf: 1048943 bytes, checksum: e1f0b190db0be89726ed357fa5a6127e (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-24T17:14:43Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Ellen Aparecida Nogueira Pereira.pdf: 1048943 bytes, checksum: e1f0b190db0be89726ed357fa5a6127e (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-08-29 / The objective of this work was search more information about insect that promove damaged in forest species seeds, studing especially the insects damage. Seeds samples used to make biojewellery was collected and take to Forest Entomology Laboratory at Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, where the damages were observed and the family of the insects were identified. The families were: Scolitydae and Anobiidae. It is possible to decrease the insect damage with appropriate seed store or make use of damage seeds, after heating with the objective of eliminate the insects. To know the viability of seed collection, Leguminosae seeds, used in urban forestry, Albizzia lebbeck (L) Bentham, Cassia fistula L., was collected in Serop?dica (RJ), one sample with 500 fruits of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Bentham, after processing, were found: 23,38% of the seeds were damaged by insects, 60,41% of the seeds were empty and 16,21% were not damaged by insects. The sample with 100 fruits of Cassia fistula L. was collected in Itagua? (RJ) and 83,35% of the seeds were damaged by insects, 10,96% of the seeds were empty and 5,69% were not damaged by insects. The seeds of both species are damaged by Bruchidae. To check the damage caused by insects Anobiidae in the storage, they were placed in contact with healthy seeds and seeds damaged by insects of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Bentham and seeds of healthy and mechanically damaged of Adenanthera pavonina L. Twenty adult insects were used and 10 seeds for each situation, using five repetitions. After 60 days there was Anobiidae damage just in damaged seeds / O objetivo desse trabalho foi buscar maiores informa??es sobre danos de insetos em sementes de esp?cies florestais utilizadas para a confec??o de bioj?ias. Amostras de sementes utilizadas para confec??o de bioj?ias de um projeto foram coletadas e levadas ao laborat?rio de Entomologia Florestal da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, onde se realizou a an?lise dos danos e a identifica??o da fam?lia dos insetos. Foram encontradas duas fam?lias causando danos nas sementes: Scolytidae e Anobiidae. Visando o aproveitamento das sementes atacadas, as mesmas foram tratadas e posteriormente utilizadas para a confec??o de bioj?ias e artesanato. O estudo mostrou que ? poss?vel aumentar o rendimento das sementes, seja com o armazenamento adequado ou at? mesmo aproveitando as sementes atacadas, utilizando o aquecimento para eliminar os insetos. Para conhecer a viabilidade da coleta de leguminosas ex?ticas utilizadas na arboriza??o, Albizzia lebbeck (L) Bentham e Cassia fistula L., coletou-se em Serop?dica (RJ) uma amostra de 500 frutos de Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Bentham, ap?s beneficiamento foram registradas 23,38% de sementes danificadas por insetos, 60,41% de sementes chochas e 16,21% de sementes sadias. A amostra de 100 frutos de Cassia fistula L. foi coletada em Itagua? (RJ) e foram registradas 83,35% de sementes danificadas por insetos, 10,96% de sementes chochas e 5,69% de sementes sadias. As sementes de ambas as esp?cies s?o danificadas por insetos da fam?lia Bruchidae. Para verificar os danos causados por insetos da fam?lia Anobiidae no armazenamento, os mesmos foram colocados em contato com sementes sadias e danificadas por insetos de Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Bentham e sementes sadias e danificadas mecanicamente de Adenanthera pavonina L. Foram utilizados vinte insetos adultos e 10 sementes para cada situa??o, sendo cinco repeti??es. Depois de 60 dias verificou-se dano de Anobiidae somente nas sementes danificadas.
49

Adapta??o de metodologia de digest?o in vitro e determina??o da bioacessibilidade in vitro de Beta -caroteno em tr?s variedades de batata-doce de polpa alaranjada. / Adaptation of in vitro digestion methodology and determination of in vitro Beta-carotene bioacessibility of three orange sweet potato varieties.

Giori, Fernanda Peixoto 23 February 2010 (has links)
Submitted by Sandra Pereira (srpereira@ufrrj.br) on 2016-08-30T14:26:59Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2010 - Fernanda Peixoto Giori.pdf: 2362278 bytes, checksum: a15d423533272c981b15d7f22b714be1 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-30T14:26:59Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2010 - Fernanda Peixoto Giori.pdf: 2362278 bytes, checksum: a15d423533272c981b15d7f22b714be1 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2010-02-23 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior-CAPES / Brazil was adverted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a sub-clinical area of serious vitamin A deficiency. Thus, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA) is selecting and improving varieties of sweet potatoes with higher levels of Beta-carotene, pro-vitamin A. The carotenoids provitamin A amount of in foods does not necessarily correspond the amount that is absorbed and metabolized by the body. For a better determination of these values and knowledge of the mechanisms of its transport and absorption, it is necessary to understand the factors that lead to the food matrix release, until the absorption and the influence on the promotion and maintenance in human health. In order to perform preliminary studies of its absorption, this study aims to determine the efficiency of micellization of Beta -carotene in orange sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam), by applying a in vitro digestion as a tool for determining the bioaccessibility, which is the first step for bioavailability determination. This approach aims to simulate the oral, gastric and intestinal stages of human. The digestion was performed with 10 g of fresh samples, homozeneided with 5% (w/w) of canola oil. The extraction was performed with acetone and petroleum ether and the micellar fraction with petroleum ether, NaCl 10% (w / v) and NaSO4 2% (w/v) and involves the use of enzymes as -amylase , pepsin, bile, pancreatin, lipase and mucin, and inorganic compounds such as KCl, KSCN, NaH2PO4, Na3PO4, NaOH, NaCl, CaCl2, HCl, NaHCO3. The physiological variations are reproduced by the heating bath shaker with orbital gyrus (37?C) and centrifugation (5000g, 45 min). Quantification and determination of the profile of carotenoids were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with YCM ? C30 Carotenoid S-3 4.6 x 250mm column. Quantification of total carotenoids was performed by UV-VIs. The whole procedure was performed under controlled temperature (25 ? C) and light. The Beta -carotene was present mainly with levels of 86%, 73% and 82% for access 1, 2 and 3 and after digestion, the profile of Beta -carotene has set levels of 96%, 89% and 100%, respectively. The efficiency of micellization was 23.8%, 28% and 25% for 1.2 and 3 hits, indicating Beta -carotene transfer of the food matrix to micelles, corresponding to bioaccessibility of the compound. This methodology proved to be faster and cheaper, since the in vivo studies are costly, complex and require more time. / O Brasil foi classificado pela Organiza??o Mundial da Sa?de (OMS) como ?rea de car?ncia sub-cl?nica grave de vitamina A. Assim, a Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecu?ria (EMBRAPA) v?m selecionando e melhorando variedades de batata-doce com teores maiores de Beta-caroteno, composto pr?-vitamina A. A quantidade de caroten?ides pr?-vitamina A presentes nos alimentos n?o corresponde necessariamente ?quela quantidade absorvida e metabolizada pelo organismo. Para uma melhor determina??o destes valores e conhecimento dos mecanismos de transporte e absor??o deste composto, faz-se necess?rio, o entendimento dos fatores que levam ? sua libera??o da matriz do alimento, at? a extens?o de sua absor??o, bem como a influ?ncia na promo??o e manuten??o da sa?de humana. A fim de realizar estudos preliminares de sua absor??o, este trabalho visa determinar a efici?ncia de miceliza??o de Beta-caroteno de batata-doce de polpa alaranjada (Ipomoea batatas, Lam.), atrav?s da aplica??o de digest?o in vitro, como ferramenta de determina??o da bioacessibilidade, etapa preliminar para a determina??o da biodisponibilidade. Esta metodologia visa simular as etapas de digest?o oral, g?strica e intestinal humana. Foram pesados 10g de amostra in natura e adicionados 5% (p/p) de ?leo de canola. A extra??o do alimento foi realizada com acetona e ?ter de petr?leo e a da fra??o micelar, com ?ter de petr?leo, NaCl 10%(p/v) e NaSO4 2%(p/v) . Enzimas como: a-amilase, pepsina, bile, pancreatina, lipase e mucina, bem como compostos inorg?nicos, tais como KCl, KSCN, NaH2PO4, Na3PO4, NaOH, NaCl, CaCl2, HCl, NaHCO3. As varia??es fisiol?gicas foram reproduzidas pelo banho de aquecimento com giro orbital (37?C) e centrifuga??o (5000g;45 min). A quantifica??o e determina??o do perfil de caroten?ides foi realizada por cromatografia l?quida de alta efici?ncia (CLAE), com coluna YCM? Carotenoid C30 S-3 de 4,6 x 250mm. A quantifica??o de caroten?ides totais foi realizada por espectrofotometria UV-VIs. Todo o procedimento foi executado sob temperatura (25?C) e luz controlada. O Beta-caroteno estava presente majoritariamente, com teores de 86%, 73% e 82%, para as variedades 1, 2 e 3 e ap?s a digest?o, o perfil do Beta-caroteno passou a configurar teores de 96%, 89% e 100%, respectivamente. A efici?ncia de miceliza??o foi de 23,8%, 28% e 28,9% para as variedades 1,2 e 3, indicando a transfer?ncia do - caroteno da matriz do alimento para as micelas, correspondendo a bioacessibilidade deste composto. Esta metodologia demonstrou-se mais r?pida e mais barata, quando comparada aos estudos in vivo, que s?o mais onerosos, complexos e demandam mais tempo.
50

Avalia??o de par?metros reprodutivos com o uso de gonadotrofina cori?nica humana (hCG) e deslorelina em um programa de transfer?ncia de embri?o equino / Evaluation of reproductive parameters with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and Deslorelin in an equine embryo transfer program

Silva, Paula Cardoso de Almeida 25 January 2012 (has links)
Submitted by Sandra Pereira (srpereira@ufrrj.br) on 2016-09-12T18:07:34Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Paula Cardoso de Almeida Silva.pdf: 463902 bytes, checksum: 375c57bac0b880fd3baf2320ee7abb93 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-09-12T18:07:34Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2011 - Paula Cardoso de Almeida Silva.pdf: 463902 bytes, checksum: 375c57bac0b880fd3baf2320ee7abb93 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012-01-25 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior - CAPES / Embryo transfer (ET) is one of the most prominent techniques in the expansion of horse breeding, enabling the production of more products of a single mare per year, thus increasing the number of animals with high genetic value. The hormonal control of ovulation can be used as a tool to optimize the reproductive parameters and reduce the costs in an ET program. This study compared the effectiveness of lower doses than those traditionally used of Deslorelin and hCG, evaluating the time between ovulation and induction, the recovery rates and embryo attachment. The study was conducted at the Department of Animal Reproduction and Evaluation of UFRRJ. We conducted follow-up of 85 estrous cycles of Breton Postier and Mangalarga Marchador mares, when the mares presenting an ovarian follicle ? 35 mm, they were divided randomly into one of three treatments: G1 (n = 32) - treatment with 1000 IU (1.0 ml iv) of hCG (Chorulon ? - Intervet Schering-Plough Animal Health), G2 (n = 28) - treatment with 0.75 mg (0.75 ml iv) Deslorelin (Botupharma) and G3 (n = 28) - Treatment with 1.0 ml saline iv. Twenty four hours after application, ultrasound evaluation of ovarian was held every six hours up to ovulation. The donors were inseminated the day after induction and embryo collection took place in nine days after ovulation. The recovered embryos were immediately transferred to recipients previously synchronized, these pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 15 and 30 days old embryo. Data regarding the time between ovulation and induction and characteristics of follicular development were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the averages of these data were analyzed when needed by the Tukey test. The data regarding the percentage of mares ovulated in different periods, were analyzed using the Qui-quadrado (?2) 5%. In the case of embryo recovery rate, the data were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, however in relation to pregnancy rate was not possible to perform statistical analysis due to low sample size. The percentage of ovulation in up to 36 hours for G1, G2 and G3 were 34.4%, 13.3% and 8.7%, between 36 and 42 hours were 62.5%, 56.7% and 8.7%, from 42 to 48 hours were 0%, 20% and 13%, more than 48 hours were 3.1%, 10% and 69.6% respectively. Having thus a significant difference between treated and control groups (p <0.05). The embryo recovery rate was 75% (6/8) in G1 and G2, and 44.4% (4/9) in group G3, there was no significant difference between groups (p> 0.05). The rate of pregnancy at fifteen days old embryo was 69.2% (9/13). Thus the lower doses commonly used with inducing agents in question, were effective in promoting ovulation within 48 hours, but the use of these didn't result in significant improvement in the rates of embryo recovery. / A transfer?ncia de embri?es (TE) ? uma das t?cnicas de maior destaque na expans?o da equideocultura, possibilitando a produ??o de maior n?mero de produtos de uma mesma ?gua por ano, aumentando assim o n?mero de animais com alto valor gen?tico. O controle hormonal do momento da ovula??o pode ser usado como uma ferramenta para otimizar os par?metros reprodutivos e reduzir os custos em um programa de TE. O presente estudo comparou a efici?ncia de doses mais baixas do que as tradicionalmente utilizadas de hCG e Deslorelina avaliando o tempo entre a indu??o e a ovula??o, as taxas de recupera??o e fixa??o embrion?ria. O estudo foi desenvolvido no Departamento de Reprodu??o e Avalia??o Animal da UFRRJ. Foi realizado o acompanhamento de 85 ciclos estrais de ?guas da ra?a Bret?o Postier e Mangalarga Marchador, onde as ?guas ao apresentarem um fol?culo ovariano ? 35 mm foram divididas de maneira aleat?ria em um dos tr?s tratamentos: G1 (n = 32) ? tratamento com 1000 UI (1,0 ml i.v.) de hCG (Chorulon? - Intervet Schering-Plough Animal Health), G2 (n = 30) ? tratamento com 0,75 mg (0,75ml i.v.) de Deslorelina (Botupharma) e G3 (n=23) ? tratamento com 1,0 ml i.v. de solu??o salina. Vinte quatro horas ap?s a aplica??o, a avalia??o ultrassonogr?fica dos ov?rios passou a ser realizada a cada seis horas at? a detec??o da ovula??o. As ?guas doadoras foram inseminadas no dia seguinte a indu??o e as coletas de embri?o aconteceram no dia 9 ap?s a ovula??o. Os embri?es recuperados foram imediatamente transferidos para receptoras previamente sincronizadas, sendo o diagn?stico de gesta??o realizado aos 15 e 30 dias de idade embrionaria. Os dados referentes ao tempo entre indu??o e ovula??o e caracter?sticas do desenvolvimento folicular, foram analisados pelo m?todo de An?lise de Vari?ncia (ANOVA), sendo as m?dias desses dados analisadas quando necess?rio pelo teste de Tukey. Os dados referentes ao percentual de ?guas ovuladas em diferentes per?odos, foram analisados atrav?s do Qui-quadrado (?2) 5%. Em se tratando da taxa de recupera??o embrion?ria, os dados foram analisados atrav?s do teste Exato de Fisher, j? em rela??o a taxa de gesta??o n?o foi poss?vel realizar an?lise estat?stica devido ao baixo n?mero amostral. Os percentuais de ovula??o em at? 36 horas nos grupos G1, G2 e G3, foram 34,4 %, 13,3% e 8,7%, entre 36 e 42 horas, 62,5%, 56,7% e 8,7%, entre 42 e 48 horas, 0%, 20% e 13%, acima de 48 horas 3,1%, 10% e 69,6%, respectivamente. Havendo dessa maneira diferen?a significativa entre os grupos tratados e o controle (p < 0,05). A taxa de recupera??o embrion?ria foi de 75% (6/8) nos grupos G1 e G2 e 44,4% (4/9) no grupo G3; n?o houve diferen?a significativa entre os grupos (p > 0,05). J? a taxa de gesta??o aos quinze dias de idade embrion?ria foi de 69,2% (9/13). Deste modo as doses inferiores ?s comumente utilizadas, dos agentes indutores em quest?o, foram eficientes em promover a ovula??o em at? 48 horas, mas o uso destes, n?o resultou em melhora significativa nos ?ndices de recupera??o embrion?ria

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