A GIS approach to implementing and improving benefit transfer models for the valuation of rural recreational resourcesWright, Janice Kathleen January 2002 (has links)
Organisations managing recreational sites commonly need to understand the factors influencing visitation choices made by the public and the impact they have on the value of their sites. This need is particularly pertinent with an increasing societal reliance on cost benefit analysis for project appraisal. Whilst on-site visitor surveys can provide information on preferences and values, the potential to transfer findings to predict visitor numbers and values at unsurveyed sites provides an attractive policy option. Indeed, the demand for these benefit transfer methodologies is increasing as more Government emphasis is placed on evaluating the economic potential of rural outdoor recreation. This research concerns the development of benefit transfer models to estimate visitor numbers from outset zones to British Waterways and Forestry Commission sites. Employing a GIS, the research uses multilevel statistical modelling techniques to quantify the impacts of the proximity to competing recreation sites, resource accessibility and quality, and the characteristics of visiting populations. The models are constructed using visitor survey data and applied to unsurveyed sites, testing their use in benefit transfer. Methods are also developed that allow their output to be used to estimate the non-market value of the recreational opportunities afforded by the resources. The findings show some robust relationships determined visit patterns, with travel times from outset zones being a consistent predictor of visitor numbers. A range of other indicators were also significant including socio-demographic measures, site characteristics and substitute availability values. Nevertheless, when individual sites were compared, considerable variability was detected in the strength and direction of these relationships. The methodology developed explicitly addresses the frequently ignored spatial dimension of benefit transfer. Here the GIS provides the functionality to produce a range of measures of the underlying determinants of recreational visits. Although further refinements are needed, the future for spatial benefit transfer models appears promising.
Blaney, Ralph Julian Paul
No description available.
Benefit estimation in the case of nonmarket goods : four essays on reductions of health risks due to residential radon radiation /Söderqvist, Tore, January 1995 (has links)
Diss. Stockholm : Handelshögsk.
Do financial incentives make a difference? : a comparative study of the effects of performance-based reimbursement in Swedish health care /Forsberg, Ewa, January 1900 (has links)
Diss. (sammanfattning) Uppsala : Univ., 2001. / Härtill 5 uppsatser.
Although numerous theoretical traditions postulate that human fairness depends on the ratio of costs-to-benefits, theory and empirical data remain divided on the direction of the effect. Particularly, answers to the following questions have remained unclear: how cost/benefit ratios affect people’s fairness decision-making during resource allocations, how cost/benefit ratios affect people’s emotions and cognition when they receive fair or unfair treatments, whether people are intuitively selfish or fair, and how cost/benefit ratios of sharing affect it. To address these questions, I conducted three lines of studies in Chapters 2 to 4 of this dissertation. In Chapter 2, I examined how cost/benefit ratios of sharing affect people to make fair or unfair decisions in resource allocations. Results showed that more participants acted fairly when the costs were equal to the benefits as compared to when the costs were higher or lower than the benefits. Shifting from resource dividers to receivers, in Chapter 3 I tested people’s emotional responses and cognitive judgements when they receive fair or unfair treatments at different cost/benefit ratios. My findings revealed that people felt more negative under unfair treatments when the costs were equal to the benefits as compared to when the costs were higher or lower than the benefits. Findings from Chapter 2 and 3 suggested an even-split heuristic: When the costs were equal to the benefits and thus the even-split was fair, more people tended to make fair decisions, and people felt more negative about receiving an unfair offer. Building on these findings, Chapter 4 tested the even-split heuristic using a fast-slow dual process framework and proposed the Value-Heuristic Framework. Results in Chapter 4 showed that people took the shortest time to make the even-and-fair decision (i.e., the even-split was also fair). I also found that people took longer to make the even-but-not-fair decision (i.e., giving an even-split, which results in uneven payoffs), and the longest time to make the not-even-but-fair decision (i.e., giving an uneven-split that results in even payoffs). Based upon the overall findings from my three empirical chapters. I formulated a conceptual framework for explaining and predicting people’s fairness decision-making.
Diss. (sammanfattning) Örebro : Örebro universitet, 2006. / Härtill 6 uppsatser.
23 January 2003
Taiwan Coastal-Offshore Fisheries, for lack of effective fisheries conservation, which are in face of random competition and excessive exploitation of resources under vicious circle, have made resources exhausted in the sea area near Taiwan and have diminished catch of fish. CPUE (Catch per Unit of Effort) was decreased year after year because of excessive competition, so that it caused income of the fishing population to get in a crisis. The fact that we know, in order to solve effectively the operating difficult position in Coastal-Offshore Fisheries, is that the government adopt an phase-in on elimination and construction system in connection with the fishing boat and some measures of vessels reduction, for reducing amount of fishing boat and fishing effort, to promote the vitality and the competitive ability of production in Coastal-Offshore Fisheries. The basic theory of vessels reduction comes from the following backgrounds: 1. A viewpoint of economy in bio-ecology: when experts decide the whole policy according to this mode, the goal to determine fishing effort can be selected among divers fishing effort which was made by laissez-faire economy of completely free competition, Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY), and Maximum Economic Yield (MEY) . 2. A viewpoint of welfare economics: to achieve the goal of welfare economics with the thoughts of whole people, the intersection of marginal cost and average income is the most proper that we can obtain from the maximum sum of producers surplus and consumers surplus as fishing effort. 3. A viewpoint of external diseconomies: when marginal value of people is equal to marginal cost of fishing population, this point will be the most proper for fishing effort. The purpose of study in this thesis is to use a method of analysis exploring the correctness of vessels reduction program that the fishery authorities in our government execute, and to look over its effect to find out whether it has achieved the goal we expected. We have discovered the result through cost-benefit analysis of actual examples, of which the vessels reduction program to purchase the old fishing boats for lack of a complete set of other measures which based on fishing effort and fishery management in the theory of vessels reduction , will cause the measures to fail to improve remarkably these two important goals¢wto decrease the fishing pressure, and to promote the fishing gains¢win an expectable time. This study propose that the vessels reduction program could consider cutting down fishing effort with other methods for pursuing the eternal development in Coastal-Offshore Fisheries, such as to rest fishing and to carry out the measures of a complete set in a ration system, and that the effect, except the proper fishing effort made by the consideration in basic theory of vessels reduction , will be better. Furthermore, an object of vessels reduction should not only be limited to the old fishing boats over 15 years of age, but also take the ones as object which remain working at sea and have reached over 2 years of age in case of uneasy or bad operation. As before, it will be able to attain the aim of decreasing competition in fishing circles.
Sträng, Jonathan, Fjällström, Ted
The demand for energy is forever growing. The technology of extracting power from uranium through nuclear facilities is rather old. Core melting, nuclear bombs, uranium extraction costs and the question what to do with the wastes has hindered countries from exploiting this resource. The technology of extraction, containment and refinement has however come a far way since the beginning. There is a need of revaluing this method of generating power. What better way of doing this than making a cost and benefit analysis upon Nuclear Power. If the costs of overweight the benefits, the governments should dismount the reactors in the involved country. If it’s the other way around; benefits surpassing costs, there should be a development within this sector. In this thesis we will analyze a cost-benefit-analysis of new nuclear power generation in the UK. We will explain how a CBA is constructed, give some examples of cost and benefits of nuclear power and with this knowledge we will then critically look at the 2006 CBA of new nuclear power in UK (Kennedy) which compares costs and benefits of nuclear new build with conventional gas-fired generation and low carbon technologies.
Partial social cost benefit analysis of Three Gorges Dam: impact assessment update and a greenhouse gas externality component studySun, Qian 10 December 2013 (has links)
This study reviews the literature and updates qualitative and quantitative impacts based on new research and applies a partial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cost benefit analysis to the Three Gorges Dam Project (TGDP) in China. The results of CBA suggested a 22.305 billion dollars net present value (using Nordhaus’s 2007 optimal carbon price trajectory with assumed average social discount rate (SDR) of 4% assumptions) and a 440.324 billion dollars net present value (based on Nordhaus’s Model using Stern’s assumption with 1% SDR). This sensitivity analysis indicates that social discount rates highly affect the final results. This study extends the GHG emissions impact component by updating carbon prices and calculation methods, thereby updating the GHG component of Morimoto and Hope’s 2004 study. Although the CBA is limited to the GHG component, a review of recent literature and preliminary impact analysis provides the groundwork for a more comprehensive analysis for future study.
Plunkett, J. J.
No description available.
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