Blum, Petra S.
20 February 2016
<p> Grounded theory methodology was used to explore women’s internalization of religious messages regarding their sexuality. Two research questions served as the guide for this study: how are women’s sexual self-views informed by their religious teaching, and how are these messages, along with their experiences, lived in them sexually, psychologically, and spiritually? Eleven women (ages 30-74) were chosen who had been raised in a Western Christian tradition in the US (8 Protestant, 3 Catholic). Participants were interviewed through an in-depth three-interview process to gain an understanding of their experiences and how they resolved their concerns with sex and spirit. The findings revealed that fear, shame, and objectification served as the primary manner of regulating the women’s sexuality within their religious traditions, resulting in detriment to sexual, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing through ruptures of sexual and spiritual safety. Complex (developmental) trauma arose as the overall impact of their religious sexual socialization, captured through seven categorical outcomes: identity conflicts, shame, self-blame, self-objectification, sexual and relationship problems with men, spiritual and sexual conflicts, and affect dysregulation. The theory of negotiating safety best captured the participants’ attempts to reclaim psychological, sexual, and spiritual wellbeing, through their ongoing efforts to secure sexual and spiritual safety. Grace was found to provide the safety needed for sexual and spiritual growth, experienced in marital and therapeutic relationships that were egalitarian, and for one woman, her egalitarian church. Grace was shown to be manifested with self, others, and God through embodiment, whole-hearted relating, and trust. Recommendations for clinicians and faith practitioners were provided. </p>
Unemployed younger baby boom women's career decision-making experiences| An interpretative phenomenological analysisGanska, Karen T. 15 June 2016 (has links)
<p> This exploratory qualitative study seeks to describe and understand the career decision-making process of unemployed American women who make up the younger cohort of the baby boom generation, namely those born between 1955 and 1964. Career decision making is a complex process involving a number of generational characteristics as well as personal and economic considerations. Unemployment further complicates this process, especially in the decade prior to receiving retirement benefits. This study uses interpretative phenomenological analysis to analyze semi-structured interviews with eight unemployed younger baby boom women to investigate how their thoughts, assumptions, and opinions affect their career decision-making experience. Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model (2005), Erikson’s lifespan theory (1959), and selected career development theories provide lenses through which these women’s experiences can be understood. Eight themes emerged from the data, including the following: unemployment as a preparation period; career aspirations; digital natives; age discrimination; bioecological systems influence; generativity vs. stagnation; identity expressed in career decision making; and influence of intuition, chance, and personal factors. The findings suggest that the women used the period of unemployment to become self-aware and thoughtful about future career decision making, and enhance their computer as well as career decision making skills. Implications for theory and counseling practice as well as suggestions for future research are provided.</p>
Johnson, Nicole Gabbrielle
22 December 2016
<p> The purpose of this dissertation was to study group differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors between young adults who have had high exposure to sexual imagery on the internet when compared to those who have significantly lower exposure. This researcher utilized a correlational research design to obtain information on the sexual attitudes and behaviors of 111 young adults through questionnaires that measured exposure to Internet Sexual Imagery (ISI) along with high risk sexual behaviors, sexual compulsivity and sexual permissiveness. There was a significant relationship between exposure to sexual imagery, sexual compulsivity <i>F</i>(1, 98) = .28.27, <i>MSE</i> = .8.84, <i> p</i> < .01, partial η2= .22 and the permissiveness <i>F </i>(1, 98) = 5.6, <i>MSE</i> = 6.7, <i>p</i> = .02, partial η2= .54 while controlling for gender, race, religion and geographical location. There was not a significant relationship, however, between exposure to ISI and engagement in high risk sexual behaviors <i>F</i>(1, 92) = .2, <i>MSE</i> = 3.4, <i>p</i> = .67, partial η2 = .002. Gender, race, religion and geographical location did not have a significant effect in this study.</p>
Green, Scott L.
01 January 2000
The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of unsupportive social interactions, within Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) cognitive appraisal model, on individual's mood states following an acute cardiac event (i.e., myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting). It was hypothesized that unsupportive social interactions would exacerbate the effects of a patient's appraisals of threat secondary to an acute cardiac event. Participants in the present investigation were 67 patients from the cardiology unit of the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Richmond, Virginia. Each participant had incurred an acute cardiac event, as classified by the International Classification of Disease - 9th Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) requiring hospitalization. Participants received two packets of questionnaires as part of their involvement in the study. One packet was administered to them during their hospital stay, prior to discharge (Time 1), while the second packet was administered at 1-month post-discharge and was mailed to the participant (Time 2). The measures used in this study include: (a) Profile of Mood States (POMS) - short form (Shacham, 1983); (b) Social Support Questionnaire - 6 (Sarason, Sarason, Shearin, & Pierce, 1987); (c) UCLA Social Support Inventory (Dunkel-Schetter, Feinstein, & Call, 1986); (d) Threat appraisal measure (Folkman, Lazarus, Dunkel-Schetter, DeLongis, & Gruen, 1986); and (e) the Unsupportive Social Interactions Inventory (USII) (Ingram, Betz, Mindes, Schmitt, & Smith, in press). Results indicate that unsupportive social interactions were significantly and positively related to both total mood disturbance (r = .56,p < .01) and depression following an acute cardiac event (r = .65, p < .01). Thus, individuals who were experiencing more unsupportive social interactions with members of their social network around the time of their acute cardiac event were also experiencing more intense levels of depression and overall mood disturbance. In addition, threat appraisal and unsupportive social interactions at Time 1 (hospitalization) demonstrated significant main effects on depression and total mood disturbance. However, no moderating effect of unsupportive social interactions and threat appraisal at Time 1 on depression was demonstrated. A post-hoc mediator analysis, limitations, future directions for research, and implications for intervention were discussed.
An Investigation of Identity and Self-Esteem in Traditional Married Women during their Middle Years, and the Impact of the Life Planning SeminarEllett, Susan E. 01 January 1981 (has links)
There is contradictory evidence as to whether the middle years are problematic for women. The research indicates that the middle years, particularly the empty nest period, are traumatic for some women, but for others a time of relief. More recent research suggests that for women who do find the middle years problematic, certain types of group experiences may be helpful. The purpose of this study was to investigate this time of life for a specific population of women, traditional married women who have devoted their time primarily to raising a family. This study examined identity and self-esteem in these women during their middle years, as well as one group experience, the Life Planning Seminar (LPS), for its effect on identity and self-esteem. Results indicated that for the traditional married women in this study, the middle years, particularly the empty nest period, were indeed problematic. All of the participants experienced some sort of identity crisis during these years, and for most the crisis was related to the empty nest. The empty nest was experienced by these women as a time of loss and confusion about who they were and the roles they were playing. For most of the women in this study, the loss of maternal role and resulting identity crisis were accompanied by a loss in self-esteem. Results also indicated that for the women in this study, identity and self-esteem were significantly stronger following participation in the LPS. There was also a significant change in sense of identity for participants from before to after the LPS, with identity before the LPS largely reflected, and after the LPS predominantly personal. The results of this study suggest that at least for some traditional married women, the middle years, particularly the departure of children during this time are problematic. Apparently for these women, the loss or reduction of the maternal role precipitated an identity crisis which was accompanied by a loss of self-esteem. Results also suggest that for such women, a group experience such as the LPS can be beneficial in resolving the crisis which occurs, and in restoring self-esteem, by helping women to redefine themselves and plan a new direction for the future.
A Study of the Relationship Between Maternal Employment History and a Woman's Sex Role Orientation and Career DevelopmentEllett, Susan Elizabeth 01 January 1979 (has links)
Much of the research reviewed suggests that there is some relationship between a woman's mother's employment history, a woman's sex role orientation, and a woman's commitment to a career. In this study, the sex role orientation, career commitment, and career decision making of college women were examined in relation to length of maternal employment history. It was found that the longer a mother worked during the daughter's lifetime, the greater was the daughter's own desire to work. The length of maternal employment history was not found to significantly influence the daughter's sex role orientation or career decision making process. It was also found that the more feminine a woman's sex role orientation, the less she desired to work. Also, the more feminine a woman saw herself, the less she tended to rely on the planning style, the most effective style of decision making, and the more she tended to rely on the intuitive style, which is more effective than the dependent style of decision making, but less effective than the planning style. The more feminine a woman saw her role, the less advanced she was in her decision making about an occupation. Sex role orientation was not found to significantly influence the dependent style of decision making or the decision making tasks of choice of college or major. These findings support the conclusions that the concepts of work and decision making about such work, are not typically part of a feminine sex role orientation. One factor which seems to influence whether a woman includes work in her life plans is the extent of her mother's employment.
Gascoyne, Suzanne Ruth
01 January 1981
Forty-five participants from Protestant denominations completed surveys designed to investigate the effects of religious beliefs on preferences among four types of Christian counseling. The proponents of the counseling theories were Clyde M. Narramore, Jay E. Adams, Lawrence J. Crabb, and Andre Bustanoby. Participants read a case history of a fictitious client, and four short treatment plans which represented each Christian counselor's approach. Then, they completed questionnaires designed to assess their preferences for the counseling approaches, as well as completing other measures, including a religious fundamentalism scale, the Religious Orientation Scale (ROS), and the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). It was found that Crabb was viewed by participants as having an approach which most closely paralled their own religious beliefs. On almost all other measures, Crabb, yoked with either Bustanoby or Narramore, lead participants' preferences. Adams was viewed as relying most on the authority of Scripture, but he was frequently the least preferred. Other findings indicated that for Christians, especially conservative Christians (as determined by the ROS, RVS, and self-ratings), there is a reluctance toward seeking secular psychological help, and a preference for counseling theories which are perceived as being congruent with their own religious beliefs. Implications for research and counseling with Christians are discussed.
Gascoyne, Suzanne R.
01 January 1984
One hundred, sixty-nine undergraduates participated in a study that investigated the effects of interpersonal self-perceptions on judgements made about others. Subjects' interpersonal styles were assessed by self-ratings using the Interpersonal Adjective Scales (IAS). Subjects also rated the interpersonal styles of two video-taped stimulus others using the IAS. In addition, subjects' degree of identification and desire to affiliate with the stimuli were assessed. The general design was a two-group rating comparison (Friendly-Dominant and Friendly-Submissive, and more extreme and less extreme) across two stimulus conditions, Hostile-Dominant and Hostile-Submissive. There were several findings and interpretations were forwarded. Extreme subjects assigned higher, more extreme ratings to both the stimuli than did less extreme subjects. More extreme or interpersonally rigid individuals may interpret others' behavior as more extreme than do flexible individuals. Subjects assigned the most extreme ratings to the stimulus whose behavior was opposite of their own on the Interpersonal Circle. It may be that subjects responded with extreme ratings to the stimulus who greatly epitomized the impression they endeavor to avoid. Friendly-Submissive subjects indicated a preference for identifying and affiliating with the Hostile-Submissive stimulus, while Friendly-Dominant subjects indicated little preference between the two stimuli. Friendly-Submissive subjects apparently were more sensitive to the role demands for cooperative behavior inherent in a counseling-type stimulus situation than were Friendly-Dominant subjects. Less extreme subjects rated the Hostile-Dominant stimulus as more extreme than they rated the Hostile-Submissive stimulus, while more extreme subjects differed little in their ratings of the two stimuli. It is likely that less extreme, flexible individuals are more responsive to changes in situational contexts than are more rigid individuals. Overall, the results support the assertion that self-descriptions and descriptions of others are systematically-related, as well as providing support for the need to attend to traits, situations, and then interactions in the study of interpersonal behavior.
Elliott, Brent S.
16 September 2016
<p> Psychotherapy research continues to evolve in order to meet the needs of potential clients and patients, particularly in the area of Empirically-Supported Treatments (EST). . Moreover, recent research has indicated that affording clients with the opportunity to share their perspective of therapy and progress being made leads to more positive outcomes. The goal of this study is to determine (1) if the use of ESTs in a university training clinic yields positive outcomes in therapy, (2) if specific ESTs provide more positive results than other ESTs when used by students in training, and (3) investigate the effectiveness of using the Session Rating Scale (SRS) as a form of immediacy and tracking with clients to improve therapeutic outcome in the same setting as measured by pre and post test scores on the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). The study utilized archival data retrieved from a university training clinic. Participants were deidentified data from past clients who had signed their consent for information to be used in future research studies. Data collected included demographic information, diagnoses, treatment modality (EST) utilized in therapy, pre-therapy scores on the SCL-90-R, post-therapy scores on the SCL-90-R, and scores on the SRS.</p>
08 November 2016
<p> As video games have become increasing popular, it becomes increasingly important for psychology researchers and practitioners to understand the impact that video game play has on the individuals who engage in it. Several reasons for play are identified, with the social aspects of play being the most common. The difficulties of developing a common definition for problematic play, as well as attempts to quantify those behaviors with assessments are reviewed, with the conclusion that no existing assessment accurately identifies problematic play without overestimation. The unsettled implications of problematic play, including the recent <i>Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association </i> Supreme Court case are explored. Finally, treatment methods for problematic play and implications for future research are discussed. </p><p> The current study expands on Charlton and Danforth’s (2007) study establishing “addiction” and “engagement” as distinct constructs. 2,092 participants were sorted into four different categories (low-engagement/low-problematic, low-engagement/high-problematic, high-engagement/low-problematic, and high-engagement/high-problematic), and their responses to the Mental Health Inventory (Veit & Ware, 1983) were compared. Participants in the high-problematic groups were found to have more negative mental health scores than participants in the low-problematic groups; specifically, their responses demonstrated lower scores on the Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction factors, while also showing higher scores on the Anxiety and Depression factors. Participants in the high-engagement groups demonstrated higher scores on the Loss of Control and Emotional Ties factors, even in the high-engagement/high-addiction group. Similarly, individuals in the low-engagement/low-problematic group demonstrated the lowest scores on the Loss of Control factor. The study continues with several implications for future research, practice, and advocacy.</p>
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