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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

As relações internacionais entre os estados e a livre concorrência no mercado mundial

Morbidelli, Sidney 08 April 2009 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-26T20:28:53Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Sidney Morbidelli.pdf: 1637609 bytes, checksum: c381df8fae00912b070d6d92ff034169 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2009-04-08 / The theme of this thesis involves the analysis of international commerce since its creation and its commercial relationship in the worldwide market, after the emergence of a new universal order promoted by nations that are integrated in economic blocks. The globalization generated the interdependence among countries, forcing them to promote strategies and politics of economic development to assure the attractiveness of external investments and to extend the participation of their territories in worldwide markets. The Anti-Trust and Anti-Dumping rules that in the beginning were scattered and applied only to the internal affairs of the states, started to be systematized also in the universal scenery along the formation of GATT and OMC. With the action of this organization, there was a significant increase of protective measures to the international market pertaining to free competition in search of preservation and the access to the worldwide market. Nevertheless, the OMC have not been able to halt the trust and dumping practice regularly perpetrated by the countries. Its measures are insufficient to prevent satisfactorily in the acts of restriction to free competition and domination in the global market. In 1993, an International Anti-Trust code was created aiming to offer juridical security to the economic agents and their commercial relationship, to assure the free access to the market. The code s objective was to supplement the GATT deficiency in the absence of a universal legislation to competition regarding the question of industrial estate in the extraterritorial space in the states. The legislation was not approved, but the initiative represented a milestone in the harmonization and uniformity of the international right to competition and the legislation was embraced worldwide. Considering this perspective, the current thesis goal is to point out the need for a new international legislation of competition in order to halt the restrictive practices of commerce and the effects of concentration of markets arising with the new global economic order. Thus, it is proposed, the creation by OMC, of an anti-trust international code patterned after the code used by the European Union, which established a centralized authority to defend competition from the limiting present time practices. The code will be binding, defining universal standards and requiring mandatory enforcement by the signatory states of OMC. For the enforcement of the international rules of competition, it is suggested the formation of an international tribunal, again, patterned after the European community. Such tribunal was structured as a supranational organization, whose juridical laws are legally binding and applicable to all member countries, through the primacy of community laws concerning national rights. The international tribunal of competition will be directed by the OMC, which is the indicated forum to the treatment of worldwide competition and it will oversee the application and execution of the tribunal rules of the anti-trust international code / A temática desta tese envolve a análise do comércio internacional, desde a sua criação, e das relações comerciais no mercado mundial, após o surgimento de uma nova ordem universal protagonizada por nações que se integraram em blocos econômicos. A globalização gerou a interdependência entre os países, obrigando-os a promover estratégias e políticas de desenvolvimento econômico para garantir a atratividade dos investimentos externos e ampliar a participação de seus territórios na economia mundial. As regras antitruste e antidumping, que a princípio eram dispersas e voltadas apenas para o ambiente interno dos Estados, começaram a ser sistematizadas também no cenário universal, com a fundação do GATT e da OMC. Com a atuação desta organização, houve um aumento significativo das medidas de proteção ao comércio internacional no âmbito da livre concorrência, em busca da preservação e do acesso ao mercado mundial. Contudo, a OMC não tem sido capaz de coibir as práticas de truste e dumping, regularmente perpetradas pelos países. Suas medidas são insuficientes para interferir, satisfatoriamente, nos atos de restrição à livre concorrência no comércio global e à dominação do mercado. Em 1993, foi criado um Código Internacional Antitruste visando oferecer segurança jurídica aos agentes econômicos e às relações comerciais e assegurar o livre acesso aos mercados. O objetivo do Código era suprir as deficiências do GATT, no tocante à inexistência de uma legislação universal da concorrência, ao tratar as questões que envolviam o direito de propriedade industrial, no espaço extraterritorial dos Estados. A legislação não foi aprovada, mas a iniciativa representou um marco à harmonização e uniformização do direito internacional da concorrência, tornando-se uma bandeira defendida mundialmente. Considerando esta perspectiva, a presente tese tem por objetivo demonstrar a necessidade de se criar uma legislação internacional da concorrência, a fim de coibir as práticas restritivas ao comércio e os efeitos do fenômeno concentracionista dos mercados, surgidos com a nova ordem econômica global. Propõe-se, assim, a instituição, pela OMC, de um Código Internacional Antitruste, conforme modelo utilizado pela União Européia, que estabeleceu uma autoridade centralizada de defesa da concorrência, visando proteger os seus mercados da influência de práticas limitadoras ao livre comércio. O referido Código será vinculante, fixando normas universais harmonizadas e obrigatórias aos Estados signatários da OMC. Para a aplicabilidade das regras internacionais da concorrência, sugere-se a formação de um tribunal internacional, segundo o exemplo da Comunidade Européia. Esta foi estruturada como uma organização supranacional, cujo ordenamento jurídico é vinculativo e aplicável a todos os Países-membros, mediante o primado do Direito Comunitário sobre os direitos nacionais. O Tribunal Internacional da Concorrência será atrelado à OMC que é o foro mais indicado para o tratamento da concorrência mundial e cuidará da aplicação e execução das normas determinadas no Código Internacional Antitruste
42

爭議性行銷方式之公平交易法規研究-以比較廣告為例

黃蓮瑛 Unknown Date (has links)
每當承辦知名企業間因廣告行銷而發生不公平競爭的法律爭議時,作者最反覆思考的問題不外是:究竟一則比較廣告在什麼程度以內,與其他競爭對手間的產品比較以及資訊揭露,對消費者來說是最有利,而且對競爭者來說是最公平的?換句話說,就是使用「比較廣告」這樣的爭議性行銷方法,在什麼樣的限度內,是比較可以恰如其分地,一方面完成它原本行銷應達成的目的,帶給消費者充分且必要的消費資訊,另一方面也顧及了競爭法下的公平尺度,沒有用超過目的之手法損及競爭者;接著的問題是,現行國內的公平交易法規是不是已恰如其分地扮演了這樣一個尺度呢?   基於以上目的,本研究分別從行銷管理、公平交易及主要國家競爭法立法例的觀點,廣泛探討相關文獻,切入檢視過去與比較廣告有關的研究,發現過去文獻對比較廣告展現創意的「不安全領域」和「安全領域」之探討,確實不足。故本文採用質性研究中的個案法及文件分析,藉由觀察公平會自1992年至2007年間的相關案例,選出指標案例共十二則,希望對透過實際個案之處分書或不處分書的解析,探討我國公平會對比較廣告違法性的認定標準,進一步釐清不法比較廣告與創意比較廣告的分際。   藉由觀察公平會對該十二個指標案例作成決定時所示的見解,本研究發現公平會對於其持以處分或不處分比較廣告的準則,已衍然成形。首先,如果一個比較廣告有「真實性原則」、「客觀性原則」或「資訊充分揭露原則」三原則中,任一原則的違反,導致成為一個不真實、不客觀或資訊未充分揭露(或兼具其中二者或三者)的比較廣告時,即已經存在「不法元素」,可能構成違法,此形成本研究之命題一。其次,公平會也明白宣示了比較廣告內容或方式的「安全區域」,本研究將此一發現名為公平會的「愈抽象愈安全原則」,並且認為此處即為比較廣告應該盡情展現創意之所在,此形成本研究之命題二。作者並盼望繼起的有志之士,往後能嘗試大膽建立各種假設,小心驗證本研究已經建立的兩項命題,以檢視其周延性和正確性,俾供企業未來在行銷上運用比較廣告時,能大膽展現創意,但又不致於違法的參考,同時亦對公平會及業者分別提出建議。 / Every time when Author undertakes unfair competition disputes between well-known enterprises arisen out of advertising and marketing, the question the Author will ponder over and over is: with respect to the comparative advertising, in terms of product comparison and information disclosure with other rivals, to which extent the comparative advertising will be the most beneficial advertising to the consumers and the most impartial advertising to the rivals. In other words, to which extent can “comparative advertising” be used appropriately, on one hand complete goals the original marketing was intended to achieve, bring sufficient and necessary consumption information to the consumers, on the other hand take into account of fairness criterion under competition law without application of technique beyond its original purpose which would cause damage to the rivals. Then the next question is: whether the existing Fair Trade Law has adequately set forth said criterion? Based on the above goals, from respective viewpoints in marketing management, fair trade and legislation precedent of competition laws of major countries, the author, through extensive probing into past documentary records and reviews of past researches related to comparative advertising, realized that researches on “unsafe territory” and “safe territory” to show creativity of comparative advertising in past documentary records are not sufficient. Therefore, the author has adopted case method and document analysis used in qualitative research. From among the relevant cases handled by the Fair Trade Commission between 1992 and 2007, the author has chosen twelve distinctive cases, aiming to probe into criterion for determination of violation of comparative advertising by Fair Trade Commission of the ROC, and further verification of the differences between unlawful comparative advertising and creative comparative advertising through study and analysis of disposition or non-disposition decision of each individual case. Upon review of administrative interpretations rendered by the Fair Trade Commission towards said twelve distinctive cases, the author realized that rules governing disposition of comparative advertising by the Fair Trade Commission has taken shape. First of all, when a comparative advertising breaches either the “principle of truthfulness”, the “principle of objectiveness” or the “principle of information disclosure”, the comparative advertising will become an unreal, non-objective or non-disclosed comparative advertising (or both or all), some “illegal elements” have occurred, which may constitute violation of law, this forms the first proposition of this thesis. Secondly, the Fair Trade Commission has clearly announced “safety areas” of content or manner of the comparative advertising, the author names this discovery as “more abstract more safe principle”, and believe this is the area where comparative advertising shall exert its best effort to show its creativity, which forms the second proposition of this thesis. The author expects that future researchers will be able to create hypotheses, examine and verify two propositions this thesis have already built up, in order to investigate its thoroughness and correctness, so that enterprises could bravely demonstrate its creativity when applying comparative advertising for the marketing.
43

La transparence et la commande publique / Transparency et public order

Lekkou, Efthymia 26 November 2012 (has links)
La transparence, à travers ses multiples applications par le juge européen, est érigée en principe général du droit de l’Union européenne. Ses fondements juridiques retentissent sur sa portée, impérative et supplétive, son champ d’application matériel et personnel ainsi que sur son extension progressive et sa limitation aux seuls rapports verticaux développés entre les autorités adjudicatrices et les opérateurs économiques. La transparence est rattachée directement aux libertés fondamentales des soumissionnaires potentiels dont elles assurent la protection juridique et indirectement au principe de libre concurrence par la suppression des obstacles privés à la libre circulation des activités économiques. Ainsi, au service d’une finalité immédiate, la transparence garantit l’accès à la commande publique et, au service d’une finalité médiate, elle protège les structures du marché de la commande publique. Le principe général de transparence donne alors naissance aux contrats relevant de la commande publique qui prennent le relais des contrats publics. Instrument d’intégration et élément structurel du marché intérieur, cette nouvelle génération des contrats matérialise l’accès à la commande publique qui constitue un secteur d’activité économique faisant partie du marché intérieur. / Transparency, through its multiple applications by the european judge, has become a general principle of european law. Its legal basis resound its purview, imperative and suppletive, its personnal et material scope, as well as its progressive extension and its restriction to the vertical relationships developed between contracting authorities and economic operators. Transparency is attached directly to potential bidders fundamental freedoms whose its provides legal protection. It is attached indirectly to the principle of free competition by the elimination of private barriers to the free movement of economic activities. Thus, in the service of an immediate finality, transparency guarantees access to public procurements and, in the service of a mediate finality, it protects the market structures of public procurement. The general principle of transparency gives then rise to contracts of public order (contrats relevant de la commande publique) which take over public contracts. Instrument of integration and structural element of the internal market, this new generation of contracts materialize access to public order (commande publique), that constitutes a sector of economic activity as part of the internal market.
44

Le juge administratif et les libertés économiques : contribution à la définition des libertés économiques au sein de la jurisprudence adminuistrative / Administrative judges and economic freedoms : contributing to the definition of economic freedoms in administrative case law

Marson, Grégory 25 January 2012 (has links)
L'étude a pour principal objet l'identification et la définition des libertés publiques économiques au sein de la jurisprudence administrative. Au terme de cette recherche, il apparaît que la liberté d'entreprendre constitue la seule véritable liberté publique économique utilisée par le juge administratif. Elle est en effet la seule qui a pour fondement la protection de droits ou d'intérêts subjectifs liés à la personnalité juridique, en particulier celles des personnes privées. Elle recouvre deux prérogatives essentielles : l’accès à une activité économique et l’exercice d’une activité économique. Si l'expression « liberté d'entreprendre » n'est pas apparue au sein de la jurisprudence administrative mais au sein des jurisprudences constitutionnelle et européenne, il importe de ne pas se laisser abuser par les mots employés. Celle-ci est en réalité présente au sein de la jurisprudence administrative depuis fort longtemps sous l'expression « liberté du commerce et de l'industrie ». A ce titre, elle recouvre un certain nombre d'autres appellations qui varient en fonction du contexte. Même si le juge administratif considère - à l'image du juge constitutionnel ou du juge européen - qu'il s'agit d'une liberté de second rang, il n'en demeure pas moins qu'il s'agit d'une liberté de valeur constitutionnelle. La définition et la classification de la « libre concurrence » s'avèrent plus problématiques. Celle-ci recouvre deux aspects distincts :- un aspect dans lequel elle doit être envisagée comme le respect du principe d'égale concurrence, c'est-à-dire comme celui d'une déclinaison, le cas échéant rénovée, du principe d'égalité. Dans cette optique, elle peut revêtir un aspect subjectif, c’est-à-dire qu’elle protège un droit dont le fondement se trouve dans la personnalité juridique, alors même que son objet principal reste la protection du mécanisme de marché.- un aspect dans lequel elle doit être regardée comme un ordre concurrentiel. Dans cette optique, elle ne peut être assimilée à une liberté publique mais doit être envisagée comme un objectif ou un impératif d'intérêt général correspondant au bon fonctionnement concurrentiel du marché. Les prérogatives ou intérêts que les opérateurs économiques tirent de la défense de cet ordre concurrentiel ne leur sont pas accordés en raison de leur seule personnalité. Ces prérogatives et intérêts sont défendus de manière subsidiaire puisque c’est l’atteinte au fonctionnement concurrentiel du marché qui est en premier lieu et avant tout prohibée. Les prérogatives et intérêts que les opérateurs tirent de la défense de l’ordre concurrentiel trouvent leur source et leur assise dans la liberté d’entreprendre. C’est cette liberté qui octroie aux personnes morales et physiques le droit d’accéder à l’activité économique et le droit de l’exercer. La libre concurrence a pour effet de garantir et de renforcer l’effectivité de ces deux prérogatives fondamentales. / The primary purpose of this study is to identify and define economic public freedoms in administrative case law. The research shows that free enterprise is the only genuine public economic freedom relied upon by administrative judges. It is indeed the only one based on protecting the subjective rights or interests that are related to the legal personality, especially when it comes to individuals. It covers two essential rights: access to an economic activity and the running thereof. If the expression "free enterprise" was not created by the administrative judges but by the constitutional and European judges, it has however been known for a long time by administrative judges as "freedom of trade and industry." As such, it has a number of different names, which may vary depending on the context. Even if administrative judges consider – like their constitutional and European counterparts – that is it a secondary freedom, it is still a constitutional freedom.The definition and classification of "free competition" are more problematic, since such freedom covers two different aspects:- it may first be considered the respect of equal competition, as a new version of the equality principle. In this context, it can take a subjective aspect since it protects a right based on legal personality, even though its primary purpose is to protect market mechanisms.- it may also be considered as a competition system. From this perspective, it cannot be considered a public freedom but rather a goal or a requirement of general interest in the market good competitive functioning. The rights or interests of economic actors that derive from the protection of the competition system are not granted on the basis of their legal personality alone. The protection of those rights and interests in only subsidiary; interfering with free competition on the market is first and foremost prohibited. The rights and interests of economic actors in protecting the competition system have their source and guarantee in free enterprise. This freedom gives legal and natural persons the right to access and to run a business. Free competition ensures and reinforces the effectiveness of these two fundamental rights.

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