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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Ocean heat transport in a Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA): structure, mechanisms, and impacts on climate

Zheng, Yangxing 15 May 2009 (has links)
level, the standard error of the intercept is underestimated whereas the standard error of the regression coefficients associated with the covariate of the intermediate level and the remaining crossed factor are overestimated. When the ignored crossed factor is at the intermediate level, only the standard error of the regression coefficients associated with the covariate of the bottom level is overestimated. In Study Two, longitudinal multilevel data were generated mirroring studies in which students are measured repeatedly and change schools over time. It was found that when the school level is modeled hierarchically above the student level rather than as a crossed factor, part of the variance at the school level is added to the student level, causing underestimation of the school-level variance and overestimation of the studentlevel variance and covariance. The standard errors of the intercept and the regression coefficients associated with the school-level predictors are underestimated, which may cause spurious significance for results. The findings of the dissertation enhanced our understanding of the functioning of CCREMs in both cross-sectional and longitudinal multilevel data. The findings can help researchers to determine when CCREMs should be used and to interpret their results with caution when they misspecify CCREMs.
2

Computerized measurement of thermoacoustically generated temperature gradients

Kite, Milton David 12 1900 (has links)
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited / The computerized measurement of thermoacoustically generated temperature gradients in short, thin plates is reported. The computerized data acquisition system is delineated. The temperature difference developed across a stack of short plates was measured as a function of the longitudinal position of the plates in a resonant tube for acoustic pressure amplitudes of 0.5 to 6.6 kPa, and static (or mean) pressures from 100 to 440 kPa, in argon and helium for the first through the third harmonic frequencies of the tube. Measured data were compared with predictions based on work done by Wheat ley and others [J. Wheatley, et al., Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, v. 74, pp. 153-170, 1983] and results reported by Muzzerall (Master's Thesis in Engineering Acoustics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, September 1987). For low acoustic and static pressures, there is good agreement between measured data and theory. As the acoustic pressure amplitudes increase there is a general degradation of agreement up to the point at which it appears saturation of the thermoacoustic effect occurs. / http://archive.org/details/computerizedmeas00kite / Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy
3

Reduced models for batch and continuous distillation

Bryson, James R. January 1993 (has links)
No description available.
4

Observations of the velocity structure of the Agulhas Current

Beal, Lisa M. January 1997 (has links)
No description available.
5

Internally-generated variability in some ocean models on decadal to millennial timescales

Osborn, Timothy J. January 1995 (has links)
No description available.
6

Terrestrial and Micro-Gravity Studies in Electrohydrodynamic Conduction-Driven Heat Transport Systems

Patel, Viral K. 25 March 2015 (has links)
Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) phenomena involve the interaction between electrical and flow fields in a dielectric fluid medium. In EHD conduction, the electric field causes an imbalance in the dissociation-recombination reaction of neutral electrolytic species, generating free space charges which are redistributed to the vicinity of the electrodes. Proper asymmetric design of the electrodes generates net axial flow motion, pumping the fluid. EHD conduction pumps can be used as the sole driving mechanism for small-scale heat transport systems because they have a simple electrode design, which allows them to be fabricated in exceedingly compact form (down to micro-scale). EHD conduction is also an effective technique to pump a thin liquid film. However, before specific applications in terrestrial and micro-gravity thermal management can be developed, a better understanding of the interaction between electrical and flow fields with and without phase-change and in the presence and absence of gravity is needed. With the above motivation in mind, detailed experimental work in EHD conduction-driven single- and two-phase flow is carried out. Two major experiments are conducted both terrestrially and on board a variable gravity parabolic flight. Fundamental behavior and performance evaluation of these electrically driven heat transport systems in the respective environments are studied. The first major experiment involves a meso-scale, single-phase liquid EHD conduction pump which is used to drive a heat transport system in the presence and absence of gravity. The terrestrial results include fundamental observations of the interaction between two-phase flow pressure drop and EHD pump net pressure generation in meso-scale and short-term/long-term, single- and two-phase flow performance evaluation. The parabolic flight results show operation of a meso-scale EHD conduction-driven heat transport system for the first time in microgravity. The second major experiment involves liquid film flow boiling driven by EHD conduction in the presence and absence of gravity. The terrestrial experiments investigate electro-wetting of the boiling surface by EHD conduction pumping of liquid film, resulting in enhanced heat transfer. Further research to analyze the effects on the entire liquid film flow boiling regime is conducted through experiments involving nanofiber-enhanced heater surfaces and dielectrophoretic force. In the absence of gravity, the EHD-driven liquid film flow boiling process is studied for the first time and valuable new insights are gained. It is shown that the process can be sustained in micro-gravity by EHD conduction and this lays the foundation for future experimental research in electrically driven liquid film flow boiling. The understanding gained from these experiments also provides the framework for unique and novel heat transport systems for a wide range of applications in different scales in terrestrial and microgravity conditions.
7

The evaporating falling film on horizontal tubes

Liu, Philip J. P. January 1975 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1975. / Typescript. Vita. eContent provider-neutral record in process. Description based on print version record. Includes bibliographical references (p. 107-109).
8

Three-dimensional computational analysis of transport phenomena in a PEM fuel cell

Beming, Torsten 25 October 2018 (has links)
Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that rely on the transport of reactants (oxygen and hydrogen) and products (water and heat). These transport processes are coupled with electrochemistry and further complicated by phase change, porous media (gas diffusion electrodes) and a complex geometry. This thesis presents a three dimensional, non-isothermal computational model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The model was developed to improve fundamental understanding of transport phenomena in PEMFCs and to investigate the impact of various operation parameters on performance. The model, which was implemented into a Computational Fluid Dynamics code, accounts for all major transport phenomena, including: water and proton transport through the membrane; electrochemical reaction; transport of electrons; transport and phase change of water in the gas diffusion electrodes; temperature variation; diffusion of multi-component gas mixtures in the electrodes; pressure gradients; multi-component convective heat and mass transport in the gas flow channels. Simulations employing the single-phase version of the model are performed for a straight channel section of a complete cell including the anode and cathode flow channels. Base case simulations are presented and analyzed with a focus on the physical insight, and fundamental understanding afforded by the availability of detailed distributions of reactant concentrations, current densities, temperature and water fluxes. The results are consistent with available experimental observations and show that significant temperature gradients exist within the cell, with temperature differences of several degrees Kelvin within the membrane-electrode-assembly. The three-dimensional nature of the transport processes is particularly pronounced under the collector plates land area, and has a major impact on the current distribution and predicted limiting current density. A parametric study with the single-phase computational model is also presented to investigate the effect of various operating, geometric and material parameters, including temperature, pressure, stoichiometric flow ratio, porosity and thickness of the gas diffusion layers, and the ratio between the channel with and the land area. The two-phase version of the computational model is used for a domain including a cooling channel adjacent to the cell. Simulations are performed over a range of current densities. The analysis reveals a complex interplay between several competing phase change mechanisms in the gas diffusion electrodes. Results show that the liquid water saturation is below 0.1 inside both anode and cathode gas diffusion layers. For the anode side, saturation increases with increasing current density, whereas at the cathode side saturation reaches a maximum at an intermediate current density (≈ 1.1Amp/cm2) and decreases thereafter. The simulation show that a variety of flow regimes for liquid water and vapour are present at different locations in the cell, and these depend further on current density. The PEMFC model presented in this thesis has a number of novel features that enhance the physical realism of the simulations and provide insight, particularly in heat and water management. The model should serve as a good foundation for future development of a computationally based design and optimization method. / Graduate
9

Experimental and numerical study on flow and heat transport in partially frozen soil

Islam, MD Montasir 29 March 2016 (has links)
Frozen soil has a major effect in many hydrologic processes, and its impacts are difficult to predict. A prime example is flood forecasting during spring snowmelt within the Canadian Prairies. One key driver for the extent of flooding is the antecedent soil moisture and the possibility for water to infiltrate into (partly) frozen soils. Therefore, these situations are crucial for accurate flood prediction at every spring. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the water flow and heat transport within available hydrological models to predict the impact of frozen and partly frozen soil on infiltration and percolation. A standardized data set was developed for water flow and heat transport into (partial) frozen soil by laboratory experiments using fine sand within a one-dimensional (1-D) soil column. A 1-D soil column having a length of 107 cm and diameter of 35.6 cm was built and equipped with insulation to limit heat exchange only through the soil surface. A data logger collected the moisture content and temperature by five FDR sensors which have been installed at a distance of 15 cm from each other. During the experiments, temperature, soil moisture, and percolated water was observed at different freezing conditions (-5°C, -10°C, and -15°C) as well as at thawing conditions when the air temperature was increased to +5°C. Distribution of soil moisture and soil temperature in the soil column was plotted for the experimental data over the freezing and thawing period. As some of the water in the soil begins to freeze, a decrease in water content was observed with a sudden increase in soil temperature near 0°C or slightly below of 0°C. This was, in fact, only a decrease in unfrozen water, not a decrease in total water content and was caused by the latent heat during freezing. Soil temperature showed noticeable differences at the top and the bottom of soil column during the change of state of water. The heat flux at the lower soil column was strongly limited due to iii the overlying soil. Thus, the soil temperature at the lowest sensors stayed in a freezing condition over several days and was not changing the temperature due to the latent heat which was released during the freezing process. Significant variation in soil moisture content was found between the top and the bottom of the soil column at the starting of the thawing period. However, with increasing temperature, the lower depth of the soil column showed higher moisture content as the soil was enriched with moisture with higher transmission rate due to the release of heat by soil particles during the thawing cycle. The soil system did not remain in the isothermal state during the thawing cycle. Although gravitational gradient was mainly responsible for the infiltration rate into the partially frozen soil, the distribution of moisture was greatly influenced by the temperature gradient. Vadose zone modeling using HYDRUS-1D was applied to the data set. Numerical results of the modeling were calibrated using the experimental results. It showed that the newly developed benchmark data set were useful for the validation of numerical models. The use of such a validated freezing and thawing module implemented into larger scale hydrologic models will directly reduce the prediction uncertainty during flood forecasting. Moreover, these benchmark data sets will be useful for the validation of numerical models and for developing scientific knowledge to suggest potential code variations or new code development in numerical models. / February 2017
10

Turbulence and transport in stars and planets

Jermyn, Adam Sean January 2018 (has links)
In this dissertation I have argued that the study of stars and gaseous planets has relied too heavily on simplifying assumptions. In particular, I have demonstrated that the assumptions of spherical symmetry, thermal equilibrium, dynamical equilibrium and turbulent anisotropy all hide interesting phenomena which make a true difference to the structure and evolution of these bodies. To begin I developed new theoretical tools for probing these phenomena, starting with a new model of turbulent motion which accounts for many different sources of anisotropy. Building on this I studied rotating convection zones and determined scaling relations for the magnitude of differential rotation. In slowly-rotating systems the differential rotation is characterised by a power law with exponent of order unity, while in rapidly-rotating systems this exponent is strongly suppressed by the rotation. This provides a full characterisation of the magnitude of differential rotation in gaseous convection zones, and is in reasonable agreement with a wide array of simulations and observations. I then focused on the convection zones of rotating massive stars and found them to exhibit significantly anisotropic heat fluxes. This results in significant deviations from spherical symmetry and ultimately in qualitatively enhanced circulation currents in their envelopes. Accordingly, these stars ought to live much longer and have a different surface temperature. This potentially resolves several outstanding questions such as the anomalously slow evolution of stars on the giant branch, the dispersion in the observed properties of giant stars and the difficulty stellar modelling has to form massive binary black holes. In the same vein I examined the convection zones of bloated hot Jupiters and discovered a novel feedback mechanism between non-equilibrium tidal dissipation and the thermal structure of their upper envelopes. This mechanism stabilises shallow radiative zones against the convective instability, which would otherwise take over early on in the planet's formation as it proceeds to thermal equilibrium. Hence tidal dissipation is dramatically enhanced, which serves to inject significant quantities of heat into the upper layers of the planet and causes it to inflate. This mechanism can explain most of the observed population of inflated planets. Finally, I studied material mixing in the outer layers of accreting stars and developed a method for relating the observed surface chemistry to the bulk and accreting chemistries. This enables the direct inference of properties of circumstellar material and accretion rates for a wide variety of systems.

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