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The role of frequency in implicit learning of a second languageDenhovska, Nadiia January 2015 (has links)
The present dissertation explored the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in L2 by adults. The main focus was to investigate the role of type and token frequency in knowledge acquisition under incidental learning conditions. Such impact was studied by using different experimental conditions, in which items were presented with high or low type and token frequency during training. The mediating effect of working memory in such learning conditions was also measured. The material for the study was a natural language (Russian), as opposed to the previous research having used mainly artificial or semi-artificial languages. Within the course of four experiments native speakers of English with no previous knowledge of a Slavic language were exposed to noun-adjective agreement patterns of different complexity. A simple noun-adjective agreement pattern according to gender was used in Experiment 1. A medium-complexity pattern, according to gender and case, was chosen in Experiment 2. And a complex noun-adjective agreement pattern, according to gender, case and number, was used in Experiment 3. Experiment 4 employed the same agreement pattern as in Experiment 2; animacy effects were also studied by selecting animate and inanimate head nouns as stimuli. The knowledge acquired was tested both in comprehension and production domains. Working memory was measured using the Operation and Reading span tests. The results supported a “starting small” approach for production; accuracy was greater in the low type low token frequency and low type high token frequency conditions. For comprehension, high type frequency had shown more effect. Working memory was differentially involved in the production of acquired knowledge in different conditions and not engaged where learning was facilitated by frequency. Levels of knowledge also depended on the complexity of the agreement pattern, frequency effects and the domain of knowledge acquisition: comprehension versus production.
Improving Implicit Learning and Explicit Instruction of Adult and Child Learners of ChineseKuo, Li-Hui 20 June 2013 (has links)
This study explored the main effects and interaction effects of implicit learning and explicit instructional approaches on the language acquisition of beginning adult and child learners of Chinese and analyzed the successful adult and child learners' learning styles in their information processing time, second language acquisition techniques, and cognitive strategies. Volunteers from Brigham Young University and Wasatch Elementary School were randomly assigned to either an Explicit Instruction Treatment (EIT) or an Implicit Learning Treatment (ILT). Following the treatment, the participants completed an online survey and a vocabulary application test. Results from a 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA indicated that adults performed significantly better than children on the listening and vocabulary tests scores (F (1, 135) =158.901, p<.001), and the EIT was significantly more effective than the ILT. There was no interaction between maturity and treatment factors. Results from a 3 x 2 factorial MANOVA indicated that in the Learning Phase, adults in the high and mid performance groups spent significantly longer processing information than those in the low performance group, and adults in the EIT also spent a longer time than those in the ILT. Results from the stepwise regression showed that for successful adult and child learners, Phonological Processing was the most frequently used second language strategy for both adults and children, which was strongly correlated with their vocabulary application test scores. Guessing was the most popular cognitive strategy. Successful children spent significantly less time than the low performing children in the Testing Phase.
STRUCTURAL PRIMING IN APHASIA USING A BLOCKED STIMULUS DESIGNEllis J Farr (9179762) 29 July 2020 (has links)
<p><i>Purpose</i>. Sentence production is impaired in many persons with aphasia (PWA). Structural priming, a speaker’s tendency to re-use a previously heard sentence structure, has been shown to facilitate sentence production in PWA. Man et al. (2019), however, found that PWA showed significant priming only in transitive sentences but not in dative sentences when these two different types of sentences were presented in an alternating manner within a session [Man, G., Meehan, S., Martin, N., Branigan, H., Lee, J. (2019). Effects of Verb Overlap on Structural Priming in Dialogue: Implications for Syntactic Learning in Aphasia. <i>Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 62</i>, 1933-1950]. This study sought to examine whether presenting transitive vs. dative stimuli in a blocked format would yield more consistent priming effects in PWA.</p><p><i>Methods. </i>Twelve PWA and twelve healthy older adults (HOA) completed a dialogue-like priming task, where participants took turns describing pictures with the experimenter. Importantly, each participant received two blocks of transitive and dative priming. In addition, we repeated verbs between prime and target items for half of each block to test if lexical overlap boosts priming, i.e., lexical boost. We measured how often the participant re-used the same syntactic structure they heard the experimenter produce previously when they described their own picture. </p><p><i>Results. </i>HOA showed significant priming and lexical boost in the transitive block and significant priming in the dative block, replicating Man et al. (2019). PWA, showed near significant priming in the transitive block. Importantly, the priming effect became significant when the verb was repeated between prime and target, indicating lexical boost. However, PWA failed to show priming in the dative block. </p><p><i>Discussion.</i> Using a blocked stimulus design only modulated lexically-mediated priming in transitives for PWA, different from Man et al. (2019). Findings suggest that while it is feasible to use structural priming to ameliorate sentence production deficits in PWA, the presentation of target stimuli would likely not influence outcomes.</p><p></p><p></p>
The use of social media for promoting vocabulary acquisition in the L2 classroom / Sociala medier som verktyg för att främja elevers utvecklande av det engelska vokabuläret i klassrummetAndersson, Zoe, Strand, Alexander January 2022 (has links)
Social media as a tool in the classroom is not a concept one hears much about. Being that social media is still a relatively new phenomenon, this is not particularly strange. Research surrounding the subject is sparse, but there are several articles that show there being a possible place for social media in the classroom. These studies find that there is a need for educators to be properly informed and make precise decisions regarding how and why they want to use social media in the classroom. In this paper we found evidence that supports the idea that social media can be useful as a tool in the classroom; however, findings show that there are few if any moments of explicit vocabulary learning, and therefore social media should be used more as a motivational tool, resulting in implicit vocabulary acquisition. In order to get proper usage of social media, educators need to conduct their own research, thereby expanding the knowledge of social media as a tool.
Examining the Efficacy of Non-Declarative Learning Techniques in Mathematics EducationGraham, Erin Nicole 28 April 2021 (has links)
No description available.
Comparison of Implicit Thought and Learning in Individuals with SchizophreniaSeippel, Camilla S. January 2017 (has links)
No description available.
MANILA: A Multi-Agent Framework for Emergent Associative Learning and Creativity in Social NetworksShekfeh, Marwa January 2017 (has links)
No description available.
Context-specificity in Implicit Sequence Learning: Evidence for Episodic RepresentationsD`Angelo, Maria C. 10 1900 (has links)
<p>Cognitive psychologists have long been interested in the nature of the representations that underlie human behaviours. In the domain of human memory, two main accounts have been forwarded to explain how memory is represented. The multiple memory systems account posits that different phenomenological experiences of memory are the result of separate and distinct representations. In contrast, the processing account posits that there is one memory system, and that different phenomenological experiences of memory are the result of the processes engaged in when probing memory. The explanatory power of these two accounts has been evaluated in a number of domains, where it has been shown that a processing view can accommodate many of the key findings that previously led researchers to propose a separate systems framework. The goal of this thesis was to extend this work by assessing the nature of the representations that underlie implicit sequence learning. The empirical portions of this thesis provide preliminary evidence suggesting that contextual features are incorporated into implicit sequence learning. Overall, the results reported in the empirical chapters of this thesis are consistent with a processing account, as they indicate that the episodic representations that are involved in explicit remembering also support performance in implicit memory tasks.</p> / Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
The effects of input enhancement and metalinguistic/collaborative awareness on the acquisition of plural-s : an ESL classroom experimentKleinman, Eva January 2003 (has links)
No description available.
Learning with and without consciousness: empirical and computational explorations / Apprentissage avec et sans consciencePasquali, Antoine 12 September 2009 (has links)
Is it possible to learn without awareness? If so, what can learn without awareness, and what are the different mechanisms that differentiate between learning with and without consciousness? How can best measure awareness?<p><p>Here are a few of the many questions that I have attempted to investigate during the past few years. The main goal of this thesis was to explore the differences between conscious and unconscious learning. Thus, I will expose the behavioral and computational explorations that we conducted during the last few years. To present them properly, I first review the main concepts that, for almost a century now, researchers in the fields of neuroscience have formulated in order to tackle the issues of both learning and consciousness. Then I detail different hypotheses that guided our empirical and computational explorations. Notably, a few series of experiments allowed identification of several mechanisms that participate in either unconscious or conscious learning. In addition we explored a computational framework for explaining how one could learn unconsciously and nonetheless gain subjective access to one’s mental events. After reviewing the unfolding of our investigation, I detail the mechanisms that we identified as responsible for differences between learning with and without consciousness, and propose new hypotheses to be evaluated in the future.<p> / Doctorat en Sciences Psychologiques et de l'éducation / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
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