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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
71

THE MOTHERHOOD CHOICE: DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A DECISION AID FOR WOMEN WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

SPONIAR, MARTINE CLAIRE January 2007 (has links)
Doctor of Philosophy / Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurological disease affecting young adults. MS affects approximately 1 in 1000 people and, like other autoimmune diseases, women are more likely to be affected than men. The illness typically onsets between the ages of 20 and 40, and hence usually affects women of child-bearing age. The course of the MS is often unclear for years after diagnosis and since most women are diagnosed in their child-bearing years, they often have to make reproductive choices before their prognosis is clear and while the future remains uncertain. For women with MS, starting a family is an individual choice that needs to balance the importance of motherhood for the woman and her partner against the risks that she will be unable to care for the infant or child as a result of increasing disability. In other areas of medicine where finely balanced decisions are required, there has been a recent proliferation of decision aids that aim to inform people of the benefits and risks of opposing courses of action. In addition, decision aids help patients to weigh their values against the risks and benefits to make an informed decision. Despite the existence of over 200 decision aids to help patients consider decisions related to their medical conditions, not one exists that deals with the decision of whether or not to have a family for women with a chronic disability, such as MS. This thesis developed and evaluated a decision aid for women with MS to help them decide whether to start, forego or enlarge their families. The study utilised the criteria set out for the development of decision aids, according to the Cochrane Systematic Review of Patient Decision Aids (O'Connor et al., 2003). The first aim was to determine the proportion of women who are undecided about the motherhood choice and for whom a decision aid may be relevant. Results found that the motherhood choice was relevant to 46% of the women who responded to an initial mail-out. The second study aimed to establish women’s current concerns and thoughts regarding pregnancy and motherhood, and their response to the pilot decision aid. Twenty women participated in qualitative interviews and results supported previous findings that the mother’s health concerns, coping with parenting and societal attitudes are significant concerns when considering this decision. This study further identified concerns from different groups that had a direct impact on the decision to have children, including the experience of parenting, the child’s well-being and the timing and pressure of the decision. The main study was a randomised controlled trial of the decision aid aiming to determine whether the decision aid facilitated decision-making in women with MS. The study confirmed that the decision aid presented a balanced view to women, increased knowledge, reduced decisional conflict, increased decisional self-efficacy and certainty of the decision, and was free from adverse effects on psychopathology. The final component of the study was a 12 month follow-up which aimed to explore the long-term effectiveness of the decision aid and what aspects were valued by the women who received it. It was found that over time, women in the intervention group did maintain their certainty, but women in the control group also became more certain of their choice. At follow-up, the difference in certainty was no longer significant between the two groups. However, women did report that the intervention was useful in (a) providing access to information previously unavailable or difficult to obtain, (b) facilitating communication between women, their partners and health care professionals, (c) aiding them in considering and utilising their networks of support, and (d) preparing them for potential difficulties. In summary, this thesis developed and evaluated a decision aid for women with MS who are considering motherhood. The results showed that many women were undecided and, in the absence of good information on the topic, many women had concerns about pregnancy and parenthood. The decision aid was shown to be effective across a range of measures and free from adverse psychological effects. Hence, this is evidence-based resource can now be recommended for those women with MS who are currently contemplating motherhood.
72

The effects of fatigue and disease severity on gait mechanics in subjects with multiple sclerosis

Marchesi, Stephanie J. January 2007 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Delaware, 2007. / Principal faculty advisor: Todd D. Royer, Dept. of Health, Nutrition, and Exercise Sciences. Includes bibliographical references.
73

Changes in dynamic balance in multiple sclerosis patients as related to the severity of disease and self-rated fatigue

Miller, Caralynne M. January 2006 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Delaware, 2006. / Principal faculty advisor: James G. Richards, College of Health Sciences. Includes bibliographical references.
74

Utility of Lorenz Curves in Examining Physician Prescribing Practices: Example of Ontario Neurologist Prescribing of Multiple Sclerosis Disease-modifying Therapies in 2009

Marriott, James John 21 March 2012 (has links)
BACKGROUND: Differences in disease-modifying therapy (DMT) prescribing patterns between different groups of neurologists have not been explored. HYPOTHESIS: MS-specialist neurologists use a broader range of DMTs in contrast to generalist neurologists who preferentially prescribe Avonex. METHODS: Ontario neurologist demographic and geographical characteristics were linked to 2009 DMT prescription data. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients were constructed to examine prescribing patterns; separating neurologist characteristics dichotomously and separating Avonex from the other DMTs. Gini Coefficients were compared using jack-knife statistical techniques to derive 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Prescriptions are highly concentrated with 12% of Ontario neurologists prescribing 80% of DMTs. High-volume prescribers show a broader range of DMT use while low-volume prescribers tend to use a particular DMT. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of DMTs are prescribed by a small subset of neurologists. High-volume prescribers show more variability in DMT use while low-volume prescribers tend to individually focus on a narrower range of DMTs.
75

Utility of Lorenz Curves in Examining Physician Prescribing Practices: Example of Ontario Neurologist Prescribing of Multiple Sclerosis Disease-modifying Therapies in 2009

Marriott, James John 21 March 2012 (has links)
BACKGROUND: Differences in disease-modifying therapy (DMT) prescribing patterns between different groups of neurologists have not been explored. HYPOTHESIS: MS-specialist neurologists use a broader range of DMTs in contrast to generalist neurologists who preferentially prescribe Avonex. METHODS: Ontario neurologist demographic and geographical characteristics were linked to 2009 DMT prescription data. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients were constructed to examine prescribing patterns; separating neurologist characteristics dichotomously and separating Avonex from the other DMTs. Gini Coefficients were compared using jack-knife statistical techniques to derive 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Prescriptions are highly concentrated with 12% of Ontario neurologists prescribing 80% of DMTs. High-volume prescribers show a broader range of DMT use while low-volume prescribers tend to use a particular DMT. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of DMTs are prescribed by a small subset of neurologists. High-volume prescribers show more variability in DMT use while low-volume prescribers tend to individually focus on a narrower range of DMTs.
76

Investigating the Safety and Therapeutic Potential of Vitamin D3 with Calcium Supplementation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Kimball, Samantha 31 August 2011 (has links)
Low vitamin D status has been consistently associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). Further, preclinical and in vitro data demonstrate immune regulatory properties of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D that may be beneficial for patients with MS. To date evidence of beneficial in vivo immunomodulation by supplementation with vitamin D3 in humans is lacking. In a one-year, open-label, phase I/II dose-escalation study of vitamin D3 (average ~14,000 IU/d over one year) with calcium (1,200mg/d) in patients with MS, we compared the effects of treatment on safety outcomes, clinical outcomes and selected biomarkers of immune system activity, relative to matched MS patients [age, sex, disease duration, disease modifying therapy, and expanded disability status scale (EDSS)] randomized to receive no supplementation. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 78.1±27.0 nmol/L at baseline and at one-year were 82.7±34.8 and 179.1±76.1 nmol/L in control and treated groups, respectively. Serum and urinary calcium and all other safety outcomes were unchanged throughout the trial. Compared to controls, treated patients tended to have fewer relapses (McNemar, p=0.09) and a greater proportion had a stable or improved EDSS at study end (p=0.018). We observed significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferative responses to antigenic challenge in the treatment group at one year, compared to baseline and control group responses. High serum 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with short-term adverse effects in patients with MS, but with evidence of clinical improvement and beneficial immunomodulation.
77

Investigating the Safety and Therapeutic Potential of Vitamin D3 with Calcium Supplementation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Kimball, Samantha 31 August 2011 (has links)
Low vitamin D status has been consistently associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). Further, preclinical and in vitro data demonstrate immune regulatory properties of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D that may be beneficial for patients with MS. To date evidence of beneficial in vivo immunomodulation by supplementation with vitamin D3 in humans is lacking. In a one-year, open-label, phase I/II dose-escalation study of vitamin D3 (average ~14,000 IU/d over one year) with calcium (1,200mg/d) in patients with MS, we compared the effects of treatment on safety outcomes, clinical outcomes and selected biomarkers of immune system activity, relative to matched MS patients [age, sex, disease duration, disease modifying therapy, and expanded disability status scale (EDSS)] randomized to receive no supplementation. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 78.1±27.0 nmol/L at baseline and at one-year were 82.7±34.8 and 179.1±76.1 nmol/L in control and treated groups, respectively. Serum and urinary calcium and all other safety outcomes were unchanged throughout the trial. Compared to controls, treated patients tended to have fewer relapses (McNemar, p=0.09) and a greater proportion had a stable or improved EDSS at study end (p=0.018). We observed significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferative responses to antigenic challenge in the treatment group at one year, compared to baseline and control group responses. High serum 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with short-term adverse effects in patients with MS, but with evidence of clinical improvement and beneficial immunomodulation.
78

A computational investigation of FTY720P-mediated neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis /

Cohen, Hannah Caitlin. January 2009 (has links)
Thesis (Honors)--College of William and Mary, 2009. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 62-68). Also available via the World Wide Web.
79

A longitudinal study of neuropsychological changes in multiple sclerosis

Herring, Sheldon Lyle January 1981 (has links)
No description available.
80

Ryanodine receptors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis

von Osten, Manuel 26 June 2015 (has links)
No description available.

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