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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

ADAMs as EGFR ligand sheddases in prostate cancer

Willems, Sofie Henriëtte January 2011 (has links)
No description available.
42

A study of Hes6 as a transcriptional regulator in castrate resistant prostate cancer

Lamb, Alastair David Gordon January 2012 (has links)
No description available.
43

A study of kinases at the interface between metabolic stress and cell cycle control in prostate cancer

Bon, Hélène January 2013 (has links)
No description available.
44

Generating small molecules and biological tools towards overcoming prostate cancer

Cheung, Samantha Pui San January 2011 (has links)
No description available.
45

The natural history of prostate cancer in the preclinical phase

Pashayan, Nora January 2011 (has links)
No description available.
46

Changing narratives of prostate cancer 1990-2010

Montgomery, Anne January 2015 (has links)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a unique and controversial disease. This is at least due to the high prevalence of latent disease, increasing amounts of which is being diagnosed, most of which is indolent and not lead to death, and for which treatment carries significant risks. An increasing concern in medical sociology is how various social structures and actors contribute to the diagnosis and experience of conditions. For PCa, these include print media as an information source for men with prostate cancer (MWPCa), and PCa organisations (PCaOrgs) which have recently emerged in the UK. Yet, there is a distinct lack of UK studies of print media representation of PCa, of PCaOrgs, interaction between the two, and how any of this may impact on the experience of MWPCa. This thesis aims to address this deficit by drawing on narrative and framing theory to study 201 illness narratives of PCa across time: 140 illness narratives of MWPCa in UK newspapers 1990-2010; 20 with MWPCa interviewed in each of 2000 and 2010; and 21 with advocates around PCaOrgs in 2010. I ask: how have PCaOrgs and the UK print media been a force for change in the UK regarding how PCa is addressed and experienced by MWPCa? And more broadly what does this say about narrative structure and form. My findings indicate that though PCaOrgs and print media told stories of injustice around PCa, the substantive focus of this injustice changed over time—from PCa as “neglected” and “taboo” in the 1990s to other “pockets of injustice” since 2000. While one might expect that this to lessen any interactional difficulty that MWPCa experience in disclosing their illness, my study suggests this may not be so. My findings show how ideas of resonance and dissonance contribute to understanding the recursive and repetitive language around PCa.
47

Delineating a functional role for the urinary biomarker Lipocalin 2 in prostate cancer

Hazan, Allon January 2014 (has links)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer amongst Western males. PCa progression is strongly linked to steroid receptor signalling, however the modulation of steroid receptor expression in PCa is incompletely understood. Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secreted protein which binds to Fe3+-containing siderophores and was originally identified as part of the innate immune response. LCN2 has been proposed as a potential biomarker for a range of cancers. However, LCN2 effects appear to be tissue specific. LCN2 expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, but with good prognosis in pancreatic cancer where it has been used therapeutically. The role of LCN2 in prostate cancer is poorly understood, in particular its effects on steroid receptor regulation. To elucidate the role of LCN2 in prostate cancer, the LCN2 gene was ectopically expressed in LNCaP cells to generate the LNCaP-LCN2 cell line. LNCaP-LCN2 cells had elevated androgen receptor expression which was linked to increased levels of KLK3 (PSA). LNCaP-LCN2 cells also had reduced levels of Estrogen receptor α (ERα), but increased expression of ERβ. This was combined with higher levels of E-cadherin, but not to changes in other EMT markers. Reciprocally, LCN2 was suppressed using RNAi in the PC3 cell line to generate PC3-shLCN2 cells. PC3-shLCN2 displayed a distinct change in morphology, with increased cell size and a sub-population of multi-nucleated and highly enlarged cells. PC3-shLCN2 cells had reduced proliferation, and lost the ability to form colonies in a 3D substrate. With regards to steroid receptors, PC3-shLCN2 cells had increased ERα expression, but reduced ERβ expression. This was also combined with a loss of E-cadherin and EGFR. Microarray analysis of PC3-shLCN2 cells identified changes to expression of a wide range of genes including VEGF-R, SPARC and KLK6. Functional grouping of differentially expressed genes suggests that LCN2 in involved in a range of cellular processes including hormone receptor response, Wnt signalling and cell cytoskeletal integrity. Many, but not all genes identified by microarray were responsive to recombinant LCN2 protein indicating a paracrine function for the protein. Treatment of PC3 cells with the iron chelator Deferoxamine resulted in phenotypic changes similar to those found in PC3-shLCN2 cells which suggest that LCN2 functions in part due to intracellular iron regulation. In summary, the data presented in this thesis suggests that LCN2 has both pro- and anti- tumourigenic properties in prostate cancer and that the protein is involved in a much wider range of functions than previously described.
48

Effect of head up tilt on tumor perfusion in a pre-clinical model of prostate cancer

Rand, Taylor Ann January 1900 (has links)
Master of Science / Department of Kinesiology / Brad J. Behnke / Introduction: Prostate tumor arterioles lack functional smooth muscle and have a diminished myogenic response. Previous research has demonstrated an enhanced prostate tumor blood flow and oxygenation associated with the augmented mean arterial pressure during exercise. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that elevations in the heart-to-prostate tumor hydrostatic gradient via adoption of the 70˚ head-up tilt (HUT) body position would enhance perfusion of the prostate tumor, which may improve tumor oxygenation and radiation therapy outcomes (Study I). Based upon those findings, we performed a secondary analysis (Study II) on previously published prostate hemodynamic responses to an identical tilt-test between young and aged animals. Methods: Study I: Dunning Cell AT-1 tumor cells (100,000) were injected into the ventral lobe of the prostate in male Copenhagen rats (4 mo.; n = 7). Four to six weeks after injection blood flow to the prostate tumor, kidneys, and soleus muscle was measured via the fluorescent microsphere technique in the supine and HUT position. Study II: A secondary analysis was performed on blood flow to the prostate (host tissue of the tumor) in young (6 mo.; n =9) and aged (24 mo.; n=7) male Fisher 344 rats from Ramsey et al., 2007 (39) to determine potential age-associated differences in conductance to this tissue. Results: Study I: No significant difference was observed in blood pressure between the two body positions. Compared to the supine posture, there was a significant reduction in blood flow to the soleus muscle. There was no difference in prostate tumor blood flow or vascular conductance between the supine and HUT position. Study II: In response to tilt, there was a significant reduction in prostate vascular conductance in young rats versus that in the supine posture (P<0.05). In the aged animals, there was no difference in prostate vascular conductance with tilt. Discussion: Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not see any significant differences in either blood flow or vascular conductance to the prostate tumor with manipulations in body position. Importantly, we believe this may be an age-associated effect. Given tumors both co-opt existing arterioles from the host tissue that retain vasomotor control and develop new vessels that lack functional smooth muscle, the enhanced vascular resistance in the prostate with young animals during tilt likely contributed to the lack of change in tumor perfusion with body position given the rats from study I were also young. Given the lack of change in vascular conductance in the prostate with tilt in aged animals, future studies should be performed in aged models of prostate cancer, of which currently there are no immunocompetent aged rodent models of prostate cancer.
49

Assessing dynamic micromechanical markers for the evaluation of the prostate for cancer

Good, Daniel William January 2016 (has links)
The diagnostic pathway for prostate cancer involves the blood test prostate specific antigen (PSA) which has high sensitivity but low specificity at age related reference ranges. The resultant clinical consequence is a large number of negative diagnostic studies (transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies - TRUS). There is a need for a secondary screening test to help improve on the current diagnostic pathway. Mechanical markers have been used previously to assess the prostate for disease with numerous ex-vivo reports of differences between benign and malignant prostates. There have been no in-vivo studies with direct elasticity assessment devices for prostate cancer detection. This thesis forms part of work in a collaborative study in conjunction with engineers who have created a microscale device, capable of dynamic elasticity assessment. The specific objectives of this thesis were to a) assess dynamic micromechanical markers for the detection and differentiation of clinically significant from insignificant prostate cancer b) to identify relationships between mechanical and histopathological variables in the ex-vivo and in-vivo environments and c) assess the potential for these markers to differentiate peri-prostatic tissues. A prospective study was set-up with full ethics and management approvals with patients undergoing a systematic mechanical assessment of their prostate using the E-finger device and after prostate excision a systematic ex-vivo mechanical assessment on a calibrated stage. The ex-vivo assessment allowed accurate histopathological and mechanical variable assessment in a controlled environment. 7-Tesla ex-vivo MRI scanning aided in assessing the limitations of mechanical assessment of the prostate. There were clear consistent differences between individual dynamic micromechanical markers for benign and tumour containing measurement areas in both environments. Modelling of these dynamic micromechanical markers yielded encouraging accuracy levels for the detection of prostate cancer and differentiation of significant from insignificant disease. There were associations between individual mechanical markers and important histopathological features associated with cancer (acinar size, tumour volume and reactive stroma). These markers showed promise and utility in the differentiation of prostate from bladder and rhabdosphincter. This work demonstrates the clear potential translational uses for dynamic micromechanical markers in the assessment of the prostate for cancer.
50

Targeting AMACR to treat castrate-resistant prostate cancer

Jevglevskis, Maksims January 2015 (has links)
Prostate cancer is the most common male-specific form of cancer in the U.K. Current treatments for the aggressive disease by androgen-deprivation therapy gives a rapid initial response, but the disease ultimately progresses into an androgen-independent state for which there are no effective treatments. α-Methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR, P504S) is an enzyme which is involved in metabolism of branched-chain fatty acids and the pharmacological activation of some NSAID drugs, such as Ibuprofen and most other ‘profens’. AMACR is over-expressed in prostate cancer and some other cancers, including colon and breast cancers. Reduction of AMACR protein levels inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells and restores the requirement for androgens for growth. Although the exact role of AMACR in prostate cancer progression is currently unknown, several other experiments show that AMACR is functionally important for prostate cancer proliferation, validating it as a drug target. There is no convenient high-throughput assay for AMACR and as a result only a few inhibitors have been reported to date. This thesis reports a study on whether other reactions can be catalysed by AMACR. 2-Methyl-3-enoyl-CoA esters are good substrates of AMACR but do not undergo double bond migration, while 2-methyl-2-enoyl-CoA esters are not converted to products. Acyl-CoA esters that contain a fluorine atom at carbon-3 undergo a fluoride elimination reaction to give 2-methyl-2-enoyl-CoA esters. This elimination reaction was investigated for use in the development of a high-throughput assay. A fluorescent binding assay, which can be adapted for the screening of large libraries of compounds, was developed and several known and novel inhibitors were tested. Finally, metabolism of mandelic acid was investigated. It was shown that chiral inversion of mandelic acid in humans proceeds via a different pathway to Ibuprofen and related drugs, in contrast with previous reports.

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