Rodriguez, Juan Jose
A new disease affecting potatoes was first detected in Mexico in 1993. Affected plants had aerial symptoms similar to those caused by potato purple top and psyllid yellows, but tubers had internal brown discoloration when sliced and dark stripes and streaks when processed to produce potato chips. The disease has been found in many potato production areas in Guatemala, Mexico, Honduras, New Zealand and the United States. The disease, termed Zebra Chip (ZC), has been associated with the presence of heavy infestations of the potato-tomato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli). In 2009, a research group in New Zealand discovered that a new disease in tomato and pepper plants was caused by Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso) and subsequently this same bacterium was associated with ZC in potato samples from Texas. The objectives of this study were: to assess the accumulation of Lso in various potato organs, to determine the effect of plant age on detection of Lso, symptom development and plant death, and (iii) to determine the effect of phosphorous acid on the development of ZC. Results from these studies showed significant differences in Lso populations between above and below ground tissues of the potato plant, with Lso populations in stolons and tubers being three to four times higher than those of leaf tissue and over seventy times greater than in stems. Time for detection of Lso by PCR in potato leaves of different ages at the time of inoculation ranged from 21 to 26 days after inoculation, symptoms development took 23 to 36 days. Plant death, took 24 to 47 days in plants of different age groups at the time of inoculation. In plants 15 weeks old at the time of inoculation, Lso was detected after 14 days in one plant out of 18; in plants 16 weeks old at the time of inoculation, Lso was detected after seven days in two plants out of 18. Phosphorous acid applications had no effect on the populations of Lso in potato tubers, onset of symptoms or plant death. All tubers showed ZC symptoms, making them unacceptable for the market. / North Dakota State University. Department of Plant Pathology
The effect of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary infectiuon on tetrazolium reductase activity in tubers of Solanum tuberosum L.Politis, Demetrios J. January 1965 (has links)
The combination potato-f. infestans was chosen as the object of this study because of the considerable amount of background information available on the physiology and biochemistry of both members of the pair and also because this combination represents an advanced type of parasitism, and the genetics of the pathogenicity is known. In brief, the main purpose of this work was to determine by means of histochemical tests the effect of f. infestans infection and the distribution and relative activity of succinic, malic and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in tubera of a resistant and a susceptible potato variety. These determinations were to be made at different stages of the disease, starting as early as possible after inoculation and using tuber pieces of different dimensions. Also a study of NAD and diaphorase concentration as limiting factors in the activity of these enzymes was carried out. Finally these enzymatic reactions of the host cell were correlated with those of the cells of the invading pathogen.
Changes in total lipid content and fatty acid composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) due to infection by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary.Harwig, Joost. January 1968 (has links)
No description available.
Alternative products in the inhibition of te plant pathogen scleroyinia sclerotiorum on potato productionDhliwayo, Tererayi January 2008 (has links)
White mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum attacks a wide host range of broad-leafed plants which includes potatoes. Current control is limited to the use of chemicals, but biological control has emerged as an eco-friendly alternative. For the study, 19 bacterial strains and 18 fungal strains obtained from soil samples taken from a potato field naturally infested with the pathogen S. sclerotiorum were tested for the effects on S. sclerotiorum mycelium growth and sclerotia viability in vitro. A total of eight bacterial strains and six fungal strains proved to be effective in the inhibition of S. sclerotiorum mycelium growth on PDA plate using a dual culture technique. These antagonistic microbes were six Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilis, Bacillus marisflavi, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus insuetus and Penicillium citrinum. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the interaction between S. sclerotiorum mycelium growth and the time after inoculation with a S. sclerotiorum mycelium plug for both bacterial and fungal soil isolates. An additional sclerotia viability test was carried out using four of the eight antagonistic bacteria, and six of the antagonistic fungi. The results showed that two Bacillus species, namely B. pumilis and B. marisflavi can effectively reduce sclerotia viability. The other two bacteria (both B. subtilis), recorded low percentage reduction in sclerotia viability. As for the six antagonistic fungi, the viability test proved to be less effective in determining sclerotia viability. However, the result of this study supports the use of bio-control agents, not only because they are environmentally friendly, but because they are also an effective way of controlling the plant pathogen, S. sclerotiorum.
Greiner, Blake William
Field experiments were conducted in two different growing environments to evaluate the spread and movement of Dickeya dadantii. A procedure to inoculate seed potatoes with Dickeya dadantii was developed to use during this study. Spread of Dickeya dadantii from inoculated potato seed to healthy potato seed during the handling, cutting and planting procedures was not detected at either location. Spread of Dickeya dadantii from inoculated seed to surrounding progeny tubers in the field was documented in both locations. In Florida, 33% of progeny tubers tested positive for Dickeya using PCR, and in North Dakota, 13% of the progeny tubers tested positive. Stunting was observed in plants grown from Dickeya dadantii inoculated seed tubers in North Dakota, but not in Florida. These results indicate that Dickeya dadantii may spread during the seed handling and cutting processes and can spread in the field from infected seed tubers to progeny tubers.
Histochemical studies on acid phosphatases dehydrogenases, and peroxidases of potato, (Solanum Tuberosum L.) infected with Phytophthora Infestans (Mont.) de Bary.Viswanathan, Muriyankulangara A. January 1964 (has links)
Late blight of potato incited by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is one of the plant diseases particularly well suited for fundamental studies on the physiology of parasitism. For this reason, and also because of its economic importance, this disease has been the object of numerous and diverse investigations. However, it is only recently that studies on the biochemistry of the alterations resulting from infection, and of disease resistance and susceptibility, have been initiated. [...]
The fluorescence microscopy of healthy and Phytophthora infestans infected potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber tissues.Li, Gwo-chen. January 1966 (has links)
Disease symptoms often have diagnostic value. They are used also to determine the nature of the alterations in the physiology of the diseased plant, and to estimate the severity or extent of the damage caused. The search for diagnostic features is usually performed in white light. Descriptions of symptoms and conclusions as to the nature and extent of damage reflected by symptoms are usually based on the appearance of symptoms in that light. [...]
Methodology and Assessment of the Susceptibility of Potato Genotypes to Phytophthora Erythrosetpica Causal Organism of Pink RotFitzpatrick-Peabody, Erica January 2008 (has links) (PDF)
No description available.
An epidemiological analysis of the Phytophthora and Alternaria blight pathosystem in the Natal Midlands.Putter, Christoffel Antonie Johannes. 11 September 2014 (has links)
The history of the development in Natal of a forecasting service to warn of outbreaks of late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans is presented. The late blight pathogen and Alternaria solani, the causal organism of early blight disease, interact on potatoes and tomatoes to form a blight disease complex. Evidence is presented to show that it is expedient to manage this blight complex as a whole rather than to direct control at only one of the components in ignorance of the consequential enhancement of the potential of the other. In a search for an improved blight complex management strategy, factors concerning the possible existence of an annual migration of Phytophthora infestans inoculum, first postulated in the 1960's, along an east-west route across Natal, are collected and collated. Corroboration of the existence of the Phytophthora-pathway is given, inasmuch as it represents a serial outbreak of late blight along a temporal gradient. The possibility that the pathway is a manifestation of disease resulting from the erruption of pre-existing inoculum along an environmental gradient, can not specifically be excluded. However, the peculiar pattern of anabatic and katabatic winds along a river-valley network, superimposed on a continuous cropping pattern and its concomitant opportunity for blight to be endemic in the province, supports the postulated Phytophthora-inoculum pathway A fungicide spray trial was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of us i ng the pathway phenomenon as the framework for an improved blight control strategy and to explore the nature and level of the competitive interaction between Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani. This trial revealed that the interaction between the components of the blight complex was differentially altered by weather patterns and fungicide combinations. Treatments in which metalaxyl (Ridomil) alone was used for the control of late blight, gave a yield similar to those with propineb (Antracol), which inhibits A. solani primarily but also hus some negative effect on P. infestans. The yields from both these treatments were siguificant ly (p < 0,05) better than the yields recorded in the unsprayed control plots. A treatment in which Ridomil and Antracol were combined such that each was applied according to its recommended concentration, gave yield increases of 32,3% over the unsprayed control, although the yield from the Ridomil/Antracol treatment was not significantly greater (p < 0,05) than the yields recorded where either Ridomil or Antracol were used. A computer simulator, named GAUSE, was developed to simUlate the consequences of the competition between various combinations of P. infestans and A. solani. Results simulated by GAUSE corroborated those obtained from the field trial and support the conclusion that diseases of complex etiology require more than simplistic, univariate analysis of single cause-and-effect pathways. The competition quotient CQ is developed as a new parameter of competitive interactions. It is calculated as the ratio of the amount of disease in the absence of competition, to the amount of disease when the causal pathogen is competing with another pathogen in the same niche. The CQ may be calculated from various standard epidemiology statistics and it is used to demonstrate that the competitive displacement phenomenon places constraints on the interpretation and application of Vanderplank's basic epidemiology equations. A new pathosystems management concept namely the pathotope (pathos = suffering; topos = place0 concept, is introduced, having developed from the notion that epidemics have spatial as well as temporal attributes. Accordingly, an area in which individual farms are at the same level of probability at risk to disease, delimits the pathotope. The concept can be described at many integration lsvels and is presented as an important quantitative unit of comparative epidemiology. The pathotope concept accomodates such notions as are contained in the postulated Phytopnthora-pathway and is especially suited to integration with disease forecasting methods. An example of the application of the pathotope approach is presented and a strategy is proposed by which fungicide spraying is initiated and applied synchronously as determined by the degree of communal risk to attack and epidemic increase of disease. Within a pathotope, several common factors collectively determine the vulnerability of the group to disease. If a coherent, uniform strategy is to be developed and implemented by pathotope members, it is necessary that all members have access to the relevant information and that it be collected and disseminated conveniently and rapidly. A computer-based disease monitoring and mapping system which achieves these objectives is presented. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 1980.
Seedborne Phytophthora infestans : effect of pathogen clonal lineage and potato cultivar on seed transmission of late blight and plant growth responsesPartipilo, Heather M. 11 March 2002 (has links)
Seed piece to plant transmission of the potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, occurred with isolates of the clonal lineages US-8 in Oregon and US-11 in Washington in field trials. Average transmission rate across potato cultivars was 0.5 and 2.4% with US-8, and 0.8 and 1.0% with US-11 in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Transmission rate with US-8 was 2.3% for Russet Burbank (RB) in 1999 and 1.7, 0.7, 4.3, 7.6 and 0.5% for Bannock, Bzura, Ranger, Russet Norkotah (RN), and Umatilla, respectively, in 2000. Transmission rate with US-11 in 1999 was 0.5, 4.9 and 1.4% for RB, RN, and Shepody, respectively, and 1.7% for RB in 2000. Seedborne inoculum of both clonal lineages significantly affected stand establishment and plant vigor. With US-8, final emergence, emergence rate, and aerial biomass of cvs Kennebec, RB, RN, and Shepody were significantly lower than Bzura in 1999, whereas in 2000, these same responses in Chieftain, Bannock, Ranger, and Shepody were significantly lower than Bzura, Umatilla and RN. With US-11, these same response variables were significantly lower in Kennebec, RN and Shepody compared to Bzura and RB in 1999, and were significantly lower in Bannock, Chieftain, Ranger and Shepody compared to RB and Umatilla in 2000. Plant growth responses of cvs RB and RN grown from seed pieces infected with US-8 or US-11 were evaluated in greenhouse trials. RN was equally susceptible to both clonal lineages whereas RB was more resistant than RN to seedborne inoculum of US-11. Compared to RN its final emergence was higher, emergence rate was faster, aerial biomass was greater, and seed piece decay was lower. US-8 was more aggressive than US-11 on RB. US-8 caused a greater reduction in final emergence, emergence rate, and aerial biomass, and a greater increase in seed piece decay. The two clonal lineages were similar in their aggressiveness on RN. This is the first report of cultivar*clonal lineage*inoculum density interactions for plant growth responses of potato grown from seed pieces infected with P. infestans. / Graduation date: 2002
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