19 February 2019
This research study seeks to determine which factors contribute to the performance of Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme in Botswana. The Botswana Government initiated the CBNRM programme as a means of encouraging sustainable use of natural resources and eradicating poverty. Previous researchers have found that CBNRM projects are not performing at a level that they should be. Therefore this study sought to understand why that was the case. Literature review was carried out to determine what these factors were. The study focused on the performance of CBNRM programme at National level. It investigates the key factors perceived by the three key stakeholders (DWNP, DFRR, and BTB) involved in the programme at National level. A qualitative research approach was followed, in which interviews of seven representatives of key stakeholder organizations (primary data) and CBNRM documents (secondary data) were used as a means of obtaining the required information. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis to identify any emergent themes or patterns developing from the selected participants and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to establish which CBNRM Programme Performance Criteria influence the performance of CBNRM projects in Botswana. The findings from the AHP Criteria Expert questionnaire found that CBNRM stakeholder factors were rated higher than other factors influencing CBNRM programme performance in Botswana. The majority of the respondents said the programme was performing fairly, although there areas which were thought to be lacking, such as the absence of a CBNRM ACT of Parliament, poor coordination and monitoring and a lack of benefits realization by communities. Furthermore, the study found that there was not much of big difference between the literature that was reviewed and the views of the respondents. The study however did not examine CBNRM programmes at District level (individual projects). It focused mainly on the factors influencing programme performance at National level.
A study to establish the possible impact value management can have on the briefing stage of projects in the advertising industryLichtenstein, Alon January 2009 (has links)
The advertising industry is one that is barraged with problems that are found both within the agency environment and within the client-agency relationship. The problems identified have been categorised, by this report, into the areas: the agency environment that has changed due to technology; the inner-workings of the agency network; and the client-agency relationship. This research report focuses on the briefing stage of the advertising projects with a view to study the management process used to achieve clarity therein, in an endeavour to better understand problems the agency environment faces. Further, this study explored if an alternate method, Value Management (VM), can be implemented during the briefing stage of advertising projects. The effects were assessed and a further examination conducted to assess if the use of VM can remedy some of the problems facing the agency environment. As VM is designed to improve the value of a particular product offering, its application should positively impact on both advertising agency projects and client-agency relationships.
Rwelamila, Esther Kagemulo
Purpose: The purpose of this dissertation is to understand the risk in South African construction projects that affect the achievement of objectives, with respect to time, cost and quality. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive review of Risk management and construction risks in South Africa and abroad was conducted. This was followed by a review of construction risks in the Western Cape from a perspective, using the Repertory Grid Analysis Technique (RGT) methodology. The results of the RGT were then analysed against the preceding literature to draw inferences and conclusions. Findings: This study has provided insight to the risks that hinder the realisation of project objectives in the Western Cape, through the Triad and Elicitation process of the Repertory Grid Technique. The identified risks were categorized in groups based on their similarity and the groups ranked in order of frequency and importance as follows: labour, material, selected subcontractor, programme and scheduling and client. Originality/Value: The research represents one of the few attempts to understand construction risks utilising the RGT, thus forming a valued contribution to the project management database.
Glass ceilings - a study into the barriers faced by aspiring professional black women in the South African Built EnvironmentMpemba, Nyasha 19 February 2019 (has links)
The purpose and inspiration behind this research was to outline the barriers faced and hurdles that aspiring professional black women in the South African Built Environment face. These hurdles usually occur as black women work towards climbing the corporate ladder and establishing careers within executive leadership positions, when compared to their male counterparts. The main research objectives of the study were to specifically determine generic barriers to the career advancement of professional black women in the South African Built Environment. The study was also meant to outline mechanisms used by women in the built environment professions to break through the above the glass ceiling that aspiring young black females below the glass ceilings should be aware of to break through the glass ceiling. As such the study was delimited to aspiring black women in the South African Built Environment. Literature review touched on various aspects that pertain barriers faced by aspiring professional black women in the South African Built Environment. Issues such as the factors that contribute to the glass ceiling as well as mechanism that can be used to overcome the glass ceilings were critically reviewed. The research methodology of the study comprised the use of a qualitative research approach with structured interviews being the main data collection instrument. Interviewees were drawn from a diversity of professions within the South African Built Environment. The main research findings established that the majority of interviewees were able to comprehend the essence to the BBBEE legislations as it pertains to them. The majority of interviewees underestimated the appeal of networking in improving career prospects of black women in the South African Built Environment. None of the interviewees expressed that they have black women as their mentor. There appeared to be mixed feelings with respect to maintaining a work-life balance upon getting married with some expressing that they expect no differences in their work schedules whilst others highlight that they will have to adjust. Practical implications derived from the study are that, for black women to effectively break the glass ceilings in the South African Built Environment, they have to pass the criteria for high potential designation and executive positions. This criterion includes issues such as the development of a strategic fit between the aspiring black women and the strategic and financial goals of the built environment.
Effective and efficient requirement traceability in the software development and Information Technology industryShereni, Tafadzwa January 2015 (has links)
Requirements traceability has been identified as a quality factor and a characteristic a system should possess and include as a non-functional requirement. Requirements engineering processes should always include methods and tools of maintaining traces and relationships between requirements and product artefacts. To investigate the extent to which requirements traceability is used in software and information technology projects, a theoretical model of requirements traceability was presented in this research. Five organizations were investigated through semi-structured interviews and their requirements tracing practices were compared with the theoretical model. The extent to which organizations apply requirements traceability practices in their projects differs and as a result they were categorised as inactive, dormant and active users in this research. The advent of agile development methods is one of the major factors affecting requirements traceability practices. Among other recommended areas of further research, there is need for future research to look at how agile development and traditional methods can be implemented together in requirement tracing practices.
Evaluation of the challenges to project delivery confronting project leaders in the dynamic human settlement environmentCompanie, Fabio January 2020 (has links)
Governments around the world are battling and continually trying to address the housing backlog, which stems from previous discriminatory regimes and increasing urbanization. The housing backlog in South Africa has increased significantly and most especially in Cape Town. Housing is seen as a measure to transform and unify the aforementioned segregated population. Project Leaders (PLs) are saddled with the responsibility of housing delivery and managing diverse stakeholders. Although project management is the driving force behind the provision of housing delivery, the project process is not free from dynamics. These housing projects constantly attract social and political attention, resulting in the PL repetitively contending with the inherited social and political dynamics of the Human Settlement Environment (HSE). This dynamism creates a complexity that poses numerous challenges that hinder the PL's ability to lead, manage and transform housing projects. This research examines the challenges faced by PLs in the HSE, and whether PLs exercise a capacity to creatively transform, maintain, and lead the project organization. A qualitative research approach with inductive-philosophical reasoning was chosen for the study. The research employed interviews for data collection. A sample of 19 PLs working in the public sector of human settlements in Cape Town was purposefully selected to participate in the study. The collected data was analysed using thematic analysis to identify appropriate themes. The research defined dynamic HSE as a new variable through the literature conducted and contributing to the body of knowledge. The results further identified six themes emerging from the challenges faced by PLs. They are: 1) Social challenges; 2) Political challenges; 3) Organizational challenges; 4) Legislative challenges; 5) Multi-stakeholder challenges; and 6) Skills challenges. Following on from these themes, two key issues showed that social and political influence were the dominant factors affecting the implementation of housing projects. The research found that PLs do not have the authority in housing delivery. This limits the PL's ability to creatively transform, maintain and lead the project organization.
Large-scale grid-connected renewable energy in Australia: Potential barriers, strategies and policy support mechanisms that may affect RE development from the perspective of energy specialists at a leading consultancy operating in the built environment in AustraliaCampbell, Benjamin 19 January 2021 (has links)
Barriers to renewable energy development in the past have been identified as high upfront costs with challenges around equity and debt financing, as well as limited legal frameworks and limited regulatory support. Although it is noted that barriers to development are country specific, as well as the solutions to overcome such barriers. Policy measures implemented in various countries to support renewable energy have been seen to have a marked impact on its development. The renewable energy industry in Australia is showing unprecedented growth with a drastic change in the energy landscape expected in the future, should all proposed developments come to fruition. Renewable energy in Australia is currently in its infancy though. It is expected that the planned integration of all the proposed developments in the National Electricity Market will result in certain barriers to development emerging at higher levels of integration. Australia's energy policy has taken significant steps to supporting the deployment of cleaner generation technologies, although hurdles at federal and state level have in the past frustrated the development of renewable energy. The history and status quo of renewable energy development in Australia has been investigated. The current framework and support structures in place as well as potential barriers have been reviewed. A qualitative investigation utilising a single case study approach was selected as the research method. The case investigated was the renewable energy division of a leading global engineering consultancy operating in Australia. The participants of the study included the senior management staff in the renewable energy division of the company. Standard open-ended interviews were conducted. The data was analysed by employing a method of pattern matching. The observed data from the interview process was analysed and compared against the expected pattern which had emerged from the literature. Potential barriers and support strategies have been outlined as a conclusion to the study. The study found federal energy policy to be favourable, but not vital for continued growth of RE development. It was acknowledged that a focus on grid infrastructure would be vital to avoid constricting asset development. The development of Renewable Energy Zones was considered a favourable strategy to overcoming barriers identified, although it was noted that community acceptance would be a significant consideration. Gas generation may form part of the future energy mix, but will be dependent on price and emergent technology. Pumped hydro power is expected to be an important compliment to renewable energy in future, to assist in addressing the technical barriers associated with high levels of non-synchronous generation in the network. A reform of the NEM may also be required to cater for a scenario of a significant penetration of renewable energy and is a topic recommended for future research.
Integrating project management and change management to reduce information and technology (it) project failure. A soft systems methodology (ssm) enquiry into a failing it project at UNHCR, South Africa.Chimwe, Tapera 19 January 2021 (has links)
Background to the study – The continued failure of Information and Technology (IT) projects has generated a lot of interest in literature in recent times despite huge capital investments into the industry. However, the failure is not only attributed to technical deficiencies but there is a growing realization, in literature, that there is a social dimension to the issue, one in which, presumably, traditional project managers do not have adequate skills in. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) IT Manager, intends to introduce a new IT system but is faced with mutinous behavior by the users towards the project rendering it a possible failure. Purpose: It is the purpose of this study, to explore the possibility of equipping the project manager with the change management skill of communication using an appropriate methodology to see if this will bring about an improvement to the problem situation. Design/methodology/approach – The study takes an Action research approach, where the researcher is also a participant, using Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) to investigate the problem situation. The study deals with a fuzzy, non-linear problem with unclear objectives and users with different perspectives to the situation hence the appropriateness of SSM to the study. This is an Interpretive study that employs qualitative techniques for data collection in the form of interviews and observation. Data analysis is done through comparison of SSM model and the real world. Findings – To avoid possible user resistance to the introduction of new IT system, the project manager needs to ensure the users have a shared view and buy-in into the project. User participation in the decision-making process of the project throughout the life of the project ensures the users claim part-ownership to the project thereby reducing resistance. Recommendations – Training of the users, understanding their concerns, allowing the users to participate in decision making, consultation, debate, dialog, and finally incorporating these actions into implementing the project. These are actions that the project manager needs to take to improve the problematical situation. Practical Implications – This study gives insights on possible solutions to the continued reality of IT projects failure. Exploring the social side of IT projects and bringing in the dimension of possible integration of project management and change management disciplines brings an added perspective to the body of knowledge.
An Analysis of Project Risk Factors for Donor Funded Projects and Programs in the Health Sector in ZimbabweBuhlungu, Simbarashe 04 January 2021 (has links)
Like many developing nations, the health sector in Zimbabwe is not adequately funded and has for many years complemented its tight budget with external funding and development assistance (MOHCC, 2016: 11). External funding comes from various partners in the form of donor funds or international development assistance. According to the Ministry of Health and Child Care, for the year 2012, more than 40% of health sector funding was through development assistance (MOHCC, 2016: 11). That corresponds to a dollar value of approximately US$428 million. Since then, the country has continued to face challenges, which implies that current figures for external funding could be at similar levels or higher. In the 2017 budget, development partners were projected to contribute a collective figure of US$229.8 million, complementing US$318.4 million that was partly allocated from the budget and partly raised through user fees (US$281.9 million budget allocation, US$36.5 million user fees) (MOFED, 2016: 86). This would put the proportion of development aid at approximately 42% of the projected expenditure in 2017 (the 2017 budget did not account for the contribution of other levies such as AIDS Levy that usually contribute towards the budget). For 2018, the national budget projected total health expenditure to amount to US$729.4 million, made up of US$489.8 million from budget appropriations and levy funds and US$239.6 million from development partners (MOFED, 2017: 142). These figures show that development aid was projected to constitute approximately 33% of health expenditure in 2018. The national budget accounts for monetary and quantifiable support. Development assistance also comes in non-monetary forms such as equipment, drugs, technical assistance and other sponsored projects whose real value is sometimes not captured by budgets or is just difficult to quantify. When looking at development aid, these forms of support also have to be taken into consideration. This could mean that the real figures for development support may be higher than reflected in budgets. The figures above underscore the importance of development aid hence the need to ensure that it is effectively utilised. 9 Development aid is project oriented business (Ika et al., 2010: 63). Donor funds are commonly channelled into specific purpose programs and projects aimed at achieving specific results in the health sector. This is the common practise with most international development assistance provided to developing countries, it is availed and managed through projects (Diallo and Thuillier, 2005: 237).
Evaluating the optimal innovative cost control techniques used in the South African construction industryDuku, Leju 20 January 2021 (has links)
The execution of construction projects commands a myriad of technological, human, organisational and natural resources. However, the construction and engineering undertaking of these projects are frequently overshadowed by economic difficulties, such as the high costs of construction materials, that have a negative impact on project costs. Cost overruns have been determined as a phenomenon continually plaguing the construction industry in both private and public sectors, and very few projects are completed within cost parameters. This research evaluated the barriers to the use of innovative cost control techniques during the construction phase, and determined the level of cost overruns on construction projects in South Africa; identified innovative cost control techniques used by construction firms on construction projects; established the optimal innovative cost control technique used in the South African construction industry; and uncovered the relationship between the level of use of innovative cost control techniques on construction projects and cost overrun. Questionnaires were the chosen instrument for data collection and were circulated via Survey Monkey. A total of 123 questionnaires were returned, and they provided the base for the computation of study results. Statistical tools employed in the study included percentages, mean item score (MIS), and frequency distributions. A scatter plot was used to distinguish whether there was a correlation between the cost performance of projects and level of innovativeness by establishing a line of best fit through the set of the two variables. A line of best fit in the positive direction indicates that increased levels of innovativeness improves the cost performance of projects, while a line of best fit in the negative direction indicates that increased levels of innovativeness does not enhance project performance. The relationship between the level of innovative cost control techniques usage in construction projects and cost overrun was determined to be negative. This led to the conclusion that construction professionals are limiting themselves and are not exploring alternative or innovative cost control techniques. They were focused on project efficiency and productivity rather than cost overruns. Innovative cost control techniques identified in the study were Earned Value Analysis (EVA), Last Planner System (LPS), 4D Scheduling, Fuzzy Project Scheduling, Integrated critical path and Line of Balance, and Reserve Analysis. Study findings determined that the critical contributors to cost overruns included tight project budgets, project complexity, a high frequency of change orders by clients and financial difficulties encountered by contractors. Perceived barriers to the implementation of innovative cost control techniques in projects by participants included a poor scope definition, a lack of training and technical skill of project personnel, poor understanding of cost analysis and variables involved in cost planning. It also emerged that projects cannot meet project objectives, and construction organisations are not making use of the right tools and techniques to monitor and control construction costs. The research findings have shown that professionals have limited knowledge of innovative cost control techniques. This also concludes that they are not taking advantage of the features of new innovative techniques to tackle complex projects. This, therefore, means that complex projects will continue to experience cost overruns. This study concludes that top management of construction organisations are not training their staff to embrace new technologies and innovation. To address the barriers to the use of innovative techniques, there should be increased investment on the part of construction organisations toward affording their workforce the relevant training, knowledge and technical skill required to implement the modern techniques for cost control identified in the report. The cidb should organise seminars and workshops on the usefulness and importance of innovative cost control techniques, and workers should embrace self-development and change. Government should implement policies on the use of innovative cost control techniques for their projects, and construction organisations should develop capacity in line with innovative cost control techniques.
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