Extending knowledge management beyond organisational borders – barriers for South African construction organisationsOsborne, Jeremy 20 February 2021 (has links)
Previous research raised the question of why South African organisations do not extend their Knowledge Management (KM) practices beyond their organisational borders. Therefore, there is a need to examine the barriers faced by construction organisations when trying to extend KM activities beyond organisational borders towards encouraging the South African construction sector to improve upon its collective KM maturity. This research utilised a quantitative approach which initially examined the available literature on the topic of Knowledge Management and the barriers found inhibiting its implementation. From this knowledge a survey instrument was developed and circulated to 499 construction professionals based in South Africa to elicit their opinions on Knowledge Management, extending KM activities beyond organisational boundaries and the barriers potentially inhibiting these activities. A total of 93 usable data sets were received and subjected to statistical analysis. This research found that there was a clear positive opinion towards KM and to extending these activities beyond organisational borders. The perception that by extending KM activities beyond organisational borders may negatively impact the organisations competitiveness is still prevalent and is a barrier to extending KM activities beyond organisational borders. Further it was found that the lack of time allocated to KM activities was an inhibitor to KM activities bother internally and from extending these KM activities beyond organisational borders. However, the amount of training given on KM and support of management was only found to be of significant concern in the less mature organisations and therefore may inhibit KM activities but were not a clear inhibitor to extending these activities beyond organisational borders. Continuity in the makeup of project teams was identified as a potential route to improve project performance and the current contracts utilised in the sector did not appear to currently impact knowledge sharing. Encouragingly it was found that knowledge was not withheld by employees to improve job security and further the challenges faced by multiple languages being spoken in the project environment and in coordinating TMO's did not register as significant inhibitors to knowledge sharing. This research's findings show that professionals in the South African construction sector have a positive opinion towards KM and extending these activities beyond organisational borders. Barriers do exist in the sector that are inhibiting knowledge managements implementation and growth, however by highlighting these issues it is possible for organisations to overcome the challenges faced, grow their knowledge management maturity and extract the most out of the strategies implemented. Based on these findings, the study recommended that there is a need to establish partnerships and longstanding relationships which foster knowledge transfer to overcome the negative perception that extending knowledge management activities beyond organisational borders may negatively impact competitiveness. This research was limited by the response rate to the survey circulated being low with only 93 valid data sets in the sample for statistical analysis. Further most respondents to the survey were from small and micro organisations who had low KM maturities and therefore the results for this research cannot claim to represent the construction sector of South Africa as a whole.
Rethinking the Cape Town Property Developer: Understanding the local developer's perspective of the City of Cape Town Municipality and comparing this perspective to local Transit-Orientated Development policy constructs of the developerAbdullah, Mohammed Perwez 21 December 2020 (has links)
Purpose – This dissertation investigated the degree to which the City of Cape Town understands a ‘notional' Cape Town property developer within the Transit-Orientated Development (“TOD”) context. This dissertation is not meant to draw a distinction between a right or wrong model of a local property developer, but to investigate what a richer model would look like using alternative economic perspectives that capture the multiplicity of reality and possible TOD policy implications. Design – A literature review was undertaken to understand institutional and behavioural economic frameworks, how each framework relates to the property market, and how to use the frameworks to assist in defining a developer. Further research was conducted to consider the property development process from the perspective of the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) framework. The property developer as an actor within the property market was then deconstructed. Alternative approaches to local government involvement in the development industry and the developer's perspective on TOD was also explored. A qualitative, semi-structured localist interview was conducted with nine major developers operating in Cape Town. They were selected because they are likely to participate in catalytic TOD-type projects. The interview aimed to understand their world view and how their lived experience relates to the City of Cape Town municipality. Findings – There is a ‘definition gap' between how the City of Cape Town has defined a developer and the findings of this dissertation. Policy implies a developer has perfect decision-making qualities pursuing maximum profits, whereas this dissertation found that developers tend to be focussed on risk reduction and exhibit satisficing and loss-averse behaviour. There are also those who prefer to build and hold a portfolio of rental properties which are not defined in policy. This type of developer possesses a different outlook and investment behaviour than the one defined in the TOD Strategic Framework. The City of Cape Town does not appreciate its positioning within and its influence on local property market dynamics, as it relates to the ‘rules of the game'. Practical Implications – Without understanding these distinctions, developers may not necessarily, predictably and readily respond to any TOD incentives and levers as set out in the Framework, resulting in policy perpetuating the very spatial inequalities and status quo the City of Cape Town aims to redress.
Effective and efficient requirement traceability in the software development and Information Technology industryShereni, Tafadzwa January 2015 (has links)
Requirements traceability has been identified as a quality factor and a characteristic a system should possess and include as a non-functional requirement. Requirements engineering processes should always include methods and tools of maintaining traces and relationships between requirements and product artefacts. To investigate the extent to which requirements traceability is used in software and information technology projects, a theoretical model of requirements traceability was presented in this research. Five organizations were investigated through semi-structured interviews and their requirements tracing practices were compared with the theoretical model. The extent to which organizations apply requirements traceability practices in their projects differs and as a result they were categorised as inactive, dormant and active users in this research. The advent of agile development methods is one of the major factors affecting requirements traceability practices. Among other recommended areas of further research, there is need for future research to look at how agile development and traditional methods can be implemented together in requirement tracing practices.
Evaluation of the challenges to project delivery confronting project leaders in the dynamic human settlement environmentCompanie, Fabio January 2020 (has links)
Governments around the world are battling and continually trying to address the housing backlog, which stems from previous discriminatory regimes and increasing urbanization. The housing backlog in South Africa has increased significantly and most especially in Cape Town. Housing is seen as a measure to transform and unify the aforementioned segregated population. Project Leaders (PLs) are saddled with the responsibility of housing delivery and managing diverse stakeholders. Although project management is the driving force behind the provision of housing delivery, the project process is not free from dynamics. These housing projects constantly attract social and political attention, resulting in the PL repetitively contending with the inherited social and political dynamics of the Human Settlement Environment (HSE). This dynamism creates a complexity that poses numerous challenges that hinder the PL's ability to lead, manage and transform housing projects. This research examines the challenges faced by PLs in the HSE, and whether PLs exercise a capacity to creatively transform, maintain, and lead the project organization. A qualitative research approach with inductive-philosophical reasoning was chosen for the study. The research employed interviews for data collection. A sample of 19 PLs working in the public sector of human settlements in Cape Town was purposefully selected to participate in the study. The collected data was analysed using thematic analysis to identify appropriate themes. The research defined dynamic HSE as a new variable through the literature conducted and contributing to the body of knowledge. The results further identified six themes emerging from the challenges faced by PLs. They are: 1) Social challenges; 2) Political challenges; 3) Organizational challenges; 4) Legislative challenges; 5) Multi-stakeholder challenges; and 6) Skills challenges. Following on from these themes, two key issues showed that social and political influence were the dominant factors affecting the implementation of housing projects. The research found that PLs do not have the authority in housing delivery. This limits the PL's ability to creatively transform, maintain and lead the project organization.
Large-scale grid-connected renewable energy in Australia: Potential barriers, strategies and policy support mechanisms that may affect RE development from the perspective of energy specialists at a leading consultancy operating in the built environment in AustraliaCampbell, Benjamin 19 January 2021 (has links)
Barriers to renewable energy development in the past have been identified as high upfront costs with challenges around equity and debt financing, as well as limited legal frameworks and limited regulatory support. Although it is noted that barriers to development are country specific, as well as the solutions to overcome such barriers. Policy measures implemented in various countries to support renewable energy have been seen to have a marked impact on its development. The renewable energy industry in Australia is showing unprecedented growth with a drastic change in the energy landscape expected in the future, should all proposed developments come to fruition. Renewable energy in Australia is currently in its infancy though. It is expected that the planned integration of all the proposed developments in the National Electricity Market will result in certain barriers to development emerging at higher levels of integration. Australia's energy policy has taken significant steps to supporting the deployment of cleaner generation technologies, although hurdles at federal and state level have in the past frustrated the development of renewable energy. The history and status quo of renewable energy development in Australia has been investigated. The current framework and support structures in place as well as potential barriers have been reviewed. A qualitative investigation utilising a single case study approach was selected as the research method. The case investigated was the renewable energy division of a leading global engineering consultancy operating in Australia. The participants of the study included the senior management staff in the renewable energy division of the company. Standard open-ended interviews were conducted. The data was analysed by employing a method of pattern matching. The observed data from the interview process was analysed and compared against the expected pattern which had emerged from the literature. Potential barriers and support strategies have been outlined as a conclusion to the study. The study found federal energy policy to be favourable, but not vital for continued growth of RE development. It was acknowledged that a focus on grid infrastructure would be vital to avoid constricting asset development. The development of Renewable Energy Zones was considered a favourable strategy to overcoming barriers identified, although it was noted that community acceptance would be a significant consideration. Gas generation may form part of the future energy mix, but will be dependent on price and emergent technology. Pumped hydro power is expected to be an important compliment to renewable energy in future, to assist in addressing the technical barriers associated with high levels of non-synchronous generation in the network. A reform of the NEM may also be required to cater for a scenario of a significant penetration of renewable energy and is a topic recommended for future research.
Integrating project management and change management to reduce information and technology (it) project failure. A soft systems methodology (ssm) enquiry into a failing it project at UNHCR, South Africa.Chimwe, Tapera 19 January 2021 (has links)
Background to the study – The continued failure of Information and Technology (IT) projects has generated a lot of interest in literature in recent times despite huge capital investments into the industry. However, the failure is not only attributed to technical deficiencies but there is a growing realization, in literature, that there is a social dimension to the issue, one in which, presumably, traditional project managers do not have adequate skills in. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) IT Manager, intends to introduce a new IT system but is faced with mutinous behavior by the users towards the project rendering it a possible failure. Purpose: It is the purpose of this study, to explore the possibility of equipping the project manager with the change management skill of communication using an appropriate methodology to see if this will bring about an improvement to the problem situation. Design/methodology/approach – The study takes an Action research approach, where the researcher is also a participant, using Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) to investigate the problem situation. The study deals with a fuzzy, non-linear problem with unclear objectives and users with different perspectives to the situation hence the appropriateness of SSM to the study. This is an Interpretive study that employs qualitative techniques for data collection in the form of interviews and observation. Data analysis is done through comparison of SSM model and the real world. Findings – To avoid possible user resistance to the introduction of new IT system, the project manager needs to ensure the users have a shared view and buy-in into the project. User participation in the decision-making process of the project throughout the life of the project ensures the users claim part-ownership to the project thereby reducing resistance. Recommendations – Training of the users, understanding their concerns, allowing the users to participate in decision making, consultation, debate, dialog, and finally incorporating these actions into implementing the project. These are actions that the project manager needs to take to improve the problematical situation. Practical Implications – This study gives insights on possible solutions to the continued reality of IT projects failure. Exploring the social side of IT projects and bringing in the dimension of possible integration of project management and change management disciplines brings an added perspective to the body of knowledge.
An Analysis of Project Risk Factors for Donor Funded Projects and Programs in the Health Sector in ZimbabweBuhlungu, Simbarashe 04 January 2021 (has links)
Like many developing nations, the health sector in Zimbabwe is not adequately funded and has for many years complemented its tight budget with external funding and development assistance (MOHCC, 2016: 11). External funding comes from various partners in the form of donor funds or international development assistance. According to the Ministry of Health and Child Care, for the year 2012, more than 40% of health sector funding was through development assistance (MOHCC, 2016: 11). That corresponds to a dollar value of approximately US$428 million. Since then, the country has continued to face challenges, which implies that current figures for external funding could be at similar levels or higher. In the 2017 budget, development partners were projected to contribute a collective figure of US$229.8 million, complementing US$318.4 million that was partly allocated from the budget and partly raised through user fees (US$281.9 million budget allocation, US$36.5 million user fees) (MOFED, 2016: 86). This would put the proportion of development aid at approximately 42% of the projected expenditure in 2017 (the 2017 budget did not account for the contribution of other levies such as AIDS Levy that usually contribute towards the budget). For 2018, the national budget projected total health expenditure to amount to US$729.4 million, made up of US$489.8 million from budget appropriations and levy funds and US$239.6 million from development partners (MOFED, 2017: 142). These figures show that development aid was projected to constitute approximately 33% of health expenditure in 2018. The national budget accounts for monetary and quantifiable support. Development assistance also comes in non-monetary forms such as equipment, drugs, technical assistance and other sponsored projects whose real value is sometimes not captured by budgets or is just difficult to quantify. When looking at development aid, these forms of support also have to be taken into consideration. This could mean that the real figures for development support may be higher than reflected in budgets. The figures above underscore the importance of development aid hence the need to ensure that it is effectively utilised. 9 Development aid is project oriented business (Ika et al., 2010: 63). Donor funds are commonly channelled into specific purpose programs and projects aimed at achieving specific results in the health sector. This is the common practise with most international development assistance provided to developing countries, it is availed and managed through projects (Diallo and Thuillier, 2005: 237).
Evaluating the optimal innovative cost control techniques used in the South African construction industryDuku, Leju 20 January 2021 (has links)
The execution of construction projects commands a myriad of technological, human, organisational and natural resources. However, the construction and engineering undertaking of these projects are frequently overshadowed by economic difficulties, such as the high costs of construction materials, that have a negative impact on project costs. Cost overruns have been determined as a phenomenon continually plaguing the construction industry in both private and public sectors, and very few projects are completed within cost parameters. This research evaluated the barriers to the use of innovative cost control techniques during the construction phase, and determined the level of cost overruns on construction projects in South Africa; identified innovative cost control techniques used by construction firms on construction projects; established the optimal innovative cost control technique used in the South African construction industry; and uncovered the relationship between the level of use of innovative cost control techniques on construction projects and cost overrun. Questionnaires were the chosen instrument for data collection and were circulated via Survey Monkey. A total of 123 questionnaires were returned, and they provided the base for the computation of study results. Statistical tools employed in the study included percentages, mean item score (MIS), and frequency distributions. A scatter plot was used to distinguish whether there was a correlation between the cost performance of projects and level of innovativeness by establishing a line of best fit through the set of the two variables. A line of best fit in the positive direction indicates that increased levels of innovativeness improves the cost performance of projects, while a line of best fit in the negative direction indicates that increased levels of innovativeness does not enhance project performance. The relationship between the level of innovative cost control techniques usage in construction projects and cost overrun was determined to be negative. This led to the conclusion that construction professionals are limiting themselves and are not exploring alternative or innovative cost control techniques. They were focused on project efficiency and productivity rather than cost overruns. Innovative cost control techniques identified in the study were Earned Value Analysis (EVA), Last Planner System (LPS), 4D Scheduling, Fuzzy Project Scheduling, Integrated critical path and Line of Balance, and Reserve Analysis. Study findings determined that the critical contributors to cost overruns included tight project budgets, project complexity, a high frequency of change orders by clients and financial difficulties encountered by contractors. Perceived barriers to the implementation of innovative cost control techniques in projects by participants included a poor scope definition, a lack of training and technical skill of project personnel, poor understanding of cost analysis and variables involved in cost planning. It also emerged that projects cannot meet project objectives, and construction organisations are not making use of the right tools and techniques to monitor and control construction costs. The research findings have shown that professionals have limited knowledge of innovative cost control techniques. This also concludes that they are not taking advantage of the features of new innovative techniques to tackle complex projects. This, therefore, means that complex projects will continue to experience cost overruns. This study concludes that top management of construction organisations are not training their staff to embrace new technologies and innovation. To address the barriers to the use of innovative techniques, there should be increased investment on the part of construction organisations toward affording their workforce the relevant training, knowledge and technical skill required to implement the modern techniques for cost control identified in the report. The cidb should organise seminars and workshops on the usefulness and importance of innovative cost control techniques, and workers should embrace self-development and change. Government should implement policies on the use of innovative cost control techniques for their projects, and construction organisations should develop capacity in line with innovative cost control techniques.
Mavundla, Lungisa H
12 February 2021
Project governance sets the guidelines and operational framework that dictates how decisions should be made during the project process to increase the prospects of successful project delivery. Understanding a project governance mechanism and its complexities and resolving challenges in the application of project governance practices are steps in the right direction to effectively entrenching a project governance mechanism in the organization's projects. This research probes the role of governance in the management of projects. The research followed a qualitative approach using case study method. Questionnaires and document reviews were used as data collection tools. Case data was collected from 6 interviewees and 6 completed projects. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. The research revealed that PRASA entrenches a governance framework for its projects at different levels of the organization. PRASA follows a standardized structure and work methods that are based on the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) framework of standards and best practices. The format of the project governance framework to a high degree adheres to the recommendations made by the project governance literature, with various roles and responsibilities such as the sponsor, steering committee, project management office, and a project manager. The application of the governance framework on the projects was found to be similarly applied in the projects reviewed. While certain processes and mechanisms to facilitate the application of a governance mechanism exist, various factors were found to hamper the practical application of the governance framework. Large project steering committee with limited decision making powers, substantial dependence on contractors for project management know-how, long procurement process cycle were some of the factors found to hamper effective application of the governance framework. The research concludes that the limitations in the existing framework as well as the challenges to effective application of the framework are thought to contribute to projects that are late and over budget.
This research examines the micro -political risks affecting international construction projects in Namibia and whether these risks are effectively managed. A case study research design was used for the study and the findings were that key threat risks identified in this context were repudiation, contract problems, labour unrest, hostile press, delay in permit approvals while local ownership requirements and expatriate labour restrictions are both threat and opportunity risks . It further emerged that qualitative (heuristic) techniques were commonly used in an ad hoc fashion for risk assessment and that the risk management strategy of cooperation was the most preferred. In addition, evidence suggest s that the execution phase is most prone to micro political risk. A significant number of the micro -political risks identified arise from the host government, while the balance arise from the host society. These findings are likely to apply to other international construction projects in Namibia and have serious implication s for the role of government in the success or failure of infrastructural projects which are badly needed for national development. Therefore, the Namibian Government can positively contribute through introduction of regulations, laws or amendments to laws that enhance opportunities, minimise downside risk, and thereby reduce overall construction costs on international construction projects in the country. It is recommended that systematic risk management in which both qualitative and quantitative techniques are used for risk assessment, be adopted in dealing with micro political risks associated with international construction projects in Namibia. Additionally, tertiary institutions offering risk management training need to focus on qualitative methods to facilitate maximum benefit when these methods are applied by their graduates. The existence of both threat s and opportunities in the micro -political risk environment in international construction means contractors in international construction need to be on the lookout for downside risks as well as opportunities.
Page generated in 0.1669 seconds