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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Numerical and statistical approaches for model checking of stochastic processes

Djafri, Hilal 19 June 2012 (has links) (PDF)
We propose in this thesis several contributions related to the quantitative verification of systems. This discipline aims to evaluate functional and performance properties of a system. Such a verification requires two ingredients: a formal model to represent the system and a temporal logic to express the desired property. Then the evaluation is done with a statistical or numerical method. The spatial complexity of numerical methods which is proportional to the size of the state space of the model makes them impractical when the state space is very large. The method of stochastic comparison with censored Markov chains is one of the methods that reduces memory requirements by restricting the analysis to a subset of the states of the original Markov chain. In this thesis we provide new bounds that depend on the available information about the chain. We introduce a new quantitative temporal logic named Hybrid Automata Stochastic Logic (HASL), for the verification of discrete event stochastic processes (DESP). HASL employs Linear Hybrid Automata (LHA) to select prefixes of relevant execution paths of a DESP. LHA allows rather elaborate information to be collected on-the-fly during path selection, providing the user with a powerful mean to express sophisticated measures. In essence HASL provides a unifying verification framework where temporal reasoning is naturally blended with elaborate reward-based analysis. We have also developed COSMOS, a tool that implements statistical verification of HASL formulas over stochastic Petri nets. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) have often been modelized by Petri nets. However the modeler should have a good knowledge of this formalism. In order to facilitate such a modeling we propose a methodology of compositional modeling that is application oriented and does not require any knowledge of Petri nets by the modeler.
2

Numerical and statistical approaches for model checking of stochastic processes / Approches numériques et statistiques pour le model checking des processus stochastiques.

Djafri, Hilal 19 June 2012 (has links)
Nous proposons dans cette thèse plusieurs contributions relatives à la vérification quantitative des systèmes. Cette discipline vise à évaluer les propriétés fonctionnelles et les performances d'un système. Une telle vérification requiert deux ingrédients : un modèle formel de représentation d'un système et une logique temporelle pour exprimer la propriété considérée. L'évaluation est alors faite par une méthode statistique ou numérique. La complexité spatiale des méthodes numériques, proportionnelle à la taille de l'espace d'états, les rend impraticables si les systèmes présentent une combinatoire importante. La méthode de comparaison stochastique basée sur les chaînes de Markov censurées réduit la mémoire occupée en restreignant l'analyse à un sous-ensemble des états de la chaîne originale. Dans cette thèse nous fournissons de nouvelles bornes dépendant de l'information disponible relative à la chaîne. Nous introduisons une nouvelle logique temporelle quantitative appelée Hybrid Automata Stochastic Logic (HASL), pour la vérification des processus stochastiques à événements discrets (DESP).HASL emploie les automates linéaires hybrides (LHA) pour sélectionner des préfixes de chemins d'exécution d'un DESP. LHA permet de collecter des informations élaborées durant la génération des chemins, fournissant ainsi à l'utilisateur un moyen d'exprimer des mesures sophistiquées. HASL supporte donc des raisonnements temporels mixés avec une analyse à base de récompenses. Nous avons aussi développé COSMOS, un outil qui implémente la vérification statistique de formules HASL pour des réseaux de Petri stochastiques. Les ateliers flexibles (FMS) ont souvent été modélisés par des réseaux de Petri. Cependant le modélisateur doit avoir une bonne connaissance de ce formalisme. Afin de faciliter cette modélisation nous proposons une méthodologie de modélisation compositionnelle orientée vers les applications qui ne requiert aucune connaissance des réseaux de Petri. / We propose in this thesis several contributions related to the quantitative verification of systems. This discipline aims to evaluate functional and performance properties of a system. Such a verification requires two ingredients: a formal model to represent the system and a temporal logic to express the desired property. Then the evaluation is done with a statistical or numerical method. The spatial complexity of numerical methods which is proportional to the size of the state space of the model makes them impractical when the state space is very large. The method of stochastic comparison with censored Markov chains is one of the methods that reduces memory requirements by restricting the analysis to a subset of the states of the original Markov chain. In this thesis we provide new bounds that depend on the available information about the chain. We introduce a new quantitative temporal logic named Hybrid Automata Stochastic Logic (HASL), for the verification of discrete event stochastic processes (DESP). HASL employs Linear Hybrid Automata (LHA) to select prefixes of relevant execution paths of a DESP. LHA allows rather elaborate information to be collected on-the-fly during path selection, providing the user with a powerful mean to express sophisticated measures. In essence HASL provides a unifying verification framework where temporal reasoning is naturally blended with elaborate reward-based analysis. We have also developed COSMOS, a tool that implements statistical verification of HASL formulas over stochastic Petri nets. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) have often been modelized by Petri nets. However the modeler should have a good knowledge of this formalism. In order to facilitate such a modeling we propose a methodology of compositional modeling that is application oriented and does not require any knowledge of Petri nets by the modeler.
3

Quantitative Verification and Synthesis / Vérification et synthèse quantitative

Von Essen, Christian 28 April 2014 (has links)
Cette thèse contribue à l'étude théorique et a l'application de la vérification et de la synthèse quantitative. Nous étudions les stratégies qui optimisent la fraction de deux récompenses des MDPs. L'objectif est la synthèse de régulateurs efficaces dans des environnements probabilistes. Premièrement nous montrons que les stratégies déterministes et sans mémoire sont suffisants. Sur la base de ces résultats, nous proposons trois algorithmes pour traiter des modèles explicitement encodées. Notre évaluation de ces algorithmes montre que l'un de ces derniers est plus rapide que les autres. Par la suite nous proposons et mettons en place une variante symbolique basé sur les diagrammes de décision binaire.Deuxièmement, nous étudions le problème de réparation des programmes d'un point de vue quantitatif. Cela conduit à une reformulation de la réparation d'un log: que seules les exécutions fautives du programme soient modifiées. Nous étudions les limites de cette approche et montrons comment nous pouvons assouplir cette nouvelle exigence. Nous concevons et mettons en œuvre un algorithme pour trouver automatiquement des réparations, et montrons qu'il améliore les modifications apportées aux programmes. Troisièmement, nous étudions une nouvelle approche au framework pour la vérification et synthèse quantitative. La vérification et la synthèse fonctionnent en tandem pour analyser la qualité d'un contrôleur en ce qui concerne, par exemple , de robustesse contre des erreurs de modélisation. Nous considérons également la possibilité d'approximer la courbure de Pareto, qui appataît de la combinaison du modèle avec de multiples récompenses. Cela nous permet à la fois d'étudier les compromis inhérents au système et de choisir une configuration adéquate. Nous appliquons notre framework aux plusieurs études de cas. La majorité de l'étude de cas est concernée par un système anti-collision embarqué (ACAS X). Nous utilisons notre framework pour aider à analyser l'espace de conception du système et de valider le contrôleur en cours d'investigation par la FAA. En particulier, nous contribuons l'analyse par PCTL et stochastic model checking. / This thesis contributes to the theoretical study and application of quantitative verification and synthesis. We first study strategies that optimize the ratio of two rewards in MDPs. The goal is the synthesis of efficient controllers in probabilistic environments. We prove that deterministic and memoryless strategies are sufficient. Based on these results we suggest 3 algorithms to treat explicitly encoded models. Our evaluation of these algorithms shows that one of these is clearly faster than the others. To extend its scope, we propose and implement a symbolic variant based on binary decision diagrams, and show that it cope with millions of states. Second, we study the problem of program repair from a quantitative perspective. This leads to a reformulation of program repair with the requirement that only faulty runs of the program be changed. We study the limitations of this approach and show how we can relax the new requirement. We devise and implement an algorithm to automatically find repairs, and show that it improves the changes made to programs.Third, we study a novel approach to a quantitative verification and synthesis framework. In this, verification and synthesis work in tandem to analyze the quality of a controller with respect to, e.g., robustness against modeling errors. We also include the possibility to approximate the Pareto curve that emerges from combining the model with multiple rewards. This allows us to both study the trade-offs inherent in the system and choose a configuration to our liking. We apply our framework to several case studies. The major case study is concerned with the currently proposed next generation airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS X). We use our framework to help analyze the design space of the system and to validate the controller as currently under investigation by the FAA. In particular, we contribute analysis via PCTL and stochastic model checking to add to the confidence in the controller.
4

Automated quantitative software verification

Kattenbelt, Mark Alex January 2010 (has links)
Many software systems exhibit probabilistic behaviour, either added explicitly, to improve performance or to break symmetry, or implicitly, through interaction with unreliable networks or faulty hardware. When employed in safety-critical applications, it is important to rigorously analyse the behaviour of these systems. This can be done with a formal verification technique called model checking, which establishes properties of systems by algorithmically considering all execution scenarios. In the presence of probabilistic behaviour, we consider quantitative properties such as "the worst-case probability that the airbag fails to deploy within 10ms", instead of qualitative properties such as "the airbag eventually deploys". Although many model checking techniques exist to verify qualitative properties of software, quantitative model checking techniques typically focus on manually derived models of systems and cannot directly verify software. In this thesis, we present two quantitative model checking techniques for probabilistic software. The first is a quantitative adaptation of a successful model checking technique called counter-example guided abstraction refinement which uses stochastic two-player games as abstractions of probabilistic software. We show how to achieve abstraction and refinement in a probabilistic setting and investigate theoretical extensions of stochastic two-player game abstractions. Our second technique instruments probabilistic software in such a way that existing, non-probabilistic software verification methods can be used to compute bounds on quantitative properties of the original, uninstrumented software. Our techniques are the first to target real, compilable software in a probabilistic setting. We present an experimental evaluation of both approaches on a large range of case studies and evaluate several extensions and heuristics. We demonstrate that, with our methods, we can successfully compute quantitative properties of real network clients comprising approximately 1,000 lines of complex ANSI-C code — the verification of such software is far beyond the capabilities of existing quantitative model checking techniques.
5

Contributions to formalisms for the specification and verification of quantitative properties

Mazzocchi, Nicolas 09 October 2020 (has links) (PDF)
Reactive systems are computer systems that maintain continuous interaction with the environment in which they operate. Such systems are nowadays part of our daily life: think about common yet critical applications like engine control units in automotive, aircraft autopilots, medical aided- devices, or micro-controllers in mass production. Clearly, any flaw in such critical systems can have catastrophic consequences. However, they exhibit several characteristics, like resource limitation constraints, real-time responsiveness, concurrency that make them difficult to implement correctly. To ensure the design of reactive systems that are dependable, safe, and efficient, researchers and industrials have advocated the use of so-called formal methods, that rely on mathematical models to express precisely and analyze the behaviors of these systems.Automata theory provides a fundamental notion such as languages of program executions for which membership, emptiness, inclusion, and equivalence problems allow us to specify and verify properties of reactive systems. However, these Boolean notions yield the correctness of the system against a given property that sometimes, falls short of being satisfactory answers when the performances are prone to errors. As a consequence, a common engineering approach is not just to verify that a system satisfies a property, but whether it does so within a degree of quality and robustness.This thesis investigates the expressibility, recognition, and robustness of quantitative properties for program executions.• Firstly, we provide a survey on languages definable by regular automata with Presburger definable constraints on letter occurrences for which we provide descriptive complexity. Inspired by this model, we introduce an expression formalism that mixes formula and automata to define quantitative languages \ie function from words to integers. These expressions use Presburger arithmetic to combine values given by regular automata weighted by integers. We show that quantitative versions of the classical decision problems such as emptiness, universality, inclusion, and equivalence are computable. Then we investigate the extension of our expressions with a ''Kleene star'' style operator. This allows us to iterate an expression over smaller fragments of the input word, and to combine the results by taking their iterated sum. The decision problems quickly turn out to be not computable, but we introduce a new subclass based on a structural restriction for which algorithmic procedures exist.• Secondly, we consider a notion of robustness that places a distance on words, thus defining neighborhoods of program executions. A language is said to be robust if the membership satisfiability cannot differ for two ''close'' words, and that leads to robust versions of all the classical decision problems. Our contribution is to study robustness verification problems in the context of weighted transducers with different measures (sum, mean-payoff, and discounted sum). Here, the value associated by the transducer to rewrite a word into another denotes the cost of the noise that this rewriting induce. For each measure, we provide algorithms that determine whether a language is robust up to a given threshold of error and we solve the synthesis of the robust kernel for the sum measure. Furthermore, we provide case studies including modeling human control failures and approximate recognition of type-1 diabetes using robust detection of blood sugar level swings.• Finally, we observe that algorithms for structural patterns recognition of automata often share similar techniques. So, we introduce a generic logic to express structural properties of automata with outputs in some monoid, in particular, the set of predicates talking about the output values is parametric. Then, we consider three particular automata models (regular automata, transducers, and automata weighted by integers) and instantiate the generic logic for each of them. We give tight complexity results for the three logics with respect to the pattern recognition problem. We study the expressiveness of our logics by expressing classical structural patterns characterizing for instance unambiguity and polynomial ambiguity in the case of regular automata, determinizability, and finite-valuedness in the case of transducers and automata weighted by integers. As a consequence of our complexity results, we directly obtain that these classical properties can be decided in logarithmic space. / Doctorat en Sciences / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
6

Le problème de la valeur dans les jeux stochastiques

Oualhadj, Youssouf 11 December 2012 (has links)
La théorie des jeux est un outils standard quand il s'agit de l'étude des systèmes réactifs. Ceci est une conséquence de la variété des modèle de jeux tant au niveau de l'interaction des joueurs qu'au niveau de l'information que chaque joueur possède.Dans cette thèse, on étudie le problème de la valeur pour des jeux où les joueurs possèdent une information parfaite, information partiel et aucune information. Dans le cas où les joueurs possèdent une information parfaite sur l'état du jeu,on étudie le problème de la valeur pour des jeux dont les objectifs sont des combinaisons booléennes d'objectifs qualitatifs et quantitatifs.Pour les jeux stochastiques à un joueur, on montre que les valeurs sont calculables en temps polynomiale et on montre que les stratégies optimalespeuvent être implementées avec une mémoire finie.On montre aussi que notre construction pour la conjonction de parité et de la moyenne positivepeut être étendue au cadre des jeux stochastiques à deux joueurs. Dans le cas où les joueurs ont une information partielle,on étudie le problème de la valeur pour la condition d'accessibilité.On montre que le calcul de l'ensemble des états à valeur 1 est un problème indécidable,on introduit une sous classe pour laquelle ce problème est décidable.Le problème de la valeur 1 pour cette sous classe est PSPACE-complet dansle cas de joueur aveugle et dans EXPTIME dans le cas de joueur avec observations partielles. / Game theory proved to be very useful in the fieldof verification of open reactive systems. This is due to the widevariety of games' model that differ in the way players interactand the amount of information players have.In this thesis, we study the value problem forgames where players have full knowledge on their current configurationof the game, partial knowledge, and no knowledge.\\In the case where players have perfect information,we study the value problem for objectives that consist in combinationof qualitative and quantitative conditions.In the case of one player stochastic games, we show thatthe values are computable in polynomial time and show thatthe optimal strategies exist and can be implemented with finite memory.We also showed that our construction for parity and positive-average Markov decisionprocesses extends to the case of two-player stochastic games.\\In the case where the players have partial information,we study the value problem for reachability objectives.We show that computing the set of states with value 1 is an undecidableproblem and introduce a decidable subclass for the value 1 problem.This sub class is PSPACE-complete in the case of blind controllersand EXPTIME is the setting of games with partial observations.

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