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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Active Sensing for Collaborative Localization in Swarm Robotics

Yang, Shengsong 26 May 2020 (has links)
Localization is one of the most important capabilities of mobile robots. Thanks to the fast development of embedded computing hardware in recent years, many localization solutions, such as simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), have been vastly investigated. However, popular localization solutions rely heavily on the working environment and are not applicable to scenarios such as search and rescue in the wild, where the working environment is not accessible before the localization operation or where the environment lacks information on features and textures. The thesis thus proposes a design for an innovative localization sensor and a collaborative pose estimation scheme using the localization sensor in order to alleviate the reliance on information from the environment, while providing reliable and accurate pose estimates for mobile robots. The proposed collaborative pose estimation scheme is comprised of individual and collaborative landmark position estimation, localization sensor inter-calibration, and collaborative sensor pose estimation, among which the inter-calibration process ensures that the sensor provides capability to also estimate orientations. In the collaborative scheme, multiple instances of the proposed sensor collaborate to estimate their respective poses by measuring the relative distance and angle among them, where the measurement errors are characterized as Gaussian white noise. Two instances of the proposed localization sensor are implemented, and the collaborative scheme is tested with the instances in the thesis. Both sensor instances reliably and accurately estimate the position of a stationary landmark, and it is demonstrated that the collaboratively estimated position estimate is more accurate than its individual counterpart. Additionally, the two instances also demonstrate their ability to track and estimate the position of a moving landmark. Lastly, the inter-calibration is experimentally validated with the instances with satisfactory performance. The experimental results presented in this work confirm the feasibility and usability of the proposed collaborative pose estimation scheme in a wide range of robotic applications.
2

Decentralized Persistent Connectivity Deployment in Robot Swarms

Jayabalan, Adhavan 26 April 2018 (has links)
Robot swarms are often considered suitable for tasks that are large-scale and long-term. Large-scale missions force the robots to spread spatially. In these type of tasks, actively maintaining connectivity allows the swarm to coordinate. Similarly, long-term nature of the task requires robots to work for a long time. This is affected by the limited energy level of the robot. However current studies normally focus only on connectivity or energy awareness. Therefore, in this work, we propose an approach to tackle the problem of maintaining global connectivity (swarm-level property) considering finite battery life (individual property). We are specifically focusing on growing the communication network and keeping it alive for a long period. We construct a logical tree over the connectivity graph. The logical tree is constructed by using a subset of robots from the swarm. The tree is grown by adding robots as necessary. The tree is also periodically reconfigured to cope with dynamic robot motion. This enables the swarm to grow the tree efficiently. In addition, robots exchange their roles based on their available energy levels. This allows robots with low energy levels to navigate to dedicated charging stations for recharging thus allowing the swarm to maintain the communication network. We evaluate our approach in a wide set of experiments with a realistic robot simulator named ARGoS.
3

Συνεργατικός έλεγχος δικτυωμένων ρομποτικών επίγειων οχημάτων

Κάνταρος, Ιωάννης 12 November 2012 (has links)
Ο σκοπός αυτής της διατριβής είναι να αναπτυχθούν σχέδια συντονισμού σχετικά με την κίνηση των ρομποτικών πρακτόρων με σκοπό την κάλυψη μιας περιοχής κάτω από RF επικοινωνιακούς περιορισμούς . Οι κόμβοι εκτελούν την κίνηση σε ξεχωριστά χρονικά βήματα σύμφωνα με τις διανεμημένες πληροφορίες που αποκτώνται από τους κόμβους που συνδέονται στον προκαθορισμένο αριθμό hops έως ότου φθάσουν στη βέλτιστη τοπολογία όσον αφορά την κάλυψη της περιοχής. Τα ρομπότ υποτίθεται ότι είναι εξοπλισμένα με έναν αισθητήρα για λόγους κάλυψης και με έναν ράδιο πομποδέκτη έτσι ώστε να μεταδοθούν οι πληροφορίες. Ωστόσο, η ακτίνα επικοινωνίας δεν απαιτείται να είναι τουλάχιστον διπλάσια της ακτίνας του αισθητήρα επισκόπησης, κάτι που προσθέτει έναν πρόσθετο περιορισμό στο γενικό πρόβλημα. Τα σχέδια συντονισμού αναπτύσσονται εξασφαλίζοντας την συνολική RF συνδεσιμότητα του δικτύου επιτυγχάνοντας τη βέλτιστη κάλυψη περιοχής. Τα αποτελέσματα ελέγχονται περαιτέρω μέσω των μελετών προσομοιώσεων. / The purpose of this thesis is to develop coordination schemes concerning the motion of robotic agents for area coverage purposes under RF communications constraints. The nodes perform motion in discrete time steps according to distributed information acquired from nodes which are connected at predefined number of hops until they reach optimum area configuration. Robots are supposed to be equipped with sensor for coverage purposes and with radio transceiver so as information to be transmitted. However, communication radius is not demanded to be at least equal to twice the sensing one, imposing an extra constraint in the overall problem. Coordination schemes are developed ensuring end-to-end RF connectivity of the network while attaining optimum area coverage. Results are further verified via simulations studies.
4

Effects of the Interaction with Robot Swarms on the Human Psychological State

Podevijn, Gaetan 27 January 2017 (has links) (PDF)
Human-swarm interaction studies how human beings can interact with a robotswarm---a large number of robots cooperating with each other without any form of centralizedcontrol. In today's human-swarm interaction literature, the large majority of the works investigatehow human beings can issue commands to and receive feedback from a robot swarm. However, only a few ofthese works study the effect of the interaction with a robot swarm on human psychology (e.g. on thehuman stress or on the human workload). Understanding human psychology in human-swarm interaction isimportant because the human psychological state can have significant impact on the way humansinteract with robot swarms (e.g. a high level of stress can cause a human operator to freeze in themiddle of a critical task, such as a search-and-rescue task). Most existing works that study human psychology in human-swarm interaction conduct their experimentsusing robot swarms simulated on a computer screen. The use of simulation is convenient becauseexperimental conditions can be repeated perfectly in different experimental runs and becauseexperimentation using real robots is expensive both in money and time. However, simulation suffersfrom the so-called reality gap: the inherent discrepancy between simulation and reality. Itis therefore important to study whether this inherent discrepancy can affect humanpsychology---human operators interacting with a simulated robot swarm can react differently thanwhen interacting with a real robot swarm.A large literature in human-robot interaction has studied the psychological impact of theinteraction between human beings and single robots. This literature could in principle be highlyrelevant to human-swarm interaction. However, an inherent difference between human-robot interactionand human-swarm interaction is that in the latter, human operators interact with a large number ofrobots. This large number of robots can affect human psychology---human operators interacting with alarge number of robots can react differently than when interacting with a single robot or with asmall number of robots. It is therefore important to understand whether the large number of robotsthat composes a robot swarm affects human psychology. In fact, if this is the case, it would not bepossible to directly apply the results of human-robot interaction research to human-swarminteraction.We conducted several experiments in order to understand the effect of the reality gap and the effectof the group size (i.e. the number of robots that composes a robot swarm) on the humanpsychological state. In these experiments our participants are exposed to swarms of robots and arepurely passive---they do not issue commands nor receive feedback from the robots. Making theinteraction passive allowed us to study the effects of the reality gap and of the group size on thehuman psychological state without the risk that an interaction interface (such as a joystick)influences the psychological responses of the participants (and thus limiting the visibility of both thereality gap and group size effects). In the reality gap experiments, participants are exposed tosimulated robot swarms displayed either on a computer screen or in a virtual reality environment, and toreal robot swarms. In the group size experiments, participants are exposed to an increasing numberof real robots.In this thesis, we show that the reality gap and the group size affect the human psychological stateby collecting psychophysiological measures (heart rate and skin conductance), self-reported (viaquestionnaires) affective state measures (arousal and valence), self-reported workload (the amountof mental resource needed to carry out a task) and reaction time (the time needed to respond to astimulus). Firstly, we show with our results that our participants' psychophysiological measures,affective state measures, workload and reaction time are significantly higher when they interactwith a real robot swarm compared to when they interact with a robot swarm simulated on a computerscreen, confirming that the reality gap significantly affects the human psychological state.Moreover, we show that it is possible to mitigate the effect of the reality gap using virtualreality---our participants' arousal, workload and reaction time are significantly higher when theyinteract with a simulated robot swarm displayed in a virtual reality environment as opposed to whenit is displayed on a computer screen. Secondly, we show that our participants' psychophysiologicalmeasures and affective state measures increase when the number of robots they are exposed toincreases. Our results have important implications for research in human-swarm interaction. Firstly, for thefirst time, we show that experiments in simulation change the human psychological state compared toexperiments with real robots. Secondly, we show that a characteristic that is inherent to thedefinition of swarm robotics---the large number of robots that composes a robotswarm---significantly affects the human psychological state. Finally, our results show thatpsychophysiological measures, such as heart rate and skin conductance, provide researchers with moreinformation on human psychology than the information provided by using traditional self-reportedmeasures (collected via psychological questionnaires). / Doctorat en Sciences de l'ingénieur et technologie / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
5

Swarm Robotics for Contaminant Localization aided by Remote-sensor-based Target Mapping with Uncertainty

Fyza, Nashiyat January 2021 (has links)
No description available.
6

On the Evolution of Self-Organinsing Behaviours in a Swarm of Autonomous Robots

Trianni, Vito 26 June 2006 (has links)
The goal of the research activities presented in this thesis is the design of intelligent behaviours for a complex robotic system, which is composed of a swarm of autonomous units. Inspired by the organisational skills of social insects, we are particularly interested in the study of collective behaviours based on self-organisation. The problem of designing self-organising behaviours for a swarm of robots is tackled resorting to artificial evolution, which proceeds in a bottom-up direction by first defining the controllers at the individual level and then testing their effect at the collective level. In this way, it is possible to bypass the difficulties encountered in the decomposition of the global behaviour into individual ones, and the further encoding of the individual behaviours into the controllers' rules. In the experiments presented in this thesis, we show that this approach is viable, as it produces efficient individual controllers and robust self-organising behaviours. To the best of our knowledge, our experiments are the only example of evolved self-organising behaviours that are successfully tested on a physical robotic platform. Besides the engineering value, the evolution of self-organising behaviours for a swarm of robots also provides a mean for the understanding of those biological processes that were a fundamental source of inspiration in the first place. In this perspective, the experiments presented in this thesis can be considered an interesting instance of a synthetic approach to the study of collective intelligence and, more in general, of Cognitive Science.
7

Division of Labour in Groups of Robots

Labella, Thomas Halva 09 February 2007 (has links)
In this thesis, we examine algorithms for the division of labour in a group of robot. The algorithms make no use of direct communication. Instead, they are based only on the interactions among the robots and between the group and the environment. Division of labour is the mechanism that decides how many robots shall be used to perform a task. The efficiency of the group of robots depends in fact on the number of robots involved in a task. If too few robots are used to achieve a task, they might not be successful or might perform poorly. If too many robots are used, it might be a waste of resources. The number of robots to use might be decided a priori by the system designer. More interestingly, the group of robots might autonomously select how many and which robots to use. In this thesis, we study algorithms of the latter type. The robotic literature offers already some solutions, but most of them use a form of direct communication between agents. Direct, or explicit, communication between the robots is usually considered a necessary condition for co-ordination. Recent studies have questioned this assumption. The claim is based on observations of animal colonies, e.g., ants and termites. They can effectively co-operate without directly communicating, but using indirect forms of communication like stigmergy. Because they do not rely on communication, such colonies show robust behaviours at group level, a condition that one wishes also for groups of robots. Algorithms for robot co-ordination without direct communication have been proposed in the last few years. They are interesting not only because they are a stimulating intellectual challenge, but also because they address a situation that might likely occur when using robots for real-world out-door applications. Unfortunately, they are still poorly studied. This thesis helps the understanding and the development of such algorithms. We start from a specific case to learn its characteristics. Then we improve our understandings through comparisons with other solutions, and finally we port everything into another domain. We first study an algorithm for division of labour that was inspired by ants' foraging. We test the algorithm in an application similar to ants' foraging: prey retrieval. We prove that the model used for ants' foraging can be effective also in real conditions. Our analysis allows us to understand the underlying mechanisms of the division of labour and to define some way of measuring it. Using this knowledge, we continue by comparing the ant-inspired algorithm with similar solutions that can be found in the literature and by assessing their differences. In performing these comparisons, we take care of using a formal methodology that allows us to spare resources. Namely, we use concepts of experiment design to reduce the number of experiments with real robots, without losing significance in the results. Finally, we apply and port what we previously learnt into another application: Sensor/Actor Networks (SANETs). We develop an architecture for division of labour that is based on the same mechanisms as the ants' foraging model. Although the individuals in the SANET can communicate, the communication channel might be overloaded. Therefore, the agents of a SANET shall be able to co-ordinate without accessing the communication channel.
8

Decentralized Approach to SLAM using Computationally Limited Robots

Sudheer Menon, Vishnu 25 May 2017 (has links)
Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a challenging and vital problem in robotics. It is important in tasks such as disaster response, deep-sea and cave exploration, in which robots must construct a map of an unknown terrain, and at the same time localize themselves within the map. The issue with single- robot SLAM is the relatively high rate of failure in a realistic application, as well as the time and energy cost. In this work, we propose a new approach to decentralized multi-robot SLAM which uses a robot swarm to map the environment. This system is capable of mapping an environment without human assistance and without the need for any additional infrastructure. We assume that 1) no robot possesses sufficient memory to store the entire map of the environment, 2) the communication range of the robots is limited, and 3)there is no infrastructure present in the environment to assist the robot in communicating with others. To cope with these limitations, the swarm system is designed to work as an independent entity. The swarm can deploy new robots towards the region that is yet to be explored, coordinate the communication between the robots by using itself as the communication network and replace any malfunctioning robots. The proposed method proves to be a reliable and robust exploration algorithm. It is shown to be a self-growing mapping network that is able to coordinate among numerous robots and replace any broken robots hence reducing the chance of system failure.
9

Decentralized Approach to SLAM using Computationally Limited Robots

Sudheer Menon, Vishnu 25 May 2017 (has links)
Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a challenging and vital problem in robotics. It is important in tasks such as disaster response, deep-sea and cave exploration, in which robots must construct a map of an unknown terrain, and at the same time localize themselves within the map. The issue with single- robot SLAM is the relatively high rate of failure in a realistic application, as well as the time and energy cost. In this work, we propose a new approach to decentralized multi-robot SLAM which uses a robot swarm to map the environment. This system is capable of mapping an environment without human assistance and without the need for any additional infrastructure. We assume that 1) no robot possesses sufficient memory to store the entire map of the environment, 2) the communication range of the robots is limited, and 3)there is no infrastructure present in the environment to assist the robot in communicating with others. To cope with these limitations, the swarm system is designed to work as an independent entity. The swarm can deploy new robots towards the region that is yet to be explored, coordinate the communication between the robots by using itself as the communication network and replace any malfunctioning robots. The proposed method proves to be a reliable and robust exploration algorithm. It is shown to be a self-growing mapping network that is able to coordinate among numerous robots and replace any broken robots hence reducing the chance of system failure.
10

Dynamic Task Allocation in Robot Swarms with Limited Buffer and Energy Constraints

Mohan, Janani 26 April 2018 (has links)
Area exploration and information gathering are one of the fundamental problems in mobile robotics. Much of the current research in swarm robotics is aimed at developing practical solutions to this problem. Exploring large environments poses three main challenges. Firstly, there is the problem of limited connectivity among the robots. Secondly, each of the robots has a limited battery life which requires the robots to be recharged each time they are running out of charge. Lastly, the robots have limited memory to store data. In this work, we mainly focus on the memory and energy constraints of the robot swarm. The memory constraint forces the robots to travel to a centralized data collection center called sink, to deposit data each time their memory is full. The energy constraint forces the robots to travel to the charging station called dock to recharge when their battery level is low. However, this navigation plan is inefficient in terms of energy and time. There is additional energy dissipation in depositing data at the centralized sink. Moreover, ample amount of time is spent in traveling from one end of the arena to the sink owing to the memory constraint. The goal is that the robots perform data gathering in the least time possible with the optimal use of energy. Both the energy and time spent while depositing data at the sink act as an additional overhead cost to this goal. In this work, we propose to study an algorithm to tackle this scenario in a decentralized manner. We implement a dynamic task allocation algorithm which accomplishes the goal of exploration with data gathering by assigning roles to robots based on their memory buffer and energy levels. The algorithm assigns two sets of roles, to the entire group of robots, namely: Role A is the data gatherer, a robot which does the task of workspace exploration and data gathering, and Role B is data relayer, a robot which does the task of data transportation from data gatherers to the sink. By this division of labor, the robots dynamically decide which role to choose given the contradicting goals of maximizing data gathering and minimizing energy loss. The choice of a robot to perform the task of data gathering or data relaying is the key problem tackled in this work. We study the performance of the algorithm in terms of task distribution, time spent by the robots on each task and data throughput. We analyze the behavior of the robot swarm by varying the energy constraints, timeout parameter as well as strategies for relayer choice. We also test whether the algorithm is scalable.

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