16 August 2012
We use 2005 - 2010 measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument to calculate the deseasonalized anomalies of tropical mean water vapor (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) on the 68 hPa surface. We then calculate the spatial maps of the coherence between the tropical mean tracer measurements and reanalysis temperature on the 100 hPa surface, in both the subseasonal and multiyear time windows. In the multiyear time window, the spatial pattern of the coherence, and the time lags, indicate that fluctuations in 100 hPa temperature affect 68 hPa H2O through changes in dehydration efficiency. In the subseasonal time window, the coherence between 100 hPa temperature and 68 hPa H2O is mediated through changes in upwelling driven by the dissipation of tropical Rossby waves. On subseasonal timescales, the 68 hPa anomalies in tropical mean CO are strongly coherent with the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO).
Creating R&D incentives for medicines for neglected diseases an economic analysis of parallel imports, patents, and alternative mechanisms to stimulate pharmaceutical research /Müller-Langer, Frank. January 1900 (has links)
Diss.-- Hamburg Univ., 2008. / Includes bibliographical references and index.
Shepherd, John Dorsey,
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison. / Typescript. eContent provider-neutral record in process. Description based on print version record. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 114-120).
Correlation of some features of tropical preventive medicine, and their application to the tropical areas under Australian controlCilento, Raphael, Sir, 1893-1985 January 1922 (has links)
[Typewritten copy] / 210 p. : / Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library. / Thesis (M.D.)--University of Adelaide, 1923
Correlation of some features of tropical preventive medicine, and their application to the tropical areas under Australian control.Cilento January 1900 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (M.D.) -- University of Adelaide, 1923. / [Typewritten copy].
Caractérisation biogéochimique et potentiel de méthylation du mercure de biofilms en milieu tropical (retenue de Petit Saut et estuaire du Sinnamary, Guyane Française) / Biogeochemical characterization and mercury methylation potentiel of tropical biofilms (Petit Saut reservoir and Sinnamary Estuary, French Guiana)Huguet, Lucie 04 June 2009 (has links)
Le barrage de Petit Saut a été construit sur le fleuve Sinnamary en Guyane française en 1994. De la forêt tropicale laissée en place lors de la mise en eau, subsistent encore aujourd'hui de nombreux troncs d'arbres dans toute la retenue. Des biofilms ont colonisés la surface de ces troncs et sont également retrouvés en abondance sur plusieurs dizaines de km à l'aval du barrage. L'objectif de la thèse a été de caractériser ces biofilms et de déterminer leur rôle dans la méthylation du mercure. Dans un premier temps, les biofilms ont été caractérisés par une approche multidisciplinaire. La composition de la matière organique des biofilms et de la couche néphéloïde des sédiments a été décrite par l'identification de biomarqueurs (isotopes stables du carbone d13C et de l'azote d15N et acides gras). Dans le réservoir, les particules en suspension sont une source importante du matériel accumulé dans les biofilms. Ils contiennent plus de matière organique réfractaire que les biofilms à l'aval et que la couche néphéloïde de la retenue. D'autre part, les éléments fer, soufre et manganèse, ainsi que le mercure et le méthylmercure présentent une stratification avec la profondeur. Des Chlorobiaceae ont été identifiées à l'oxycline tandis que les bactéries ferri-réductrices prédominent par rapport aux bactéries sulfato-réductrices dans l'hypolimnion anoxique. Dans le Sinnamary aval, les biofilms sont essentiellement constitués de fer (50 % du poids sec). Les bactéries ferri-réductrices y sont prépondérantes par rapport aux bactéries sulfato-réductrices. La matière organique est majoritairement labile et permet le développement de différents groupes métaboliques bactériens dont les bactéries méthanotrophes à la station Passerelle. La présence de consortia de bactéries (observés en FISH) appartenant à la famille des Firmicutes et d’Archaea méthanogènes dans des enrichissements de biofilms de la station Passerelle et de la couche néphéloïde des sédiments permet de proposer une voie anaérobie d’oxydation du méthane par une synthrophie de ces micro-organismes. Dans un deuxième temps, ce travail présente une nouvelle application de l’utilisation d’isotopes stables pour déterminer le potentiel de méthylation du mercure de biofilms tropicaux. Les biofilms de l’oxycline présentent des taux de méthylation les plus faibles après 3 mois d’incubation dans l’eau du réservoir. Les taux de méthylation les plus élevés sont obtenus par les micro-organismes planctoniques de la colonne d’eau, la couche néphéloïde des sédiments, les biofilms situés à 20 m de profondeur et ceux de la station Passerelle. L’ajout de nutriments augmente le potentiel de méthylation des différents échantillons, en particulier à l’aval du barrage, même s’il ne favorise pas uniquement la croissance des micro-organismes méthylants mais aussi celle d’autres groupes (capables de déméthyler le MeHg ou n’intervenant pas dans les transformations du mercure). Les différences de potentiel de méthylation observées sont dues soit à la diversité des microorganismes soit à la composition des biofilms qui modifie la biodisponibilité du mercure. / The Petit Saut dam was built on the Sinnamary River in French Guiana in 1994 and its flooding has resulted to the final immersion of 350 km² of uncleared tropical rainforest. All immersed surfaces (rocks, immersed tree branches and trunks, roots…) in the reservoir lake and in the downstream are recovered by abundant biofilms. The aim of the present work was to characterize biofilms in terms of elemental composition, organic matter content and microbial communities and to define their role in mercury methylation. A multidisciplinary approach, applied to the biofilms and the nepheloid layer of the reservoir sediment, consisted in (i) assessing carbon, nitrogen, iron, sulfur, manganese, mercury and methylmercury concentrations, (ii) characterizing the nature of organic matter using its carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition (?13C and ?15N), its C/N ratio and its fatty acids composition (focusing on bacterial biomarkers). In the reservoir, suspended particles matter is an important source of accumulating material in biofilms. Reservoir biofilms contain higher refractory organic matter than the biofilms of the estuary and than the reservoir nepheloid layer. Iron, sulfur and manganese, mercury and methylmercury concentration are stratified with depth. Even if the relative contribution of bacterial fatty acids biomarkers was low, Chlorobiaceae was identified above the oxycline, whereas iron reducing bacteria were predominant in the hypolimnion as regards sulphate reducing bacteria. In the estuary, iron weights for the major part of the biofilm and higher IRB amount is present than SRB. The more labile organic matter allows the development of various microbial metabolic groups such as methanotrophs at the Passerelle station. Presence of Firmicutes-Archaea consortia (FISH analysis) in enrichment of Passerelle biofilms and of the reservoir nepheloid layer suggests that methane could also be oxidized under anaerobic synthrophy. This study shows a new application of stable isotope incubation to determine mercury methylation potential in tropical biofilms. Methylation potential is the lowest in the biofilm from the oxycline whereas higher methylation rates are obtained for microorganisms of the water column (planktonic), nepheloid layer, biofilms sampled at -20 m and at the Passerelle station. Adding nutrient enhances mercury methylation, especially in the estuary but it doesn’t only promote growth of methylating microorganisms but also that of demethylating or not involved in Hg transformation microorganisms Differences in methylation potential could be explained by either the bacterial communities diversity and/or by biofilm composition modifying Hg bioavailability.
11 July 2008
In this dissertation we prove a version of the tropical Bezout's theorem which is applicable to all tropical projective plane curves. There is a version of tropical Bezout's theorem presented in other works which applies in special cases, but we provide a proof of the theorem for all tropical projective plane curves. We provide several different definitions of intersection multiplicity and show that they all agree. Finally, we will use a tropical resultant to determine the intersection multiplicity of points of intersection at infinite distance. Using these new definitions of intersection multiplicity we prove the complete tropical Bezout's theorem.
Sippel, Jason Allen
17 February 2005
This thesis contains an observational analysis of the genesis of Tropical Storm Allison (2001). Using a paradigm of tropical cyclone formation as the superposition of potential vorticity (PV) anomalies, the importance of different scales of PV merger to various aspects of Allisons formation is discussed. While only the case of Allison is discussed in great detail, other studies have also documented PV superposition on various scales, and superposition could be important for most tropical cyclones. Preceding Allisons genesis, PV superposition on the large scale destabilized the atmosphere and increased low-level cyclonic vorticity. This presented a more favorable environment for the formation of MCV-type PV anomalies and smaller, surface-based, meso-β-scale vortices. Although these vortices eventually merged to form a more concentrated vortex with stronger surface pressure gradients, the merger happened well after landfall of Allison and no strengthening ensued. The unstable, vorticity-rich environment was also favorable for the development of even smaller, meso-γ-scale vortices that accompanied deep convective cells within one of Allisons meso-β-scale vortices. The observations herein suggest that the meso-γ- scale convective cells and vortices are the respective source of PV production and building blocks for the meso-β-scale vortices. Finally, this thesis discusses issues related to the multiple vortex nature of tropical cyclone formation. For instance, the tracking of developing tropical cyclones is greatly complicated by the presence of multiple vortices. For these cases, the paradigm of a single cyclone center is inappropriate and alternative tracking methods are introduced.
Sippel, Jason A.
15 January 2010
Through methodology unique for tropical cyclones in peer-reviewed literature, this study explores how the dynamics of moist convection affects the predictability of tropical cyclogenesis. Mesoscale models are used to perform short-range ensemble forecasts of a non-developing disturbance in 2004 and Hurricane Humberto in 2007; both of these cases were highly unpredictable. Taking advantage of discrepancies between ensemble members in short-range ensemble forecasts, statistical correlation is used to pinpoint sources of error in forecasts of tropical cyclone formation and intensification. Despite significant differences in methodology, storm environment and development, it is found in both situations that high convective instability (CAPE) and mid-level moisture are two of the most important factors for genesis. In the gulf low, differences in CAPE are related to variance in quasi-geostrophic lift, and in Humberto the differences are related to the degree of interaction between the cyclone and a nearby front. Regardless of the source of CAPE variance, higher CAPE and mid-level moisture combine to yield more active initial convection and more numerous and strong vortical hot towers (VHTs), which incrementally contribute to a stronger vortex. In both cases, strength differences between ensemble members are further amplified by differences in convection that are related to oceanic heat fluxes. Eventually the WISHE mechanism results in even larger ensemble spread, and in the case of Humberto, uncertainty related to the time of landfall drives spread even higher. It is also shown that initial condition differences much smaller than current analysis error can ultimately control whether or not a tropical cyclone forms. Furthermore, even smaller differences govern how the initial vortex is built. Differences in maximum winds and/or vorticity vary nonlinearly with initial condition differences and depend on the timing and intensity of small mesoscale features such as VHTs and cold pools. Finally, the strong sensitivity to initial condition differences in both cases exemplifies the inherent uncertainties in hurricane intensity prediction. This study illustrates the need for implementing advanced data analysis schemes and ensemble prediction systems to provide more accurate and event-dependent probabilistic forecasts.
16 December 2013
This dissertation examines the causes of variations in tropical cyclone precipitation (TCP) and the relationship between TCP and river discharge in Texas. The dissertation has three major objectives: 1) investigate the spatial and temporal variations of TCP in Texas from 1950 to 2009, 2) construct seasonal statistical forecast models for TCP and identify the primary factors controlling TCP in Texas, and 3) examine how TCP contributes to the extreme precipitation and river discharge in watersheds surrounding the city of Houston. An automated extraction method is developed to identify TCP from 60 years of precipitation data from Cooperative Observing Network gauges. Texas receives an average of 123.5 mm of TCP/year, which is ~13% of the state’s mean annual precipitation. September is the month with the most TCP, and it receives an average of 18.5 mm. Long-term trends (>50 years) in TCP are evident at some locations, but there are no statistically significant long-term trends in aggregated annual TCP metrics. Despite the lack of long-term trends, TCP metrics show some spectral power at periodicities of ~2-3 years, ~5-8 years, and >10 years. Areas within 400 km of the coast have higher risk of extreme daily TCP (>100 mm), but inland Texas can also occasionally experience extreme TCP. In some areas in southeastern Texas the probability of receiving >100 mm of daily TCP in any given year is ~0.30 (i.e., daily TCP exceeds 100 mm, on average, 1 out every 3 years). The best seasonal forecast models of TCP can explain >20% variance based on three or fewer predictors. ENSO is the most important control of TCP in Texas. La Niña, the major driver in all TCP models, reduces the vertical wind shear in the Caribbean and tropical Atlantic and therefore generates more precipitating storms in Texas. Maximum Potential Velocity (MPV) in the Gulf of Mexico and vorticity in the Atlantic Hurricane Development Region (MDR) are also important predictors of TCP and they can increase the R2 by ~0.2. The negative relationship between MPV and vorticity with the TCP are due to the fact that TCs with weaker wind speed and slower translation speed tend to contribute much more to both extreme and total TCP. Sea level pressure in the Gulf of Mexico, SST in the Caribbean and North Atlantic Oscillation are also identified as useful predictors in some of the models. TCP is associated with many of the annual maximum discharge events in watersheds near Houston. Urbanization can significantly increase river discharge generated by TCP. Both the annual maximum discharge and 90 percentile discharge have increased significantly in many watersheds in Houston. Although no long-term trend can be observed in the TCP and TCP-related extreme discharge, there may be an increased risk of floods from TCP because of the statistically significant increases in annual maximum discharge that have been observed. There are also increased uncertainties in flood risk because extreme precipitation, including TCP, is projected to become more variable in the future.
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