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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
11

Ocorrência de Leishmania sp. em gatos do município de Araçatuba - São Paulo - Brasil

Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian [UNESP] 11 July 2007 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:23:46Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2007-07-11Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:51:03Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 rossi_cn_me_jabo.pdf: 323193 bytes, checksum: 33919c622846b1fdf1e017e291939314 (MD5) / Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) / Apesar de alguns relatos da ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral em felinos, a literatura é escassa no que diz respeito à sua pesquisa em populações de gatos de áreas endêmicas para a doença. Desta forma, o presente estudo teve por objetivo pesquisar em uma área endêmica para leishmaniose visceral canina, a possibilidade de infecção em gatos, por meio de exame parasitológico direto e da pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Leishmania chagasi pelas técnicas de ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA) e reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI). Para tanto, foram colhidas amostras de soro de 200 gatos, encaminhados ao Centro de Controle de Zoonoses do município de Araçatuba - São Paulo - Brasil, bem como realizadas punções biópsias aspirativas de linfonodo, medula óssea, baço e fígado, utilizados para a confecção de preparados citológicos para a pesquisa direta de formas amastigotas de Leishmania sp. A prevalência da doença nessa população de gatos foi de 6,5%. Dos 200 animais avaliados, oito (4,0%) apresentaram resultado parasitológico positivo, seis (3,0%) apresentaram títulos sorológicos acima do ponto de corte (0,332) pela técnica de ELlSA e um (0,5%) evidenciou título superior ao ponto de corte (1:40) pela RIFI, totalizando 13 gatos considerados positivos. / In spite of some reports of the occurrence of feline visceral leishmaniasis, the literature is scarce about its research on populations of cats in endemic areas for the disease. The present work aimed to study, in an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis, the infection possibility in cats using the direct parasitological test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). For this purpose, a total of 200 cats directed to the Zoonosis Control Center of the municipal district of Araçatuba - São Paulo - Brazil were employed. Lymph node, bone marrow, spleen and liver aspiration biopsies were carried out and observed under optical microscope to search for amastigote forms of the parasite and serum samples were submitted to serological methods in order to detect anti-Leishmania chagasi circulating antibodies. The prevalence of the disease in this population of cats was 6.5%. Amastigote forms of the parasite were observed in eight (4.0%) cats; by ELISA method, six (3.0%) cats presented titer above the specie's cut off point (0,332) and one cat (0,5%) showed a titer above 1:40, a positive serological reaction, by IFAT, totalizing 13 positive cats.
12

Isolamento, caracterização e potencial de virulência de amostras de Corynebacterium ulcerans oriundas de cães domésticos da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro / Isolation, identification and detection of candidate virulence factors of C. ulcerans isolates from domestic animals living in Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area

Lourêdo, Liliane Simpson January 2014 (has links)
Submitted by Alexandre Sousa (alexandre.sousa@incqs.fiocruz.br) on 2014-11-13T16:54:59Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Mestrado_Liliane.pdf: 3975589 bytes, checksum: b28cad812013dd5908acfaa1941f39a0 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2014-11-13T16:54:59Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Mestrado_Liliane.pdf: 3975589 bytes, checksum: b28cad812013dd5908acfaa1941f39a0 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2014 / Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Vigilância Sanitária. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. / Corynebacterium ulcerans têm sido cada vez mais responsáveis por quadros de difteria zoonótica, além de outras infecções de humanos e de animais de companhia, incluindo cães. Uma vez que animais de companhia assintomáticos são capazes de transmitir o patógeno para os humanos em áreas urbanas e que escassas são as investigações sobre o potencial de virulência e o relato de casos dessas zoonoses em países em desenvolvimento, nesse sentido o presente estudo teve como objetivo o isolamento, caracterização e avaliação do potencial de virulência de amostras de C. ulcerans oriundas de animais domésticos domiciliados na área metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados indicaram a presença de C. ulcerans em diferentes municípios. Além de humanos e de animais de abrigo, foram isoladas amostras não produtoras de toxina diftérica de cães assintomáticos domiciliados. As amostras isoladas (BR-AD41 e BR-AD61) apresentaram moderada sensibilidade a penicilina G e resistência a clindamicina. Os sistemas de fenotipagem Api-Coryne e Vitek 2 não permitiram a correta identificação de C. ulcerans em algumas oportunidades. Os microrganismos foram inicialmente caracterizados quanto à espécie e a presença do gene tox pela técnica de PCR multiplex. A confirmação do diagnóstico foi feita pelo sequenciamento dos genes 16S rRNA e rpoB. A relação genética entre amostras isoladas de humanos e cães assintomáticos no Rio de Janeiro (Brasil) foram analisadas pela técnica de eletroforese de campo pulsado (PFGE). Dentre os cinco pulsotipos demonstrados, os perfis IV e V exibindo ≥85% de similaridade foram expressos pelas amostras BR-AD41 e BR-AD61 de cães residentes em um mesmo município. A heterogeneidade dos pulsotipos indicaram endemicidade de C. ulcerans no Rio de Janeiro. Independente da capacidade de produção de toxina diftérica, o potencial de virulência para humanos de amostras de C. ulcerans foi evidenciado pela habilidade de produzir biofilme em superfícies abióticas inclusive catéteres de poliuretano e a presença de gene rpb que codifica a toxina Shiga-like. C. ulcerans mostrou capacidade de aderir, invadir e sobreviver no interior de células epiteliais humanas em níveis variados, independente da presença de TD. Adicionalmente, a afinidade de C. ulcerans ao fibrinogênio (Fbg), fibronectina (Fn) e colágeno tipo I de humanos e a capacidade de causar rede de fibrina e lesões cutâneas em murinos foram também demonstradas. Concluindo, potencial patogênico de natureza multifatorial foi demonstrado para amostras de C. ulcerans que também podem ser encontradas colonizando a população de cães domiciliados e portanto em contato estreito com o homem na região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. / Corynebacterium ulcerans have been increasingly responsible for zoonotic diphtheria and other infections in humans and companion animals, including dogs. Since asymptomatic pets are able to transmit the pathogen to humans in urban areas and there are few investigations about virulence factors and case reports of this emerging zoonosis in development countries, this study aimed the isolation, identification and detection of candidate virulence factors of C. ulcerans isolates from domestic animals living in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Data indicated the ocurrence of C. ulcerans in different cities. Besides humans and dog shelter, sample of non-toxigenic isolates were detected from asymptomatic companion dogs. The isolates (BR-AD41 e BR-AD61) showed moderate susceptibility to penicillin G and resistance to clindamycin. In some cases, a correct identification of C. ulcerans by the phenotypic assays API-Coryne and Vitek 2 was not conceivable. Species and toxigenicity of micro-organisms were initially characterized by a multiplex PCR assay. The diagnoses confirmation was made by 16S rRNA and rpoB genes sequencing. The genetic relationship between human and asymptomatic dogs isolates was analyzed by pulsed-fiel gel electrophoresis (PFGE) assay. Among the five types classified, the types IV and V exhibited similarity ≥85% and were expressed by BR-AD41 and BR-AD61 isolates of companion dogs living in the same neighborhood. Heterogeneity of PFGE types indicated endemicity of C. ulcerans in Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Despite the ability of diphtheria toxin (DT) production, the virulence potential of C. ulcerans to humans was demonstrated by biofilm formation over abiotic surfaces, including polyurethane catheter and by the presence of rpb gene coding Shiga-like. Moreover, C. ulcerans demonstrated the ability to adhere to and survive within human epithelial cells at various levels, despite DT production. C. ulcerans affinity to human fibrinogen (Fbg), fibronectin (Fn) and type I collagen and formation of fibrinous skin lesions in mice were also observed. In conclusion, a multifactorial nature of the pathogenic potential was also demonstrated for C. ulcerans colonizing companion dogs in close contact to humans in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area.
13

Etude génotypique de norovirus humains et bovins contemporains et mise au point de méthodes rapides de détection et de quantification

Scipioni, Alexandra 25 May 2009 (has links)
Les Norovirus (NoV), appartenant à la famille des Caliciviridae, sont une cause majeure dépidémies et de cas sporadiques de gastroentérites hautement contagieuses chez lhomme. Leur transmission emprunte la voie fécale-orale et ils sont à l'origine dune part importante des toxi-infections humaines d'origine alimentaire, en particulier dues à la consommation de mollusques bivalves. Ils possèdent un génome constitué dARN monocaténaire de polarité positive et sont classeés par analyse de proximité génétique en cinq génogroupes, contenant chacun plusieurs génotypes. Un problème majeur réside dans lincapacité à multiplier facilement les NoV en culture de cellules. La RT-PCR est devenue la méthode de choix pour leur détection dans les échantillons de matières fécales, les denrées alimentaires et les prélèvements effectués dans lenvironnement. Il est important de disposer de techniques à la fois sensibles et permettant également la détection dun large panel de NoV. La quantification de la charge virale est possible par lutilisation des techniques de RT-PCR en temps réel et est primordiale pour non seulement déterminer le niveau de contamination dun prélèvement, mais également pour étudier et caractériser la pathogénie de linfection à NoV. Des NoV ont été détectés dans diverses espèces animales, dont lespèce bovine. Ces découvertes ont soulevé d'importantes questions sur une éventuelle transmission zoonotique et l'existence d'un réservoir animal pour les NoV. La caractérisation moléculaire des deux prototypes de NoV bovins, nommément le virus Newbury2 et le virus Jena, a révélé qu'ils étaient génétiquement proches et associés aux NoV humains. Parmi les hypothèses évoquées, les animaux pourraient être soit des porteurs passifs de NoV, soit infectés de manière active par ces virus, responsables dès lors d'une zoonose. Caractériser les NoV circulant chez lhomme et les espèces animales est intéressant dans le but détudier leurs voies de transmission et léventuel passage inter-espèce de ces virus. Un mécanisme important d'évolution des NoV est la recombinaison, dun grand intérêt dans létude des NoV, générant des modifications du génome viral aboutissant à la création dun génome « chimère » à partir de deux génomes parentaux différents. Elle crée ainsi de la variation génétique et par là lémergence de nouveaux virus. En effet, il est bien documenté que la recombinaison se produit souvent parmi les NoV et contribue à la diversité génétique de ces virus ainsi quà lapparition de nouvelles épidémies. La prévalence des souches de NoV recombinants peut être sous-estimée par le fait que la caractérisation des NoV est habituellement basée sur le séquençage partiel du gène de lARN polymérase-ARN dépendante uniquement, alors quidéalement il faudrait séquencer différentes parties du génome, principalement lARN polymérase-ARN dépendante et la protéine de capside, pour identifier de tels virus. Il est important de déterminer précisément l'implication exacte de la recombinaison sur lévolution des NoV afin de comprendre les mécanismes dévolution des souches et l'avantage sélectif conféré pour certaines dentre elles. Etudier ce mécanisme permettra de mieux comprendre lavantage sélectif observé pour certains NoV et aidera à élucider les voies de transmission des NoV. Létude de ces deux points (transmission zoonotique et virus recombinants) est primordiale. En effet, le franchissement de la barrière despèce affecterait à la fois l'épidémiologie et l'évolution de ces virus, et compliqueraient également la capacité au développement dun vaccin ou dun traitement. Dans d'autres espèces animales, comme les chevaux ou les oiseaux, aucun NoV na été détecté à ce jour mais ces dernières années, des NoV ont été décrits dans de nombreuses espèces animales (chien, lion, mouton). Cela laisse donc présager dune gamme despèce cible encore plus étendue. Ce travail sinscrit dans le cadre de létude des voies de transmission des NoV avec comme objectif, après la mise au point de méthodes rapides et sensibles de détection et de quantification, dapporter un éclaircissement aux questions importantes relatives à lévolution des NoV et à leur catégorie dhôte. Dans un premier temps, la RT-PCR conventionnelle a été utilisée afin de détecter les NoV dans les espèces humaine et bovine. Ensuite, une RT-PCR utilisant la technologie SYBR Green a été développée et utilise un contrôle interne constitué dARN ajouté au même tube. Ce test est capable de détecter des NoV humains et bovins appartenant aux génogroupes I, II et III et permet de faire la distinction entre les NoV et le contrôle interne par lanalyse des courbes de dissociation. Une dilution 10 fois des échantillons sest révélée la méthode de choix pour lever les inhibitions. Afin de pouvoir confirmer directement le résultat et de permettre la quantification des NoV, une RT-PCR en temps réel utilisant la technologie TaqMan a été développée. Elle utilise un contrôle interne dARN et un standard dARN. De façon très intéressante, cette méthode peut détecter les NoV humains appartenant au génogroupes I, II et bovins du génogroupe III. Les inhibitions furent efficacement levées par une dilution 10 fois de léchantillon ou lajout de sérum albumine bovine au mix de RT-PCR. Ces deux RT-PCR en temps réel ont montré une sensibilité supérieure comparée à la RT-PCR conventionnelle. Avec pour objectif de comprendre les voies de transmission des NoV, la situation en Belgique a été investiguée et des NoV humains et bovins ont été détectés et analysés par séquençage partiel. Des NoV appartenant à différents génogroupes ont été détectés : GI et GII chez lhomme et GIII chez les bovins. Par analyse de la proximité génétique, les NoV bovins se sont révélés de génotype GIII.2 et les NoV humains de différents génotypes, mais majoritairement de génotype GII.4. Ces analyses ont permis également lidentification dune co-infection et de deux recombinants naturels, ces derniers étant proches de génotypes différents en fonction de la région du génome analysée (polymérase ou capside). L'identification de zones privilégiées pour la recombinaison dans la région située à la jonction de l'ORF (open reading frame) 1 et de lORF2 confirme l'importance de cette région dans ce phénomène. Afin détudier lévolution des NoV bovins, un NoV bovin détecté en Belgique fut séquencé complètement (Bo/B309/2003/BE) et comparé à la souche originale Newbury2 (isolée dans les années 80). Dune part, cette études a permis daboutir à la mise au point et la validation doutils permettant la détection et létude les NoV humains et animaux, tant pour leur pathogénie, que leur évolution ou leurs voies de transmission. Dautre part, basée sur le panel déchantillons recueillis durant cette étude, lanalyse phylogénétique des NoV détectés va dans le sens des études réalisées dans dautres pays tendant à montrer que les NoV bovins constituent un groupe de virus distincts, différents des NoV humains. Cela suggère que les NoV bovins ne représentent pas un risque pour la santé humaine. Néanmoins, la possibilité dune infection zoonotique ou dun réservoir animal ne peut pas être exclue vu la proximité de séquence entre les NoV humains et animaux et aussi la relation étroite et proche entre les populations humaines et les élevages danimaux. La détection dune co-infection et de deux recombinants naturels démontre les possibilités dévolution des NoV et limportance dune analyse complète de leur génome pour leur caractérisation. Ce travail a été pionnier dans létude des NoV au laboratoire et a ouvert la voie à dautres sujets de recherche sur les NoV et à de nouvelles thèses de doctorat, notamment sur létude de linteraction NoV-hôte (NoV dans lespèce bovine) et létude de la recombinaison des NoV in vitro (NoV murins).
14

Das zoonotische Potenzial feliner und boviner Foamyviren (Spumaretrovirinae) Etablierung und Anwendung serologischer Nachweisverfahren und Identifikation einer zellulären antiretroviralen Restriktion /

Romen, Fabian, January 2007 (has links)
Stuttgart, Univ., Diss., 2006. / Enth. Zeitschriftenartikel aus: Virology ; 345 (2006) S. 502 - 508; PNAS ; 102 (2005) S. 7982 - 7987; Tierärztliche Umschau ; 59, (2004) S. 521 - 527; Gene Therapy ; 14 (2007) S. 613 - 620.
15

Detecção de Salmonella spp. e Leptospira spp. em Phrynops geoffroanus (cágado-de-barbicha) em ambiente urbano

Oliveira, Juliana Paula de [UNESP] 02 July 2013 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-08-13T14:50:35Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2013-07-02Bitstream added on 2014-08-13T18:01:12Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 000735335_20150730.pdf: 387998 bytes, checksum: 90b73134fb9fe938fabafd23bf57f2a5 (MD5) Bitstreams deleted on 2015-08-03T12:20:49Z: 000735335_20150730.pdf,. Added 1 bitstream(s) on 2015-08-03T12:22:15Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 000735335.pdf: 2101391 bytes, checksum: 83c797b7f26be5cfdcc0cb1f891aa84c (MD5) / Salmonella spp. e Leptospira spp., agentes zoonóticos de relevância em saúde pública, apresentam ocorrência mais frequente nas regiões tropicais e possuem no meio aquático uma forma viável de sobrevivência e transmissão. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de pesquisar a presença de Salmonella spp. e Leptospira spp. em Phrynops geoffroanus (cágados-de-barbicha) e a presença de Salmonella spp. no ambiente (Córrego Cerradinho em Jaboticabal-SP), no qual os animais foram capturados. A partir das amostras de sangue e suabes de cloaca de P. geoffroanus e de amostras de água e sedimento do córrego, foram feitos cultivos microbiológicos para pesquisa de Salmonella spp. O soro de P. geoffroanus foi utilizado para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. pela técnica de soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM). A técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada para verificar a presença de Leptospira spp. nas amostras de lavado estomacal e cloacal. Diversos sorotipos de Salmonella spp. foram isolados nas amostras do Córrego Cerradinho e nos suabes cloacais de P. geoffroanus residentes nesse ambiente. Nem sempre os sorotipos de Salmonella spp. encontrados em ambiente e em P. geoffroanus foram os mesmos. Os testudines aquáticos foram positivos para Leptospira spp., e foram detectados também anticorpos contra o agente. Concluiu-se que a presença dos agentes, tanto nos animais como no ambiente aquático, pode representar um risco para a saúde pública / Salmonella spp. e Leptospira spp., zoonotic agents of public health relevance, have higher occurrence in tropical regions and present in the aquatic environment, a viable survival and transmission way. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. and Leptospira spp. in Phrynops geoffroanus (geoffroy’s side-necked turtle) and the presence of Salmonella spp. in the environment (Cerradinho Stream, Jaboticabal-SP), where animals were captured. From blood samples and cloacal swabs of P. geoffroanus and samples of water and sediment from the stream, microbiological cultures for Salmonella spp. were performed. The serum of P. geoffroanus was used to detect antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to verify the presence of Leptospira spp. in samples of gastric and cloacal lavage. Several serotypes of Salmonella spp. were isolated in samples of Cerradinho stream and cloacal swabs of P. geoffroanus residents in this environment. The serotypes of Salmonella spp. found in the environment and in P. geoffroanus were not always the same. The freshwater testudines were positive for Leptospira spp., and antibody against the agent were detected. It was concluded that the presence of agents, in both animals and aquatic environment, may represent a risk to public health
16

Caractérisation génétique et phénotypique de cryptosporidium : de la souris à l’homme / Genetic and phenotypic characterization of cryptosporidium : from mice to humans

Osman, Marwan 30 September 2015 (has links)
Les parasites du genre Cryptosporidium comprennent des espèces infectant le tractus gastro-intestinal ou respiratoire d’un grand nombre de vertébrés y compris l'homme. Ces protistes intracellulaires sont les agents d’une zoonose cosmopolite à transmission oro-fécale, la cryptosporidiose. Au vu des travaux de notre laboratoire, nous savons à présent que Cryptosporidium parvum est également capable d’induire des néoplasies digestives chez un modèle murin SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency mice), traitées ou pas par la dexaméthasone. Alors que C. muris, une autre espèce de Cryptosporidium, induit une infection chronique non associée à des transformations néoplasiques.Pour toutes ces raisons, il nous est apparu intéressant d’effectuer un travail de thèse articulé autour de trois axes principaux, l’épidémiologie, la transmission et la pathogénicité du parasite Cryptosporidium. Nous nous sommes intéressés dans un premier temps à l’épidémiologie moléculaire et la biodiversité génétique de Cryptosporidium dans des populations humaines de la région du Nord-Liban. Ceci nous a permis de mettre en évidence une prévalence de 5% de Cryptosporidium chez la population générale avec une prédominance de C. hominis. Ce qui constituait les premières données épidémiologiques de la cryptosporidiose au Liban. Ensuite d’autres études nous ont permis de montrer que cette prévalence pouvait atteindre même 10% chez les patients symptomatiques et les enfants.Dans un second temps, nous avons voulu étudier le mode de transmission du parasite et les facteurs de risque pouvant y être associés. Pour ce faire, une recherche du parasite a été réalisée aussi bien au Liban qu’en France chez des animaux d’élevage, sauvages, de compagnie et en captivité. Une première étude a été réalisée chez des patients et des bovins du Nord-Liban. L’ensemble des données rapportées nous permettent de suggérer un mode de transmission de la cryptosporidiose majoritairement anthroponotique au Liban, mais les résultats du génotypage ne permettent pas d’exclure la présence d’une transmission zoonotique. D’autres études réalisées en France, notamment sur des échantillons de selles collectées auprès des zoos de la Palmyre (à Royan) et de Lille ont montré un taux de prévalence de Cryptosporidium spp inférieur à 1%. Ces animaux ne semblent donc pas être un réservoir potentiel de cette infection. Alors que chez les poissons sauvages, nous avons pu identifier la présence entre autre de l’espèce zoonotique C. parvum dans l’estomac et l’intestin des poissons. Ceci nous permet de considérer les poissons comme étant une source de contamination potentiel pour l’homme, l’animal mais également pour l’environnement.Enfin le troisième axe avait pour but d’étudier la pathogénicité de ce parasite. Pour commencer nous avons voulu explorer les mécanismes de la cancérogénèse induite par la souche IOWA de C. parvum au niveau de la région iléocæcale des souris SCID traitées par la dexaméthasone (SCID-D). Pour ce faire nous nous sommes intéressés à quatre marqueurs de voies de signalisation cellulaires impliquées dans la survenue de cancers colorectaux (APC, Bêta-caténine, P53 et K‐ras). Nous avons ainsi pu montrer que la voie Wnt était impliquée dans ce processus. Ensuite nous avons voulu étudier l’association entre la pathologie cancéreuse et le parasitisme par Cryptosporidium chez l’homme. Une recherche du parasite a donc été réalisée dans des biopsies d’origines coliques et gastriques inclues en paraffine appartenant à des patients atteints ou non de cancers digestifs. Une différence significative a été rapportée entre la prévalence de la cryptosporidiose retrouvée chez la population de patients présentant des lésions cancéreuses (17%) et celle du groupe control constitué de patients non cancéreux mais présentant des symptômes (7%) p-value = 0.03. L’ensemble de ces données obtenues chez l’animal et chez l’homme montre que ce parasite a un impact important en santé humaine et animale. / Parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium comprise species infecting the gastrointestinal or respiratory tract of a wide variety of vertebrates including humans. These intracellular protists are the agents of a cosmopolitan zoonosis, with féco-oral transmission, cryptosporidiosis. Recent work from our laboratory, showed that the zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum is capable to induce digestive neoplasia in a SCID Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Mice (SCID) model, treated or not with dexamethasone. However C. muris, another species of Cryptosporidium, induces chronic infection in this rodent model but is not associated with neoplastic transformation.For all these reasons, it seemed interesting to carry out a thesis project articulated around three different axes: epidemiology, transmission and pathogenesis of the Cryptosporidium infection. We focused initially on the molecular epidemiology and genetic biodiversity of this parasite among human populations in North Lebanon. We found a Cryptosporidium prevalence of 5% among the general population, being C. hominis the predominant species. This prevalence could reach until 10% in symptomatic patients and children. This is the first epidemiological data about cryptosporidiosis in this country.Secondly, we studied the transmission routes and the main risk factors associated with the transmission of this parasite. To do this, a first study was conducted in parallel among animal populations in North Lebanon and France. The reported data suggest a predominance of an anthroponotic route of transmission for cryptosporidiosis in Lebanon, but the results of genotyping does not exclude the presence of zoonotic transmission. Other studies conducted in France, especially based on collection of stool samples in the zoos of Palmyre (Royan) and Lille showed that Cryptosporidium spp were present in less than 1% of captivity animals. The low prevalence strongly demonstrates that these animals play a negligible role as potential reservoirs of infection. While in wild fish, we could identify the presence of C. parvum, a zoonotic species, in the stomach and the gut of fish. These data suggest that the fish could be a natural host of C. parvum and a potential source of contamination for humans, animals but also for the environment.Finally, the third topic aimed to study the pathogenicity of this parasite. Firstly, we explored metabolic pathways potentially involved in the development of C. parvum-induced ileo-caecal oncogenesis in the SCID model treated with dexamethasone (SCID-D). We searched for alterations in genes or proteins commonly involved in cell cycle, differentiation or cell migration, such as β-catenin, Apc, E-cadherin, Kras and p53. We were able to show that the Wnt pathway was involved in this process. Finally, we wanted to study the association between digestive cancer and parasitism with Cryptosporidium in humans. Cryptosporidium molecular detection was therefore carried out in colonic and gastric biopsies belonging to patients with and without digestive cancers of recent diagnosis collected in North Lebanon. A statistically significant difference was observed between the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis found among the population of patients with digestive cancer (17%) and that of the control group consisting of non-cancer patients but with digestive symptoms (7%) (p-value = 0.03). All these data obtained in animals and humans strengthens the importance of this parasite in public health.
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Elucidação diagnóstica da leishmaniose visceral canina pra a vigilância epidemiológica e controle desta zoonose /

Camargo, Janaina Biotto. January 2008 (has links)
Resumo: A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma enfermidade infecciosa de caráter zoonótico, endêmica em algumas áreas do Brasil, causada pela L. chagasi. A maior dificuldade encontrada para controlar a doença está relacionada ao seu diagnóstico, que apresenta limitações quanto aos seus resultados. Desta maneira, o estudo comparou duas provas sorológicas, a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI) e o ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA); o exame parasitológico direto bem como a reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR), ambos de aspirado de linfonodo. Foram utilizados os iniciadores gênero-específicos LINR4 e LIN19 e os iniciadores RV1 e RV2 espécie-específicos para identificar a L. chagasi. Foram coletadas amostras de 100 cães sorologicamente positivos, provenientes do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses (CCZ) de Bauru, região endêmica, e de 100 cães provenientes do CCZ de Botucatu-SP, área não-endêmica para a enfermidade. A RIFI, o parasitológico e a PCR apresentaram especificidade de 100% e o ELISA de 99%. As sensibilidades foram 97,77%; 93,33% e 91,11%, para RIFI, ELISA e PCR respectivamente. A proporção de concordância entre as provas foi satisfatória, apresentando valores de P sempre menores que 0,05. Pode-se concluir que além do exame sorológico, pode-se utilizar também a PCR de linfonodo no diagnóstico da LVC, pois a associação de técnicas melhorou a detecção de cães infectados, contribuindo para o melhor controle desta zoonose. / Abstract: The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic infectious disease, endemic in some areas from Brazil, caused by L. chagasi. The greatest difficulty to control the disease is related to its diagnosis, which present limitations related with the results. Thus, the study compared two serologic methods, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); the parasitological direct examination and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), both drawn from the lymph node. The initiators used were gender-specific LINR4 and LIN19 and the initiators species-specific RV1 and RV2 to identify L. chagasi. The samples were collected from 100 dogs serologically positive, from the Center for Zoonoses Control (CZC) of Bauru, endemic region, and 100 dogs from the CZC of Botucatu-SP, an area considered non-endemic to the disease. The IFAT, the parasitological and the PCR showed 100% of specificity and ELISA 99%. The sensitivities were 97.77%, 93.33% and 91.11% for IFAT, ELISA and PCR respectively. The proportion of agreement between the methods was satisfactory, showing values of P always smaller than 0,05. It was concluded that in addition to the serologic methods, PCR of lymph node can also be used for CVL diagnosis, and that the combination of techniques improved the detection of infected dogs, contributing for better control of this zoonosis. / Orientador: Helio Langoni / Coorientador: Simone Baldini Lucheis / Banca: Antonio Carlos Paes / Banca: Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla. / Mestre
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Fatores predisponentes à ocorrência de leptospirose e leishmaniose em cães no Distrito de Córrego Rico, Jaboticabal-SP

Bichuette, Murilo Abud [UNESP] 15 February 2013 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:27:15Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2013-02-15Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T18:55:46Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 bichuette_ma_me_jabo.pdf: 713275 bytes, checksum: da5fda57eb8e30e69990f683adf48e2a (MD5) / Dentre as zoonoses que têm a participação de cães na sua transmissão, merecem destaque a leptospirose e a leishmaniose visceral, presentes em todas as regiões do Brasil. No Estado de São Paulo a leptospirose é endêmica e a ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral vem apresentando aumento significativo. No Distrito de Córrego Rico, Jaboticabal/SP, é grande o número de cães soltos nas ruas e de roedores que invadem as residências. Há relato, na literatura, de um cão reagente à leishmaniose visceral. Recentemente, em 2011, um jovem veio a óbito por leptospirose. Diante desses fatos, o presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma avaliação sorológica das duas enfermidades em cães de Córrego Rico e identificar fatores predisponentes ou relacionados à sua ocorrência. Para tanto, as residências que abrigam cães foram visitadas, aplicou-se um questionário semi-estruturado para levantamento de informações que permitissem avaliar as condições gerais de posse e saúde de cada animal, com entrega de panfleto educativo. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas de 274 cães para serem submetidas à prova de soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM) frente a 24 sorovares de Leptospira spp. Vinte e duas amostras mostraram-se reagentes com títulos 1:100, sendo os sorovar butembo, seguido pelo autumnalis, bratislava e pyrogenes os mais frequentemente encontrados. As mesmas amostras passaram por avaliação de anticorpos contra Leishmania chagasi, por meio das técnicas de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI) e ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA). Pela imunofluorescência, duas amostras mostraram-se positivas. Já no teste ELISA, todas as amostras testadas foram negativas. A Análise Multivariada permitiu identificar fatores locais que podem estar relacionados com a ocorrência de leptospirose. Embora não tenha sido detectado... / Among the zoonosis transmitted by dogs in Brasil, leptospirosis and visceral leishmaniosis can be found throughout the country. In São Paulo state, leptospirosis is endemic and the occurrence of visceral leishmaniosis is significantly increasing. In the district of Córrego Rico, Jaboticabal/SP, there is a large number of free roaming dogs and homes that are invaded by rodents, and according to the literature, dogs have also tested positive for leishmaniosis in that region. Recently, in 2011, a fatal human case of leptospirosis was reported. This study was conducted to evaluate the serological response of both diseases in the above mentioned district and to identify predisposing factors that could be related to their occurrence. The households with dogs were visited and a questionnaire was filled to compile the information and evaluate the general conditions of dog health and ownership. An educational folder was also distributed to each participant. Blood samples of 274 dogs were submitted to microscopic serum agglutination (SAM) to 24 serotypes de Leptospira spp. Twenty tow samples were positive with titers 1:100. The serotypes butembo, followed by autumnalis, bratislava and pyrogenes were the most commonly found. The blood samples were also evaluated against Leishmania chagasi antibodies using indirect immunoflourescence (IFI) and ELISA. Two samples were positive based on IFI and all tested negative by the ELISA. The multivariate statistical analysis was able to identified local factors related to the incidence of leptospirosis. There were no findings on positive seroconversion of leishmaniosis and the reagents to leptospirosis were 8,0%. However, this study clearly shows the importance of the population control of dogs and... (Complete abstract click electronic access below)
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Educação em saúde: formação de multiplicadores em zoonoses e guarda responsável de animais de estimação

Moraes, Fernanda Cassioli de [UNESP] 27 May 2013 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:27:16Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2013-05-27Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:56:02Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 moraes_fc_me_jabo.pdf: 527071 bytes, checksum: eecc6561fba873e84a476acc53c6e863 (MD5) / Considerando-se a importância da cooperação dos professores do ensino infantil e fundamental na disseminação de conhecimentos sobre controle e prevenção de doenças e na conscientização social durante o desenvolvimento dos alunos, idealizou-se a presente pesquisa. O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos de um curso semipresencial, com duração de nove meses e 180 horas de atividades, aplicado para a formação de multiplicadores em controle de zoonoses urbanas e guarda responsável de animais de estimação no Município de Jaboticabal/SP. Primeiramente, realizou-se um diagnóstico de situação para determinar os conhecimentos prévios que professores e alunos tinham sobre os temas que seriam abordados. Um mês após a finalização do curso, uma nova avaliação foi feita para verificar a assimilação das informações obtidas. Os resultados permitiram verificar mudança positiva na percepção dos professores, principalmente em relação ao tema “guarda responsável” e houve um aumento de 50% para 90% de docentes que disseram ter noções sobre o assunto. Antes do curso, apenas 20% dos professores afirmavam que o ser humano poderia ser acometido por leishmaniose, e após o curso, 80% declararam ter conhecimento dessa informação. Quanto aos alunos, além da pesquisa confirmar o número elevado de crianças que possuem animais de estimação em suas casas (93,2%), obteve-se também uma melhora na sua compreensão em relação a algumas zoonoses, como leptospirose, leishmaniose e toxoplasmose. Evidencia-se, portanto, a importância de projetos continuados, ampliados ao maior número possível de professores, visando sua formação como multiplicadores de conhecimento e também sua capacitação para a transferência de informações aos alunos e, em consequência, a toda a comunidade, sobre temas relevantes e essenciais à manutenção da saúde pública / Considering the importance of the cooperation of teachers in preschool and elementary school in the dissemination of knowledge about prevention and control of diseases and social awareness in the student’s development, was conceived the present research. The objective was to evaluate the effects of a blended course, lasting nine months and 180 hours of activities, applied to the training of multipliers in urban zoonosis control and responsible ownership of pets in Jaboticabal , São Paulo – Brazil. First, there was a situation analysis to determine the prior knowledge that teachers and students had about the topics that would be addressed. One month after the completion of the course, a new evaluation was made to check the assimilation of information obtained. Results showed positive change in the perception of teachers, especially in relation to the theme of responsible ownership and there was an increase of 50% to 90% of teachers who said they had notions about it. Before the course, only 20% of teachers claimed that humans could be affected by leishmaniasis, and after the course, 80% of them said they had knowledge of this information. As for the students, beyond the research confirms the high number of children who have pets in their homes (93.2%) was obtained also an improvement in their understanding regarding some zoonosis such as leptospirosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. It is evident, therefore, the importance of ongoing projects, scaled to the largest possible number of teachers, for their training as multipliers of knowledge and also their capacity to transfer information to students and, consequently, to the whole community, on relevant and essential topics to the maintenance of public health
20

Frequência da cisticercose bovina no abate como índice de adoção das boas práticas agropecuárias

Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques [UNESP] 12 February 2014 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-11-10T11:09:54Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2014-02-12Bitstream added on 2014-11-10T11:57:45Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 000790988.pdf: 3864323 bytes, checksum: 0d9d5a2b5347d82bb1f6537f75882016 (MD5) / Objetivou-se determinar os fatores epidemiológicos envolvidos com a ocorrência da cisticercose em propriedades fornecedoras de bovinos para um abatedouro-frigorífico exportador do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, verificar o cumprimento quanto à adoção das Boas Práticas Agropecuárias (BPA) pelas propriedades aptas a exportação de carne bovina à União Europeia e realizar a estimativa de perda econômica aos pecuaristas devido às penalizações impostas pela indústria. Para isso, foram utilizados dados do Sistema de Inspeção Federal (SIF) de ocorrência da enfermidade, de acordo com origem da propriedade fornecedora durante o ano de 2012, avaliados estatisticamente pelos métodos do qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher. Também foram elaborados mapas epidemiológicos da ocorrência da enfermidade em 106 propriedades através do Software Google Earth®. Ainda, através de um estudo do tipo caso-controle com aplicação de questionários em 48 propriedades, foram determinados os fatores de risco através da odds-ratio e seus limites, testados estatisticamente pelo teste exato de Fisher a 5% de significância. Determinou-se frequência de cisticercose em 2,26% entre o total de 190.903 bovinos abatidos, dos quais 34,54% dos cisticercos se apresentavam vivos. Foi estimada uma perda econômica de 709.533,00 reais aos pecuaristas. Observou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os animais oriundos dos Estados de São Paulo (2,92%), Minas Gerais (1,81%), Goiás (0,71%) e Mato Grosso do Sul (1,11%). Pode-se determinar que os animais eram oriundos de 164 municípios e 556 propriedades, dos quais 81,71% (134/164) e 58,45% (325/556) respectivamente, registraram a enfermidade, demonstrando a ampla dispersão dessa zoonose. As propriedades habilitadas à exportação para a União Europeia apresentaram menor ocorrência com diferença estatística comparativamente àquelas não habilitadas ... / This study aimed to determine the epidemiological factors involved with the cysticercosis occurrence in cattle farms suppliers to an exporter slaughterhouse, located in São Paulo State, Brazil, check the enforcement of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) adoption by the farms authorized to export for European Union and estimate the economic losses by the farmers due industries penalization. Was utilized data of the disease occurrence, from Federal Inspection Service (SIF) by the origin of the supplier farm during 2012, tested statistically by Chi Square Method or Fisher’s exact test. Was elaborated epidemiological maps of the disease occurrence in 106 farms by the Software Google Earth®. Also, by a case-control study with questionnaires interviews in 48 farms, was determined the epidemiological factors by the odds-ratio and corresponding limits, tested statistically by Fisher’s exact test at 5% significance. Was determined the cysticercosis frequency of 2.26% among the 190.903 bovines slaughtered in the period, which 34.54% were live. The economical lost estimated was 709.533,00 reals to the farmers at the study period. Significant statistical difference was observed among the animals from São Paulo (2.92%), Minas Gerais (1.81%), Goiás (0.71%) e Mato Grosso do Sul (1.11%) States. Could be determined that the animals were from 164 county and 556 farms, which 81.71% (134/64) and 58.45% (325/556) respectively, registered the disease, demonstrating the cysticercosis wide dispersion. The European Union apt farms evidenced fewer occurrence with statistical difference comparatively to those inapt to this market, demonstrating that prophylactic measures are better implanted. Through epidemiological maps was observed a farm with high occurrence concentration next the Represa de Promissão (Rio Tietê), Represa de Água Vermelha (Rio Grande) e Represa de Itumbiara (Rio Paranaíba), regions known ...

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