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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Characterization of Product Quality Attributes and Thermal Properties of Potato Chips during Vacuum Frying

Yagua Olivares, Carla Veronica 2010 August 1900 (has links)
Vacuum frying is an alternative processing method for producing high quality snacks with the advantages of lower processing temperature, enhanced organoleptic quality, and reduced acrylamide content. Vacuum frying (1.33 kPa), with the aid of a deoiling mechanism, was used to produce low-fat potato chips. The kinetics of oil absorption and oil distribution in the potato chips (total, internal, and surface oil content) was studied so that effectiveness of the de-oiling system could be established. An analysis of product quality attributes (PQA) such as moisture content, oil content, microstructure, diameter shrinkage, and thickness expansion, as well as, bulk density, true density, and porosity of chips fried at different temperatures (120, 130, and 140 degrees C) was performed in order to evaluate the effect of process temperature on the product. Moreover, heat capacity of the chips and convective heat transfer coefficient at the oil-chip interface were determined for the same temperature range. The final oil content of the potato chips was 0.072±0.004, 0.062±0.003, and 0.059±0.003 g/g solid for frying temperatures of 120, 130, and 140 degrees C, respectively. These values are lower (80-85 percent less) than those found in traditionally-fried potato chip which indicates that the de-oiling mechanism is crucial in vacuum frying processing. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in oil content and oil distribution within temperatures. It was found that the rate of change in PQAs is greatly affected by temperature; however, the final values of moisture content, bulk density, true density, porosity, diameter shrinkage, and thickness expansion were not affected by temperature. During vacuum frying, the specific heat of potato chips decreased with time as water decreases. The convective heat transfer coefficient changed considerably as frying progresses; moreover, it increased with temperature reaching a maximum between 2,200 and 2,650 W/m2K depending on frying temperature.
2

Quality assessment of frying oils in the formal and informal food preparation sectors

Mewa, Choonilall January 1998 (has links)
Dissertation submitted in compliance with the requirements for the Master's Degree in Technology: Chemical Sciences, Technikon Natal, 1998. / The demand for fried foods by the public and the number of people entering the fried food industry in the form of take-aways and fast food outlets both in the formal and informal sectors has increased tremendously. Frying fats and oils are very expensive, used in large quantities and is the most important ingredient used in the preparation of fried foods: Due to the high cost of these frying fats and oils, majority of the formal and informal traders are using the frying fats and oils to its maximum in order to reduce the overall cost. This has resulted in the preparation of poor quality offried foods. Considering all of the above, the aim of the proposed research was :- (a) to determine the quality of the frying fats and oils used by both the formal and informal sectors by performing both physical and chemical analyses and compare these with similar analyses performed on the unused frying fats and oils in order to ascertain the degree of deterioration of the used frying fats and oils (b) to investigate the method of disposal of the used frying fats and oils. (c) to contribute in educating both the consumers and the suppliers of fried foods by bringing the findings of this research to the attention of the Durban Metro Health Department. The used frying fats 'and oils were collected during the frying process by the environment health officer from the Durban Metro Health Department. These samples were placed in a refridgerator to prevent any further deterioration. The used and unused frying fats and oils were analysed for, the Free Fatty Acid and Acid Value contents; the quantitative separation of Monoglycerides, Diglycerides and Triglycerides; the Refractive Index; the Peroxide Values; the concentrations of Polar and Non-polar Compounds; the Viscosity and the identification of the various fatty acid methyl esters present in the samples. The analytical methods used were followed from the American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS) Official Method Handbook. The Free Fatty Acid and Acid Value results showed that twenty-five percent of the samples had a concentration of more than the maximum acceptable limit of 2.5%. It was evident that the types of food fried, the intermittent heating, frying / M
3

Improved Vacuum Frying Process for High Quality Sweet Potato Chips

Ravli, Yagmur 1985- 14 March 2013 (has links)
Vacuum frying is a promising method for preserving the desired color, texture, and flavor of products with high sugar content. Since most vegetables and fruits degrade when processed with traditional frying, vacuum frying is an excellent alternative to high temperature processing. However, in vacuum frying the product should be pre-treated before frying to obtain a better texture. The kinetics of oil absorption and oil distribution in sweet potato chips (total, internal, and surface oil content) was studied so that effectiveness of the de-oiling system could be established. An analysis of product quality attributes (PQA) such as moisture content, oil content, microstructure, diameter shrinkage, and thickness expansion, as well as, color, texture, bulk density, true density, and porosity of chips fried at different temperatures (120, 130, and 140°C) was performed to evaluate the effect of process temperature on the product. The final oil content of the sweet potato chips was 0.178±0.007, 0.178±0.011, and 0.172±0.002 g/g solid for frying temperatures of 120, 130, and 140ºC, respectively. These values were lower (~60% less) than those found in traditionally fried sweet potato chip, which indicates that the de-oiling mechanism is crucial in vacuum frying processing. It was found that the rate of change in PQAs is greatly affected by temperature; however, the final values of bulk density, true density, porosity, diameter shrinkage, and thickness expansion were not affected by temperature. The texture of the samples was affected by temperature, with the chips fried at 140 degrees C being crispier. In terms of color, the L* and color b* values decreased as temperature increased. While color a* was not affected by temperature. In this study, a two-stage frying process was also evaluated to improve the flavor and texture of sweet potato chips. First, a basket filled with the sweet potato slices was submerged into the oil under atmospheric conditions. As soon as the potato slices were partially cooked (1 min), the pressure was lowered to 1.33 kPa (vacuum frying stage) and the product fried for 2 more min. The products were fried at 130 degrees C for different interval of times. Starch gelatinization, texture, moisture content, and oil content were evaluated at each time interval. Sensory analysis was accomplished by using a consumer panel with 50 members. The samples were compared with the on-stage frying and atmospheric frying processes. The two-stage fried chips had better appearance and texture compared to the ones that were only fried under vacuum or atmospheric conditions. The samples were lighter and more yellow than the chips fried under the single-stage process. In vacuum frying, the temperature of the chips does not reach the gelatinization temperature until most of the water is evaporated. Therefore, there is not sufficient moisture content in the product for gelatinization to occur completely. As a result, the product has a glassy texture. In the two stage frying, the atmospheric frying prior to vacuum frying helps the starch to gelatinize thus producing a better product in terms of texture, oil content, and flavor. The atmospheric fried samples were darker in color and had a scorch taste. The degree of starch gelatinization was 21% higher for the two-stage fried samples than the single-stage fried ones. The application of the dual stage enhances the quality of sweet potato chips, improves consumer satisfaction, and reduces the need for space, cost, and any other needs of blanching pre-treatment to the sweet potato manufacturers.
4

Cause of color component formation in oils during frying

Lazarick, Kelsey January 2012 (has links)
Color formation in oils during frying is one of the most noticeable degradation reactions that occur in the frying oil. Degradation reactions cause formation of products that positively and negatively impact the nutritional and sensory qualities of both the food being fried and the frying oil. The origins of these pigment forming reactions in the oil and the factors affecting these reactions are not well understood. Assessments of the mechanisms, the components involved and external conditions affecting oil darkening were conducted. The effect of basic food ingredients, commercially sold and laboratory formulated breading and battering, preformed lipid hydroperoxides and phospholipids on color formation and oil degradation of the frying oil were investigated. Protein products, specifically whey protein, caused both the fastest darkening and thermo-oxidative deterioration of the frying oil. This breakdown was aided further through the addition of minor food materials such as glucose and amino acids as well as lipid hydroperoxides in concentrations greater than 5 % of the frying oil. Nonenzymatic browning is the main reaction causing color formation in the frying oil and utilizes carbonyls from the food product such as starches, sugars and lipid oxidation products as starting materials alongside amino groups from proteins and amino acids. Breading ingredients contributed to oil color formation due to particles from the food crust breaking off into the frying oil to further accelerate browning reactions. Increasing the temperature of the frying oil provided additional stimulus for color forming and thermo-oxidative reactions to progress at a faster rate. / xv, 184 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm
5

The Effect of Novel Frying Methods on Quality of Breaded Fried Foods

Bengtson, Rhonda J. 31 October 2006 (has links)
Fried foods are popular around the world. They are also high in fat and considered unhealthy by many people. Reducing the fat content of fried food may allow for even more growth in their popularity, while allowing for healthier eating. Furthermore, vacuum-frying and frying with nitrogen gas have both been shown to extend the life of frying oil. In this study, the use of novel frying methods as a way to reduce fat content of breaded fried foods was evaluated. A pressure fryer was modified so that fish sticks could be vacuum-fried and fried using external gas (nitrogen and compressed air) as the pressurizing media. These products were compared to those pressure fried and fried atmospherically in terms of crust color, moisture content, oil content, texture, and juiciness. Overall, products fried using nitrogen and air were not found to be significantly different (p < 0.05) from each other. These products were both more tender and lower in oil content than steam-fried fish sticks. The energy to peak load of fish sticks fried with air was 123.10 J/kg, fish sticks fried with nitrogen had an energy to peak load of 134.64 J/kg, and fish sticks fried with traditional pressure frying had a peak load of 158.97 J/kg. The crust oil contents of fish sticks fried with air, nitrogen, and steam were 17.35%, 15.88%, and 23.31% oil by weight, respectively. In other words, using nitrogen or air to fry fish sticks reduced the fat uptake in the crust by 31.8% and 25.6% compared to traditional pressure frying, respectively. The only area where vacuum-frying had a significant effect, when compared to pressure-fried and atmospherically-fried fish sticks, was in juiciness. Vacuum-frying created significantly juicier fish sticks than the other two frying methods. Vacuum-fried fish sticks had juiciness of 43.03% (120oC) and 41.31% (150oC), while pressure-fried fish sticks had juiciness of 30.01% (175oC) and 32.93% (190oC), and atmospherically-fried fish sticks had juiciness of 31.56% (175oC) and 29.38% (190oC). In addition, vacuum-fried fish sticks were more tender than atmospherically-fried fish sticks. The results of this study demonstrated that frying with external pressurizing media can be used to reduce oil content in fish sticks, while also creating products that are more tender than conventionally pressure-fried fish sticks. In addition, vacuum-frying, which has been shown to extend oil life compared to pressure frying because of the lower temperatures involved, can be used to create fish sticks that are comparable to pressure-fried fish sticks, but juicier. / Master of Science
6

The decomposition of lard and other fats in deep fat frying

Bennion, Marion, January 1955 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1955. / Typescript. Vita. eContent provider-neutral record in process. Description based on print version record. Includes bibliographical references.
7

Strategies to Inhibit the Formation of 3-Monochloropropane Diol During Deep-Fat Frying

Ye, Qionghuan January 2020 (has links)
3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol or 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and glycidol are the most commonly occurring group of thermal process contaminants which are considered as “possible human carcinogen” and “probably carcinogenic to humans”, respectively. Potato strips prepared from three different potatoes cultivars (Russet Burbank, Ranger Russet, and Umatilla Russet) grown in North Dakota from the crop year 2018 were fried with vegetable oil at 190 ºC, respectively, for five consecutive days (8 h/day). The dynamic changes of 3-MCPD and glycidol equivalents were investigated during deep-fat frying. 3-MCPD equivalent in oil and potato strips decreased with increased frying time. Meanwhile, the content of glycidol equivalent increased with increased frying time. The major 3-MCPD and glycidol equivalents that were detected in the fried potato strips were those that migrated from the oils during frying. The application of absorbents, i.e., Magnesol and Celite, achieved the mitigation of 3-MCPD and glycidol in frying oil.
8

The effect of two methods of care for fat used in deep frying

Rust, Mary Elizabeth. January 1954 (has links)
LD2668 .T4 1954 R87 / Master of Science
9

The effect of internal temperature on the palatability of beef cooked in deep fat

McNelis, Marilyn. January 1958 (has links)
Call number: LD2668 .T4 1958 M22
10

Textural and mass transfer characteristics of chicken nuggets during deep fat frying and oven baking

El-Dirani, Khaldoun January 2002 (has links)
The effects of deep fat frying and oven baking on mass transfer (moisture loss and oil uptake), color and textural characteristics of chicken nuggets were studied. Deep fat frying was performed at three oil temperatures, namely 150, 170 and 190°C. The frying times were 1, 2, 3 and 4 min. Oven baking was accomplished at three temperature levels: 200, 220, and 240°C, and the baking times were 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. / Moisture content of the breading portion of the fried chicken nuggets decreased following a typical drying curve and ranged from 0.90 to 0.22 g/g (db), while the moisture content of the core portion of the chicken nuggets decreased almost linearly and ranged from 1.96 to 1.4 g/g (db). Fat contents of the breading and core portions increased linearly with time. Generally, frying temperature significantly affected the moisture contents of the breading and core. It also affected the fat content of the core but not that of the breading. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

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