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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The influence of fuel properties on threshold combustion in aviation gas turbine engines

Burger, Victor January 2017 (has links)
This body of work investigated the influence of alternative jet fuel properties on aviation gas turbine performance at threshold combustor operating conditions. It focused on altitude blowout performance and was in part motivated by results that were encountered during an aviation industry evaluation of synthetic kerosene that complied with the Jet A-1 specification, but differed from the fuel that was used as a reference in terms of some significant properties. As a consequence the relative impact of physical properties and reaction chemistry properties were of primary interest in this study. The thesis considered the potential to blend a range of different alternative jet fuel formulations which exhibited independent variations in properties relating to evaporation and reaction behaviour whilst still conforming to legislated physical fuel specifications. It further explored the potential for said variations having a detectable and significant influence on the simulated high altitude extinction behaviour in a representative aviation gas turbine combustor. Based on the findings, appropriate metrics were suggested for scientifically quantifying the appropriate properties and conclusions were drawn about the potential impact of alternative jet fuel properties on blowout performance. These subjects were addressed primarily through the theoretical analyses of targeted experimental programmes. The experimental design adopted a novel approach of formulating eight test fuels to reflect real-world alternative fuel compositions while still enabling a targeted evaluation of the influences of both physical and chemical reaction properties. A detailed characterisation was performed of the test fuels' physical and reaction properties. The extinction and spray behaviours of the fuels were then evaluated in a laboratory scale combustor featuring dual-swirl geometry and a single prefilming airblast atomiser. The various experimental data sets were interpreted within the context of a theoretical model analysis. In doing so the relative performance of alternative jet fuel formulations under laboratory burner conditions were translated to predict relative real world altitude performance. This approach was validated against aforementioned industry evaluation results and demonstrated to be consistent. A technically defensible explanation was provided for the previously unexplored anomalous altitude extinction results that were observed during the industry evaluation of synthetic jet fuel. A conclusive case was made for the extinction limit differences having been caused by the relative differences in chemical ignition delays of the fuels. The probability of volatility (distillation profile) and fuel physical properties playing a significant role in the impaired altitude performance was discredited. Evaporation-controlled combustion efficiency was, however, shown to become a significant factor at low air mass flow rates or when the fuel evaporation is compromised. The influence of flame speed and chemical ignition delays were investigated. Laminar flame speed was shown not to correlate with LBO, discrediting its use as a proxy for reaction rate. The study showed a correlation between the lean blowout behaviour of jet fuels and the ignition delays associated with their derived cetane numbers. Additionally, there was substantive support indicating that an even stronger correlation could be obtained by operating the IQT™ device that is used to measure these delays at an elevated temperature. The thesis makes a contribution towards the development of both technical understanding and practical tools for evaluating the potential operating limits of alternative jet fuel formulations.

Fuel reforming for fuel cell application /

Hung, Tak Cheong. January 2006 (has links)
Thesis (M.Phil.)--Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 2006. / Includes bibliographical references. Also available in electronic version.

Experimental investigations of the anode flow fields of micro direct methanol fuel cells /

Wong, Chung Wai. January 2005 (has links)
Thesis (M.Phil.)--Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 2005. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 100-110). Also available in electronic version.

A self-regulated passive fuel-feed system for passive direct methanol fuel cells /

Chan, Yeuk Him. January 2007 (has links)
Thesis (M.Phil.)--Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 2007. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 97-114). Also available in electronic version.

Modeling, design and energy management of fuel cell systems for aircraft

Bradley, Thomas Heenan. January 2008 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D)--Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009. / Committee Chair: Parekh, David; Committee Member: Fuller, Thomas; Committee Member: Joshi, Yogendra; Committee Member: Mavris, Dimitri; Committee Member: Wepfer, William. Part of the SMARTech Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Collection.

Preparation of high-durability membrane and electrode assemblies for direct methanol fuel cells /

Liang, Zhenxing. January 2008 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 2008. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 132-145). Also available in electronic version.

Scoping of a commercial micro reformer for the production of hydrogen

Koorts, Waldo Pieter January 2016 (has links)
Hydrogen has gained interest as fuel recently as the harmful effects of fossil fuels on the environment can no longer be ignored. Hydrogen, which produces no pollutants, forms the feed for cleaner fuel cells systems currently in use. Fuel cells, although not as economically viable as fossil fuels, have found a foothold in the energy market in various markets like power backup and use in remote locations. Production of hydrogen is still largely done via fossil fuel reforming and this technology has received renewed interest for use with fuel cells in the form of micro- reformers or fuel processors. This study entailed the performance benchmarking of a so called Best-in-Class commercial micro reformer (as available in 2010), the 1 kW WS FLOX Reformer, and was undertaken under the auspices of the national HySA programme. The study’s focus was primarily on reformate output quality (carbon monoxide concentration), and start up time, thermal efficiency and hydrogen output (15 SCLM). The reformer consisted of a combustion section encased in an outer reforming section consisting of three reactors in series, steam reforming, water gas shift and selective methanation. As-provided temperature control is simplified though the use of only one temperature setpoint in the combustion chamber and temperature control in the CO clean up stages obtained through means of heat transfer with incoming water being evaporated. Combustion takes place through flame combustion or by means of the supplier’s patented FLOX (flameless oxidation) combustion. The purchased FLOX Reformer assembly was integrated into a fully automated unit with all balance of plant components as well as microGC and flue gas analysis for measurement of outlet conditions. The FLOX Reformer was tested at multiple combustion temperatures, combustion flowrates, reforming loads and steam-to-carbon ratios to obtain a wide set of benchmark data. From the testing it was found that the reformer was able to produce the necessary 15 SCLM hydrogen with a carbon monoxide purity of less than 10 ppm as required in fuel cells for all testing if the reaction temperatures were within the recommended limits. Intermediary water gas shift analysis showed methane and carbon monoxide conversion in the reforming and water gas shift stages to be identical to thermodynamic equilibrium conversion – 95% and higher for all temperatures. iii Selective methanation conversion obtained was 99%, but not always at equilibrium conversion due to increased selective methanation temperatures, where carbon dioxide methanation was also observed at the higher temperatures. Temperature control through heat exchange with incoming water in the CO removal stages was found to be less than ideal as the temperature inside these stages fluctuated dramatically due to inaccuracies in the water pump and a lagged response to flowrate changes. Startup times of less than an hour was observed for multiple combustion flowrates and the reformer boasts a standby function to reduce this to less than half an hour. The thermal efficiency was independently confirmed and tested and found to be higher than 70 % for flame combustion and on par with other commercially available fuel processors. The suppliers trademark FLOX combustion only reaching 65% due to decreased combustion efficiency.

A techno-economic analysis of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles

Prince-Richard, Sébastien. 10 April 2008 (has links)
No description available.

Determinants of Fuel Choice in New Electric Power Plants

Bergman, Andrew 01 January 2013 (has links)
Despite increasing fuel cost volatility, regulatory uncertainty, and imminent shifts to industry dynamics, utility managers are forced to make tough decisions in regards to installing long-life generation assets. This study seeks to identify and quantify determinants of fuel choice in new electric power plants given vast uncertainties in the electricity generation sector. Using a probit functional form to estimate marginal effects on the likelihood of choosing wind versus natural gas powered generation, I find positive effects of natural gas prices in the period three years prior to initial operation of the new facility, positive effects of static-level standard score of mix, and positive effects of wind-power density. Additional feedstock choice sets and parameters are considered. All models suggest that (a) feedstock costs are significant predictors of fuel choice, (b) state-level regulatory learning enhances likelihood of choosing relatively young technologies, (c) Renewable Portfolio Standards result in artificial substitution between wind and solar technologies, and (d) population density, more so than political influence, predicts choices to install wind-powered capacity. Public policy and managerial implications are discussed.

Mathematical Analysis of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa 13 May 2009 (has links)
The mathematical analysis has been developed by using finite volume method, experimental data from literatures, and solving numerically to predict solid oxide fuel cell performances with different operating conditions and different material properties. The in-house program presents flow fields, temperature distributions, and performance predictions of typical solid oxide fuel cells operating at different temperatures, 1000 C, 800 C, 600 C, and 500 C, and different electrolyte materials, Yttria-Stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and Gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO). From performance predictions show that the performance of an anode-supported planar SOFC is better than that of an electrolyte-supported planar SOFC for the same material used, same electrode electrochemical considerations, and same operating conditions. The anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells can be used to give the high power density in the higher current density range than the electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells. Even though the electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells give the lower power density and can operate in the lower current density range but they can be used as a small power generator which is portable and provide low power. Furthermore, it is shown that the effect of the electrolyte materials plays important roles to the performance predictions. This should be noted that performance comparisons are obtained by using the same electrode materials. The YSZ-electrolyte solid oxide fuel cells in this work show higher performance than the CGO-electrolyte solid oxide fuel cells when SOFCs operate above 756 C. On the other hand, when CGO based SOFCs operate under 756 C, they shows higher performance than YSZ based SOFCs because the conductivity values of CGO are higher than that of YSZ temperatures lower than 756 C. Since the CGO conductivity in this work is high and the effects of different electrode materials, they can be implied that conductivity values of electrolyte and electrode materials have to be improved.

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