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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Revisiting the role of European Union institutions in the enforcement of European Union environmental law

Kotsovili, Maria January 2014 (has links)
Over the past thirty years European Union environmental policy has greatly expanded. Overall, more than three hundred pieces of environmental legislation have been adopted. For many years the European Commission was primarily preoccupied with the introduction of new legislative initiatives. However, progressively inadequate implementation and enforcement became the greatest challenge of European Union environmental policy. Following the final assessment of the Sixth Environmental Action Programme, which concluded that the enforcement of EU environmental law is insufficient, the problem remains as pertinent as ever. This study critically analyzes the institutional, procedural and remedial framework provided for by the European Union Institutions to safeguard the effective enforcement of Union environmental legislation at national level. It focuses on the role of three European Institutions, namely the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Union legislature in the enforcement of EU environmental legislation. The thesis identifies relevant areas of concern in the exercise of the Institutions’ role pertaining to enforcement. Despite certain limitations to which the doctrines of direct effect, consistent interpretation and State liability in damages have been made subject, their utility as enforcement mechanisms has overall been safeguarded by the Court of Justice of the European Union, which has granted national courts the necessary tools to advance the effectiveness of private enforcement of EU environmental legislation. The thesis criticises the Commission’s new enforcement strategy for focusing on formal implementation of EU environmental law, while neglecting the monitoring of application on the ground. Regarding the legislative intervention of the Union, notably in the areas of environmental liability and criminal enforcement, the thesis argues that proper justification for EU action has not been provided and that the stated purpose of the established regimes has not been attained.
2

An analysis of fear of crime within Black communities

Shashikala, M. R. 01 July 1990 (has links)
Analysis of blacks and fear of crime data in Atlanta and Washington, D.C. indicates that blacks in low income, high crime communities are less fearful of crime but still take protective measures when venturing into the community during the day and at night. Additional findings indicate that physical characteristics of neighborhood both within ones own neighborhood and adjacent to ones own neighborhood influence perceptions of crime. These are some of the findings discovered upon a re-examination of data sets from projects completed in Atlanta and Washington, D.C. The two projects were "Research on Minority Neighborhoods: Toward an Understanding of the Relationship Between Race and Crime" completed by Debro et al. 1981 and "Safe and Secure Neighborhoods: Physical Characteristics and Informal Territorial Control in High and Low Neighborhoods" completed by Greenberg et al. 1980. Questions were extracted from surveys of blacks in low income and middle income neighborhoods. The central question of the thesis was to what extent blacks fear crime. If blacks do fear crime, do they take protective measures which constrained their behavior in their community? The larger question which was not answered but which was always present was whether or not blacks feared crime more than whites. This question could not be answered because there was not a comparative sample of whites. Hopefully, this attempt will lead to additional studies.
3

MenschenRechtsMagazin : Informationen | Meinungen | Analysen [19.2014, Heft 1]

January 2014 (has links)
Aus dem Inhalt: - Die Bildungsartikel und ihre praktische Umsetzung in der Frauenrechtskonvention, der Kinderrechtskonvention und der Behindertenrechtskonvention der Vereinten Nationen - Binnenvertreibung als Angelegenheit des Völkerrechts - Die Durchsetzung von Menschenrechten vor US-Gerichten nach dem Kiobel-Urteil
4

The Relaxing of Virginia's Concealed Weapon Law: Its Relationship to the Crime Rates for Murder, Aggravated Assault and Robbery

Conner, Jerry S. 01 January 1997 (has links)
The primary objective of this research is to examine the relationship between the relaxation of Virginia's concealed weapon law, which became effective July 1, 1995, and three crime-related variables. Although there have been two major studies conducted in this area on a national basis, this research represents the first time a study has been conducted in Virginia. A secondary objective of this research is to examine relevant data to determine if this change in the law influenced the purchasing behavior of citizens regarding handguns and the issuance rate for concealed weapon permits. An interrupted time-series design is employed in examining the data for three crime-related variables over a six-year period, July 1, 1990 through June 30, 1996. Multiple Linear Regression is used to determine the characteristics of the trend data. Additionally, data for the two weapons-related variables are examined over a three-year period, July 1, 1993 through June 30, 1996. The research is an attempt to show that after the relaxing of the concealed weapon law (independent variable), (1) the crime rates for murder, aggravated assault and robbery increased, (2) the number of concealed weapon permits issued by the courts increased and (3) the number of handguns sold by Virginia's federally licensed firearms dealers increased (dependent variables). Uniform Crime Reporting data were used in the analysis of the crime-related variables for the six-year period of this study. Data from the Firearms Transaction Center of the Department of State Police were used in the examination of the weapon-related variables for the only three years that this data has been collected. Because the effective date of the change in Virginia's concealed weapon law was July 1, 1995, only one year of data after the change was available for analysis. The study revealed that the change in Virginia's concealed weapon law had no significant impact on the crime rates for murder, aggravated assault and robbery. The research reflected that the rate of concealed weapon permits issued by the courts increased significantly — over 400% — after the law changed. The number of handguns and total firearms sold decreased during each of the three years that data had been collected, and then decreased in the first year after passage of the relaxed law. However, handguns as a proportion of total firearms sold actually increased after the change in Virginia's law. During the past few years, several states have enacted legislation that changed their concealed weapon laws from "may issue" to "shall issue." The effect of these changes on crime rates is still undetermined. Because of the lack of data points after passage of Virginia's law, no firm conclusions can be reached concerning the influence that this change has had on crime rates. Additional research needs to be done in this area after more data becomes available to determine if a relationship exists.
5

Protecting financial services while ensuring regulatory compliance

Harper, Dana C. 16 February 2017 (has links)
<p> In the global economy, troubled with financial crime and well-funded terrorist operations, combating money laundering has become a priority for financial institutions (Brill, 2016). The 9/11 terrorist attacks have also increased the U.S. focus on terrorism and money laundering. The purpose of this research project was to examine the regulatory environment which monitors financial institutions and Nonbank Financial Institutions (NBFIs) to mitigate financial crimes, money laundering, and terrorist financing. Currently, there are statutory, regulatory, and supervisory gaps within the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). There are also vulnerabilities within the financial system that enable terrorist and other illicit financial networks to attempt to exploit those weaknesses. At the same time, the U.S. has enhanced its skills at identifying potential susceptibilities and applying the financial safeguards in place to mitigate the risk. Supervisory and regulatory bodies such as: Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and others have been delegated to protect the U.S. financial industry from potential terrorist financing and money laundering (&ldquo;What we,&rdquo; 2016). The complex mechanics of money laundering requires financial service institutions to implement and maintain an AML program specifically designed to follow the flow of resources (&ldquo;Certified Anti-money,&rdquo; 2010). </p><p> <i>Keywords:</i> information sharing, regulations, penalties, safety, security, Professor Paul Pantani.</p>
6

ARRESTS AND CRIME: SOME TIME SERIES EVIDENCE

Unknown Date (has links)
A causal analysis of the relationship between arrest certainty and property crime is presented. The analysis tests for "system's capacity" effects and "deterrence" effects. The research employs a Multivariate ARIMA model of the type advocated by Box and Jenkins. The analysis indicates that increasing arrest certainty reduces index property crime, but increasing index property crime does not reduce arrest certainty. The research supports the thesis that increasing sanction certainty decreases crime, however the analysis does not unequivocally support the deterrence hypothesis. The lack of unequivocal support for the deterrence hypothesis is the result of the inability to control exogenous factors, and the lack of construct validity. The operationalization of the probability of arrest construct necessarily encompasses causal processes which are distinct from deterrence, but which also act to inhibit criminal behavior. Therefore the reduction in property crime associated with increased arrest certainty can not be attributed to a deterrence causal process. / Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 43-06, Section: A, page: 2069. / Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Florida State University, 1982.
7

Consumer protection regarding halal food in Malaysian and English law

Halim, Mustafa Afifi bin Ab January 2018 (has links)
The thesis will explore consumer protection in respect of the abuse of halal food law in Malaysia. It will argue that the protection of halal food consumers is not sufficient to protect consumers in Malaysia. It will identify potential halal food-law infringements in the areas of certifications, false labelling, adulteration of halal food, improper slaughtering practices, questionable hygiene, and misrepresentation of halal. This thesis will investigate the current legal framework of halal food by identifying the potential violation of law, and consequently, will explore possible remedies and legal protection in cases where there is halal food abuse in Malaysia. This thesis will also consider the issue of private remedies for consumers who suffer as a result of food abuses and will explore compensation as a remedy for the nuisance caused. In addition, it will explore the adequacy of administrative measures to address halal food issues in Malaysia and identify whether these measures are capable of preventing legal abuses and holding traders to account. The competent authorities who enforce halal standards face problems and difficulties in providing a sufficient level of policing. This thesis will explore the criminal remedies provided by Malaysian law to deal with halal food abuse. While the problems in Malaysia and the United Kingdom may be similar, there are differences in how both countries deal with halal food issues. This thesis seeks to identify practices and solutions provided by English law which may be implemented in Malaysia to offer increased or more effective protection and to prevent halal food infringement. This thesis will suggest that the law in Malaysia requires modification in order to improve consumer protection. It will indicate a need for effective implementation of legal and enforcement measures in Malaysia. Any consequences of the lack of resources will also be identified. The thesis will conclude by providing recommendations on the implementation of a set of rules and compliance measures that will effectively contribute towards improving consumer protection vis-à-vis halal food in Malaysia.
8

FLORIDA LAW IN THE FEDERAL COURTS, 1945-1965

Unknown Date (has links)
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 27-09, Section: A, page: 3069. / Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Florida State University, 1966.
9

Human rights, sustainability, and businesses: A study of the protection of environment-related human rights in Latin America.

Chinchilla Fuentes, Luis January 2022 (has links)
No description available.
10

Les veritables enjeux de l'appropriation artistique au regard du droit d'auteur /

Barsalou, Geneviève. January 2001 (has links)
No description available.

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