1 
Design Specifications for an 84 and 100Inch TelescopeMeinel, A. B. January 1966 (has links)
QC 351 A7 no. 04 / This technical report was prepared from the specifications document
used for the bids for the University of Arizona telescope. This telescope
was funded by the National Science Foundation under the Science Development
Program. This document is being included in the Optical Sciences report
series since it may have some relevance to the programs in this area.

2 
A WideAngle AllMirror Ultraviolet CameraMeinel, Aden B., Shack, Roland V. January 1966 (has links)
QC 351 A7 no. 06 / A 6inch aperture 3mirror optical system has been designed that
yields high resolution over a flat field of 6° at a speed of f/1.8. All
surfaces are strongly aspheric. A proposed application of this new type
of camera is for sky survey and stellar photographic photometry in the
far ultraviolet under a current NASA Apollo AAP program. A general discussion of 3mirror reflective systems is given.

3 
A NEW DESIGN CLASS OF WIDEFIELD CAMERA FOR WIDE PASSBAND USESMeinel, Aden B., Shack, Roland V. 04 1900 (has links)
QC 351 A7 no. 09 / Meinel and Shack recently devised a threeelement reflective optical
system for a specific astronomical application that appears to offer rather
general uses for fast, widefield cameras. A threeelement system is
mathematically elegant in that this is the minimum number of surfaces necessary to provide zero thirdorder spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism
for any distribution of spacings and powers.. Twoelement configurations of
surfaces, such as the Schwarzschild and Couder, in general, leave one of
the above aberrations uncorrected. The maximum speed and field of good
definition of two mirror designs are also quite limited.
The MeinelShack threemirror system provides much superior performance since the degrees of freedom afforded through the use of aspheric
deformations on all surfaces permits the exact solution for the fifth order
aberrations astigmatism 5, coma 5 and spherical 5 to be eliminated along
with astigmatism 3, coma 3 and spherical 3. Moreover, it is possible to
design practical systems with zero Petzval sum yielding a flat focal surface,
and achieve an excellent balance of the remaining fifth order aberrations,
elliptical coma and oblique spherical aberration. The ultimate optical
performance is governed by the resulting balance of any remaining higher 
order aberrations.
A preliminary report of the design approach used by Meinel and Shack
is given in Optical Sciences Technical Report No. 6, appended to this report.

4 
Narrowband Optical Heterodyne DetectionHanlon, J., Jacobs, S. F. 01 1900 (has links)
QC 351 A7 no. 12 / The technique of coherent detection has been used to explore the
problems involved in detecting extremely low power levels. An input
signal power level of 5 x 10^19 watts of 3.39u radiation was detected with
voltage S/N of 2, in good agreement with theory.
The major experimental problem was elimination of feedback from the
local oscillator into the laser source. Narrowness of bandwidth was
limited by instability in detector bias. Neither of these difficulties
presents a fundamental limitation to a well designed receiver of light
from a distant source.

5 
Lens Design With Large Computers Report on the International Conference Rochester, New York July 58, 1966Wilkerson, Gary W., Lytle, John D. 01 1900 (has links)
QC 351 A7 no. 14 / Lens designers who use automatic programs and large computers are no
longer considered to be pioneers but are now an integral part of the world's
rapidlyexpanding optical industry. Various techniques of automatic correction, though still in the developmental stage, are finding daily application. A designer armed with a powerful lens design program and a capable
computer may now design, in a matter of hours, a lens system which would
have taken months to perfect only a few years ago; the results are consistently better than those obtained by classical methods, using log tables and
desk calculator.
Realizing that much has been learned about automatic design in the past
decade, and realizing that the time was ripe for this knowledge to be shared,
the Institute of Optics (University of Rochester) sponsored an international
conference on Lens Design with Large Computers. Following is an agenda and
list of speakers at this conference, held July 58, 1966, in Rochester, New
York.

6 
PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR A MULTISPECTRAL TRACKING TELESCOPE (MSTT)Slater, P. N. 20 April 1967 (has links)
QC 351 A7 no. 17 / The following report was originally prepared by P. N. Slater as a
progress report on a MultiSpectral Tracking Telescope for the Apollo Applications Program under NASA contract NSR 03002066. Since the work is an
outgrowth from investigations supported by other contract funding at the
Optical Sciences Laboratory, the report has been adapted as a Technical
Report for the information of the other sponsors.
The basic design, following the MeinelShack threemirror arrangement,
represents a particularly excellent refinement by R. V. Shack. The extreme
compactness of the design is of benefit to this application, and even
though the central obscuration is large, the modulation transfer function
remains satisfactory for the widelyused reconnaissance films.
A. B. Meinel

7 
A PUPIL COATING FOR QUASIPERFECT IMAGE FORMATIONFrieden, B. Roy 20 October 1967 (has links)
QC 351 A7 no. 21 / It is found that, despite the finite extent of any real pupil, an
absorption coating exists which, when applied to the pupil of an optical
system, results in nearly perfect formation of the coherent image. It is
suspected that this coating causes a significant loss of total illumination.
On the other hand, an "active" pupil (one for which there is a gain
in light flux) would allow the quasiperfect imagery without any loss in
total illumination. When active pupils become a technological reality,
this will be a good use for one.

8 
A FOURIER THEORY OF STATISTICAL IMAGE FORMATIONFrieden, B. Roy 21 February 1968 (has links)
QC 351 A7 no. 22 / The statistical approach must be used to describe the image when
object brightness, optical pupil characteristics, and image detection are
all subject to random fluctuations. Use of the statistical characteristic
W (the Fourier transform of probability density) is found to clarify the
phenomenon and to result in a linear theory. There is a characteristic
function W, corresponding to the joint statistics of the log modulus and
the phase, for: the object spectrum, optical transfer function, detection
transfer function and image spectrum. These four Wfunctions are the statistical analogy to the four Fourier spectra themselves, if the object
radiation is either perfectly coherent or perfectly incoherent. Thus, in
analogy to the ordinary Fourier theory of image formation, there is (1) a
statistical transfer theorem linking object and image fluctuations, (2) a
statistical transfer function for the optics, which may be computed from
the optical pupil statistics, (3) sampling theorems, and other analogous
results. The Wfunctions are found to determine all moments of each spectral distribution, and to imply that the moments themselves obey a transfer
theorem. Also, the optical characteristic Wfunction seems to be useful as
a quality criterion of optical system stability. In the deterministic
limit, the statistical theory goes over into the ordinary Fourier theory of
image formation. Random detection noise is a natural parameter of the theory,
so that application to practical problems seems eminently possible.

9 
OPTIMUM, NONLINEAR PROCESSING OF NOISY IMAGESFrieden, B. Roy 06 March 1968 (has links)
QC 351 A7 no. 23 / It has been traditional to constrain image processing to linear operations upon the image. This is a realistic limitation of analog processing.
In this paper, the calculus of variations is used to find the optimum,
generally non  linear, processor of a noisy image. In general, such processing
requires the use of an electronic computer. The criterion of optimization
is that expectation (10.  (5j1K) be a minimum. Subscript j denotes the
spatial frequency w. at which the unknown object spectrum 0 is to be re
stored, 0 denotes the optimum restoration by this criterion, and K is an
even power at the user's discretion. A further generality is to allow the
image forming phenomenon to obey an arbitrary law I. = L(T., O., N.). Here,
J J J
T. denotes the intrinsic system characteristic (usually the optical transfer
function), and N. represents a noise function. The optimum Oj is found to
be the root of a finite polynomial. When the particular value K = 2 is
used, the root O. is known analytically, along with the expected, mean square,
minimal error due to its use. When K = 2, processor O. has the added significance of minimizing the total mean square restoration error over the spatial
object. This error may be further minimized by choice of an optimal processing bandwidth. Particular processors O. are found for the "image recognition"
problem and for the case of a "white" object region. The latter case is
numerically simulated.

10 
How Well Can A Lens System Transmit Information?Frieden, B. Roy 15 March 1968 (has links)
QC 351 A7 no. 24 / A lens system may be judged by its ability to relay information from
object to image. A pertinent criterion of optical quality is h, the change
in entropy between corresponding sampling points in the object and image
planes. Since h is a unique function of the optical pupil, for a given
bandpass 20 of the object, through the proper choice of a pupil function it
is possible to maximize h at a given Q. Physically, the optimum pupil function is an absorption coating applied to a diffraction  limited lens system.
A numerical procedure is established for determining, with arbitrary accuracy, the optimum absorption coating, the resulting transfer function, and
the maximum h, all at a given 0. These quantities are determined, both for
the one dimensional pupil and the circular pupil, in the approximation that
the optimum pupil function may be represented as a Fourier  ( Bessel) series
of five terms. The computed values of
hmax,
at a sequence of 52 values, are
estimated to be correct to 0.2% for the 1 D pupil, and to 0.5% for the
circular pupil. The optimum pupil functions are apodizers at small S2 and
superresolvers at large 0. Finally, we use the computed curve of hmax to
relate the concept of "information transfer" to that of "classical resolving
power ": we show that a binary object (as defined) cannot radiate information to the image when the spacing between object sampling points is less
than 0.87 times the Rayleigh resolution length.

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