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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The effect of task content on performance in probabilistic inference tasks

Warg, Lars-Erik. January 1983 (has links)
Thesis (doctoral)--Uppsala. / Includes bibliographical references (p. 37-42).

Probability Learning in Prey Selection with a Great Horned Owl and a Red-tailed Hawk

Mueller, Deborah L. 01 May 1976 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to examine the hunting strategies of birds of prey in a probability learning situation. One great horned owl and one red-tailed hawk served as subjects. Three boxes and associated perches, each representing different potential prey areas, were placed in a room adjacent to the birds' regular housing and served as test apparatus. One box were required to land on a perch in order to gain access to the associated box and to the potential prey. A discrete-trial, self-correction procedure was used. In Experiment I, Box 1 was loaded with a live laboratory mouse on 60% of the trials, Box 2 on 30% of the trials, and Box 3 on the remaining 10%. A response requirement of sitting on the perch 5 seconds was programmed. In experiment II, the probability of reinforcement was reversed for the 10 and 60% boxes and the response requirement was increased from 5 to 20 seconds. Experiment III returned the probability of reinforcement for each box to the values used in Experiment I. In Experiment III the mice were euthanized prior to each trial. The owl matched responses to probability of reinforcement in all three experiments while the hawk matched in Experiment II and showed matching toward two of the three boxes in Experiment III. In Experiment I the hawk had a Box 2 preference. This research extends the generality of the matching concept and suggests that predatory birds do not randomly hunt or hunt in only one location, but rather tend to search according to the probability of reinforcement for that location.

Probability Learning In Normal And Parkinson Subjects: The Effect Of Reward, Context, And Uncertainty

Erdeniz, Burak 01 September 2007 (has links) (PDF)
In this thesis, the learning of probabilistic relationships between stimulus-action pairs is investigated under the probability learning paradigm. The effect of reward is investigated in the first three experiments. Additionally, the effect of context and uncertainty is investigated in the second and third experiments, respectively. The fourth experiment is the replication of the second experiment with a group of Parkinson patients where the effect of dopamine medication on probability learning is studied. In Experiment 1, we replicate the classical probability learning task by comparing monetary and non-monetary reward feedback. Probability learning behavior is observed in both monetary and non-monetary rewarding feedback conditions. However, no significant difference between the monetary and non-monetary feedback conditions is observed. In Experiment 2, a variation of the probability learning task which includes irrelevant contextual information is applied. Probability learning behavior is observed, and a significant effect is found between monetary and non-monetary feedback conditions. In Experiment 3 / a probability learning task similar to that in Experiment 2 is applied, however, in this experiment, stimulus included relevant contextual information. As expected, due to the utilization of the relevant contextual information from the start of the experiment, no significant effect is found for probability learning behavior. The effect of uncertainty observed in this experiment is a replication of the reports in literature. Experiment 4 is identical to Experiment 2 / except that the subject population is a group of dopamine medicated Parkinson patients and a group of age matched controls. This experiment is introduced to test the suggestions in the literature regarding the enhancement effect of dopamine medication in probability learning based on positive feedback conditions. In Experiment 4, probability learning behavior is observed in both groups, but the difference in learning performance between Parkinson patients and controls was not significant, probably due to the low number of subject recruited in the experiment. In addition to these investigations, learning mechanisms are also examined in Experiments 1 and 4. Our results indicate that subjects initially search for patterns which lead to probability learning. At the end of Experiments 1 and 4, upon learning the winning frequencies, subjects change their behavior and demonstrate maximization behavior, which makes them prefer continuously one option over the other.

Interaction Of Probability Learning And Working Memory

Gozenman, Filiz 01 August 2012 (has links) (PDF)
Probability learning is the ability to establish a relationship between stimulus and outcomes based on occurrence probabilities using repetitive feedbacks. Participants learn the task according to the cue-outcome relationship, and try to gain in depth understanding of this relationship throughout the experiment. While learning is at the highest level, people rely on their working memory. In this study 20 participants were presented a probability learning task, and their prefrontal cortex activity was measured with functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. It was hypothesized that as participants gain more knowledge of the probabilities they will learn cue-outcome relationships and therefore rely less on their working memory. Therefore as learning precedes a drop in the fNIRS signal is expected. We obtained results confirming our hypothesis: Significant negative correlation between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and learning was found. Similarly, response time also decreased through the task, indicating that as learning precedes participants made decisions faster. Participants used either the frequency matching or the maximization strategy in order to solve the task in which they had to decide whether the blue or the red color was winning. When they use the frequency matching strategy they chose blue at the rate of winning for the blue choice. When they use the maximization strategy they chosed blue almost always. Our task was designed such that the frequency for blue to win was 80%. We had hypothesized that the people in frequency matching and maximization groups would show working memory differences which could be observed from the fNIRS signal. However, we were unable to detect this type of behavioral difference in the fNIRS signal. Overall, our study showed the relationship between probability learning and working memory as depicted by brain activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex which widely known as the central executive component of working memory.

Alternate forms of knowledge in polysubstance use subgroups /

Ryder, Katherine Ann. January 1999 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis--University of Oklahoma. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 51-58).


Stagner, Jessica P 01 January 2013 (has links)
In the Monty Hall Dilemma (MHD), three doors are presented with a prize behind one and participants are instructed to choose a door. One of the unchosen doors is then shown to not have the prize and the participant can choose to stay with their door or switch to the other one. The optimal strategy is to switch. Herbranson and Schroeder (2010) found that humans performed poorly on this task, whereas pigeons learned to switch readily. However, we found that pigeons learned to switch at level only slightly above humans. We also found that pigeons stay nearly exclusively when staying is the optimal strategy and when staying and switching are reinforced equally (Stagner, Rayburn-Reeves, & Zentall, 2013). In Experiment 1, rats were trained under these same conditions to observe if possible differences in foraging strategy would influence performance on this task. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained in an analogous procedure to better compare the two species. We found that both species were sensitive to the overall probability of reinforcement, as both switched significantly more often than subjects in a group that were reinforced equally for staying and switching and a group that was reinforced more often for staying. Overall, the two species performed very similarly within the parameters of the current procedure.

Assessing students' thinking in modeling probability contexts

Benson, Carol Trinko. Jones, Graham A. January 2000 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Illinois State University, 2000. / Title from title page screen, viewed May 11, 2006. Dissertation Committee: Graham A. Jones (chair), Kenneth N. Berk, Patricia Klass, Cynthia W. Langrall, Edward S. Mooney. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 115-124) and abstract. Also available in print.

Visualizing Dynamics –The Perception of Spatiotemporal Data in 2D and 3D

Kjellin, Andreas January 2008 (has links)
<p>In many command and control situations the understanding of dynamic events is crucial. With today’s development of hard- and software architecture, we have the possibility to visualize data in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images. The aim of this thesis is therefore to investigate different approaches to visualizing dynamic events. The visualization techniques investigated include 2D animation and time representations as markings on a 2D map. In 3D the visualization technique investigated is the “space time-cube” A further aim is to study whether the Cue Probability Learning (CPL) paradigm can be used to evaluate visualizations.</p><p>By mapping time onto a spatial dimension, in the 2D visualization as lines with different densities and in 3D as height over the map, a simultaneous visualization of space and time is possible. The findings are that this mapping of time onto space is beneficial to users as compared with animations, but the two mapping techniques are not interchangeable. If a task requires judgments of metric spatial properties, a 2D visualization is more beneficial; however, if the task only requires judgments of more qualitative aspects, a 3D visualization is more beneficial.</p><p>When we look at a 3D visualization, we utilize different sources of depth information. These sources are always present and each defines either a 3D scene or a projection surface. By using these different sources of depth information wisely, a visualization can be created that efficiently shows relevant information to a user while requiring a minimal amount of specialized hardware.</p><p>Finally, the CPL paradigm seems to be a worthwhile option as an experimental paradigm in visualization experiments. One of the advantages of CPL is that novice users can be trained to be task experts in a controlled and time-efficient way.</p>

The teaching and learning of probability, with special reference to South Australian schools from 1959-1994

Truran, J. M. (John M.) January 2001 (has links) (PDF)
Includes bibliographies and index.

The teaching and learning of probability, with special reference to South Australian schools from 1959-1994

Truran, J. M. (John M.) January 2001 (has links)
Includes bibliographies and index. Electronic publication; Full text available in PDF format; abstract in HTML format. The teaching of probability in schools provides a good opportunity for examining how a new topic is integrated into a school curriculum. Furthermore, because probabilistic thinking is quite different from the deterministic thinking traditionally found in mathematics classrooms, such an examination is particularly able to highlight significant forces operating within educational practice. After six chapters which describe relevant aspects of the philosophical, cultural, and intellectual environment within which probability has been taught, a 'Broad-Spectrum Ecological Model' is developed to examine the forces which operate on a school system. Electronic reproduction.[Australia] :Australian Digital Theses Program,2001. 2 v. (xxxi, 1023 p.) : ill. ; 30 cm.

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