Tolle, Patricia Elena
The redundancy-associated deficit often found in schizophrenic simple reaction time was studied utilizing hypothetically schizophrenia-prone college students. The embedded-set procedure established by Bellissimo and Steffy (1972) with two methodological modifications was employed. As predicted normal and psychiatric controls did not show the redundancy-associated deficit. The hypothetically schizophrenia-prone college students did not show the cross-over effect typically produced by process schizophrenics. Several explanations were offered for these results.
Pilot study : effectiveness of integrated social skills training (ISST) with social cognition component for people with schizophrenia : a clinical control trialMo, Sung-yu, Chloe, 巫崇榆 January 2013 (has links)
Social skills deficit has been a long-standing functional impairment among people with Schizophrenia. This pervasive problem affects multiple aspects in life. Most interventions focus on the enhancement of expressive social skills; in the contrary, receptive social skills are less emphasized. However, receptive skills such as social intelligence and theory of mind (ToM) are the pre-requisites and foundation of expressive skills. Researches also suggested that people with schizophrenia have various extent of impairment in social cognition, i.e. receptive skills. Incorporation of receptive skills modules into convention intervention may be effective to enhance overall social and occupational performance. The Integrated Social Skill Training (ISST) is a hybrid intervention introducing social cognition components into convention skills training model. The effectiveness on the mental state, and social occupational function was evaluated through a pilot study. 12 Subjects were recruited in a local psychiatric day training unit and were divided into control and experimental group. The experimental group went through the 8-sessions ISST on top of day training; while control group were put on the waiting list and received purely day training within the research period. Psychopathology was measured with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the level of social and occupational functions was measured by Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Measurements were taken before and after the administration of ISST on both groups of subjects. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired samples t-test were used for between-group and within-group data analysis respectively. Results suggested a neutral effect of ISST to mental states; whereas a positive effect of ISST was reported on improving the social occupational performance for subjects within the experimental group but not within the control group. However, the magnitude of improvement was yet to meet a statistical difference when compared with that of the control group. By incorporating social cognition elements into convention skills training model can improve the social and occupational performance of people with schizophrenia. Further refinement of the ISST is to be made to achieve a higher efficacy. / published_or_final_version / Psychological Medicine / Master / Master of Psychological Medicine
Weaver, Daniel Joseph
Typescript. / Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1977. / Bibliography: leaves 376-388. / Microfiche. / vi, 388 leaves
Sheer, Jeffrey Brian
27 April 2017
During the last 20 years, a body of research has emerged suggesting that deficits in the self-monitoring of willed intention to act may be responsible for the expression of positive symptoms in schizophrenia (Frith, 1992). Empirical evidence supporting this theory indicates that schizophrenics with positive symptoms are impaired on motor and speech based tasks that involve monitoring of internal cognitive mechanisms and behavior plans, but are less impaired when monitoring external sensory feedback. The current project extends this research by comparing the performance of two groups of schizophrenics (hallucinators, n=16; and nonhallucinators, n=15) with a group of nonpsychotic psychiatric patients (n = 15) on measures of speech monitoring of internal and overt speech. On two measures of internal speech monitoring (silent reading and identification of speech errors in a white noise environment), the schizophrenics were found to be impaired relative to controls; however, the schizophrenics were also impaired on a task of self-monitoring when they had access to external feedback. Analysis of the subgroups data (hallucinators vs. nonhallucinators) indicated very similar performances across tests and no significant differences were identified, with the exception of the silent reading test in which the hallucinators did perform significantly worse. These results indicate that the speech-monitoring deficit in schizophrenia is not limited to the internal speech plan, but can also involve a failure to monitor overt speech, contrary to previous report. Furthermore, speech-monitoring deficits are not limited to schizophrenics who experience hallucinations. An additional experiment involving delayed auditory feedback (DAF) was also conducted to replicate a previous finding in the literature that schizophrenics were more dysfluent in DAF. On the DAF task, the combined schizophrenic group were found to be more dysfluent than controls, and there were no differences between the two schizophrenic subgroups. Further correlational analysis revealed a strong relationship between the level of dysfluency in DAF and self-monitoring impairment. While the results of the experiment were similar to those found by previous authors (Goldberg, Gold, Coppola, & Weinberger, 1997), the correlational analysis allows for an explanation of dysfluency in DAF based on self-monitoring. / Graduate
Huberman, Jack Jacob
The present investigation was an attempt to determine the validity of the Cloze Procedure in assessing differences between schizophrenic patients in the relative severity of thought disorganization. For this purpose, samples of schizophrenic speech in response to TAT cards were obtained from twelve male schizophrenic patients who had been rank ordered by two psychiatrists in terms of disordered thought processes. Equal length schizophrenic language samples with every fifth word deleted and replaced by a standard length blank were mimeographed and presented to a group of upper level undergraduate psychology students who were instructed to try to guess the missing words from the context of those that remained. These mutilated language samples constitute the Cloze forms. The scores on the Cloze Procedure represented a rank ordering by the students of the severity of schizophrenic thought disturbance in terms of the number of correctly replaced words in the language samples elicited from each patient. A substantial correlation coefficient ("r" = .82) was found between the rank order on the Cloze Procedure and the rank order obtained in the external criterion measure, that is, the psychiatric ratings. The results of tests for internal consistency and reliability of the Cloze Procedure ("W" = .622) and for the reliability of the Close raters ("R" = .792) were also substantial. A number of advantages and disadvantages of this method of investigation are discussed and contrasted with those of other somewhat similar procedures. Possible applications to psychiatric research are suggested. The results appear to be conclusive within the limitations of the criterion measure employed in this study. More widespread generalizations await further research which is invited in light of the apparently promising findings of this exploratory study. / Arts, Faculty of / Psychology, Department of / Graduate
Christensen, Karin Maria
30 August 2017
Deficits in attention, memory, and executive functioning have been associated with schizophrenia. Neuropsychological functioning is considered to bridge neuropathology and clinical symptoms in this illness. However, relatively few studies have investigated the connections between specific cognitive deficits and other variables. “Psychomotor poverty” and “disorganization” are two of the three schizophrenia syndromes. Previous work suggests that neuropsychological deficits in the initiation and inhibition of thoughts and actions underlie psychomotor poverty and disorganization, respectively. Part of this study aimed to replicate and extend these findings. Unstructured tasks were used, because they elicit impairments in executive functioning. The present study also examined the effects of neuropsychological functioning and syndromes on overall cognitive competency. Cognitive competency refers to the integrity of cognitive skills important for independent functioning in everyday life. Though often neglected, cognitive competency is an important functional outcome. It was hypothesized that both psychomotor poverty and disorganization would predict reduced cognitive competency. Participants were 40 in- and outpatients, aged 17 to 51 years, with a current diagnosis of schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria. A psychiatrist rated symptomatology using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms. Two unstructured neuropsychological tasks were administered: a verbal description of a picture and the Tinkertoy test. Using these tasks, measures of initiation and inhibition capacity were developed; these revealed good interrater reliability. The Cognitive Competency Test used simulated situations to evaluate cognition in areas that affect everyday functioning. Finally, a brief insight measure was included for exploratory analyses. Data were analyzed within the framework of a causal model. Initiation capacity failed to predict the psychomotor poverty syndrome. One indicator of disinhibition—intermingling—predicted the disorganization syndrome. Disorganization mediated the impact of intermingling on cognitive competency. In contrast, initiation capacity affected cognitive competency directly. Insight correlated with the disorganization syndrome, and contributed to the prediction of cognitive competency. Initiation, disorganization syndrome, and insight, combined, accounted for 58% of the variance in cognitive competency; each variable contributed uniquely. Implications include suggestions as to which deficits and syndromes should be targeted for remediation, to improve patients' independent functioning. / Graduate
Boston University. University Professors Program Senior theses. / PLEASE NOTE: Boston University Libraries did not receive an Authorization To Manage form for this thesis. It is therefore not openly accessible, though it may be available by request. If you are the author or principal advisor of this work and would like to request open access for it, please contact us at email@example.com. Thank you. / 2031-01-02
Cameron, Bonny Wint
Thesis ( M Med (Clinical Psychology))--University of Limpopo, 2010. / The aim of this study was to determine the effect of therapeutic ‘reality validation’ on the ‘schizophrenic dance’ based on the principles of a therapy outcome study. The objective of this study was to reduce the observable degree of psychosis in the schizophrenic patient and to facilitate the patient into entering a closer relationship with the therapist through the use of a new therapeutic approach called ‘reality validation’. This was done using a qualitative, exploratory research design. The research was conducted by examining transcribed video recordings of the administered therapeutic ‘reality validation’ by a trained clinician with patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The analysis of the video recorded data was conducted independently by three trained clinicians who were each given the recordings along with the transcriptions of the recordings. The clinicians each gave a clinical description of each the patient’s behaviour separately during the sessions according to predetermined questions which were all indicative of the effect of ‘reality validation’ and were asked to conclude whether it had resulted in a reduction in symptomatic behaviour. The analyses of the six ‘reality validation’ sessions showed promising results. Based on five of the conducted sessions, there were clear indications that with ‘reality validation’ there was a reduction in symptomatic behaviour. In three of the sessions ‘reality validation’ had been at times incorrectly conducted, impacting on the outcome of the study. In two of these three sessions reductions in symptomatic were less evident yet still clearly present. In one session ‘reality validation’ was conducted so inaccurately that it appeared to maintain or increase the patient’s symptomatic behaviour. Despite the shortcomings in this study there was evidence to suggest that therapeutic ‘reality validation’ when used accurately can be an effective intervention, resulting in a reduction in symptomatic behaviour.
Thirty-three schizophrenic out-patients for characteristic similarities in racial membership and institutionalization known to the psychiatric clinic University of Alabama Medical College Birmingham, Alabama.Harmon, Kathryne I. Unknown Date (has links)
No description available.
A study of certain factors associated with rehospitalization of schizophrenic patients at Gulfport Veterans Administration Hospital.Sutton, Julie. Unknown Date (has links)
No description available.
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