Learning temporal representations in cortical networks through reward dependent expression of synaptic plasticityGavornik, Jeffrey Peter 16 October 2012 (has links)
The neural basis of the brain's ability to represent time, which is an essential component of cognition, is unknown. Despite extensive behavioral and electrophysiological studies, a theoretical framework capable of describing the elementary neural mechanisms used by biological neural networks to learn temporal representations does not exist. It is commonly believed that the underlying cellular mechanisms reside in high order cortical regions and there is an ongoing debate about the neural structures required for temporal processing. Recent experimental studies report sustained neural activity that can represent the timing of expected reward in low-level primary sensory cortices, suggesting that temporal representation may form locally in sensory areas of the cortex. This thesis proposes a theoretical framework that explains how temporal representations of the type seen experimentally can be encoded in local cortical networks and how specific temporal instantiations can be learned through reward modulated synaptic plasticity. The proposed framework asserts that the mechanism responsible for encoding the observed temporal intervals is long-term synaptic potentiation between neurons in a recurrent network. Analytical and numerical techniques are used to demonstrate that the model is sufficient to allow näive networks of both linear and non-linear neurons to encode and reliably represent durations specified by external cues during a training period. Analysis of a non-linear spiking neuron model is accomplished using a mean-field approach. The form of temporal learning described has specific implications that can be confirmed experimentally and these predictions are highlighted. Experimental support for a central component of the model is presented and all of the the results are discussed in relation to current experimental and computational work. / text
The role of memoria in the constitution of time in The confessions, book XIGuilfoil, Brendan John. January 2008 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. L.)--Catholic University of America, 2008. / Description based on Microfiche version record.
The role of dopamine in temporal memory averagingSwanton, Dale N. January 2009 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--Villanova University, 2009. / Psychology Dept. Includes bibliographical references.
Time estimation among basketball playersGould, Julia A. Tenenbaum, Gershon. January 2005 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--Florida State University, 2005. / Advisor: Gershon Tennenbaum, Florida State University, College of Education, Dept. of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems. Title and description from dissertation home page (viewed Jan. 26, 2006). Document formatted into pages; contains x, 55 pages. Includes bibliographical references.
Struktur-psychologische Untersuchungen über die Leistung des Zeitsinns und der räumlichen Orientierung (ein Beitrag zur Jaensch'schen Integrationstypologie) ...Oster, Wilhelm, January 1937 (has links)
Inaug.-Diss.--Bonn. / At head of title: Aus dem Psychologischen Institut der Universität Bonn ... Lebenslauf. "Literaturnachweis": p. 95-96.
Time perception, personal tempo and activity level in a group of neuropsychiatric patients /Lewis, Edward Bedea January 1961 (has links)
No description available.
Time flies when you’re having fun : investigating the influence of positive emotions and cognitive load on time perception in the retrospective paradigmNieuwoudt, Minnette January 2015 (has links)
The literature predicts a paradoxical effect on time perception under the influence of positive emotion and high cognitive load in the retrospective paradigm. High cognitive load is expected to increase time perception, whereas positive emotion is expected to decrease time perception. A quasi-experimental within-subjects design was devised that manipulated emotion on two levels (positive and neutral) as well as cognitive load on two levels (high and low) to investigate the effect on time perception. The findings of the study prove disappointing with no main effects witnessed along any of the four experimental conditions. Participants overestimated all the durations, but under the high cognitive load, positive emotion condition, the mean time perception scores where the closest to the chronological time. / Mini-dissertation (MA)--University of Pretoria, 2015. / Psychology / Unrestricted
Culture and time perception : implications for mental representation and decisionsTan, Siew Hong January 2018 (has links)
This thesis examines cultural variations in time perception, as well as the possible influences on mental representation and decisions. Building on prior research on cultural differences in time-related perceptions, two main time perceptions were identified and focused on, namely temporal orientation and the use of time metaphor. The temporal orientation line of investigation explores the implications of a stronger future versus past orientation among English and Mandarin-speakers respectively. Based on Construal Level Theory, temporal orientation is expected to be related to psychological distance, which in turn affects the mental representations individuals form. The findings supported a stronger future orientation among English-speakers which is also evident in their mental representations that vary as a function of temporal orientation. However, Mandarin-speakers exhibited neither a strong past nor future orientation. A study examining the possible influence of temporal orientation on value judgment revealed a complex association between culture and value judgment. The time metaphor line of inquiry investigates the use of time metaphors among English and Mandarin-speakers and also the possible implications of such tendencies. Although previous psychological research implies a possible connection between the use of time metaphor and sense of personal control, this relationship is yet to be established. The findings showed supportive evidence of a frequent use of ego and time-moving metaphors among English and Mandarin-speakers respectively. However, studies examining the relationship between the use of time metaphor, perceived personal control, and decisions (optimism bias and risk-taking) revealed little supportive evidence of an association between them. The findings and a range of methodological and theoretical implications are discussed in the closing chapter.
胡塞爾內時間意識現象學的進路及疑難. / Path towards Husserl's phenomenology of consciousness of internal time and its problems / Husai'er nei shi jian yi shi xian xiang xue de jin lu ji yi nan.January 2012 (has links)
本研究有兩個面向。首先，梳理胡塞爾1893-1917 時期的時間觀，把握其對兩個疑難的思考，分別是時間客體如何被感知和內時間意識流如何被建構。其次，藉胡塞爾的內時間意識現象學示範兩種現象學還原的動機──實事的豐富性和認識的嚴謹性──之張力，從而揭示出「諸原則的原則」與第一身觀點的有效界域，此有效界域逼使胡塞爾在1917 後提出「靜態現象學」和「生成現象學」兩種研究方向。這兩種研究方向意味著胡塞爾在1983-1917 的時間意識分析只是他思考時間問題的中途站。然而，這卻是西方哲學史上對時間思考的承先啟後的里程碑。胡塞爾的內時間意識現象學有三個貢獻：(1). 現象學還原方法的準備。(2). 從認識論上追問時間的本原。(3). 對內時間意識流的仔細分析消解了一些哲學疑難。然而，胡塞爾這一研究遺留了兩個疑難：(1). 胡塞爾的內在時間分析難以說明「壓抑」(repression)這一心靈現象。(2). 在追問意識流如何被建構時，所得出的「匿名」主體性之答案，應該如何被理解？不過，這正正顯示著，胡塞爾忠於還原方法及事實的描述，不止息地回應疑難的態度促使現象學成為一門「無窮」的運動。 / This research has a double objective. Firstly, it relocates Husserl’s internal time analysis from 1893 to 1917 in order to understand his two fundamental inquiries, namely how temporal object appears towards consciousness and how consciousness of internal time is constituted. Secondly, it pinpoints the challenge of striking a balance between two motivations of transcendental reduction, that is, attending to the richness of things and securing the evidence of understanding. The study of different ways to transcendental reduction shows the limitation of “Principle of all Principles and the first person perspective. Through the analysis of consciousness of internal time, Husserl came to the awareness that the perspective of static phenomenology he was hitherto pursuing needs to be complemented by the perspective of “genetic phenomenology after 1917. These two perspectives prove that Husserl’s restless analysis of internal time consciousness is a stepping stone which is not only the middle stage throughout his entire philosophical career in his thought, but also a landmark in the history of western philosophy. Husserl’s phenomenology of internal time consciousness has important contribution in the following three issues: (1). The introduction of phenomenological reduction. (2). The question of time origin from a strictly epistemological perspective. (3). Solve some philosophical difficulties in his detailed analysis of the stream of consciousness of internal time. However, Husserl’s analyses leave behind two major puzzles: (1).His doctrine of the spontaneous continuing of internal time consciousness renders difficult comprehension of the psychic phenomenon of repression. (2). The difficulties of understanding the status of the “anonymous subjectivity as the ultimate constitutive origin or the stream of internal time consciousness. Yet, Husserl’s faithfulness to the method of reduction and the description of the things underlines his relentless effort to face every difficulty from the phenomenological attitude, rendering it an “infinite phenomenological movement. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / 鄧文韜. / "2012年9月". / "2012 nian 9 yue". / Thesis (M.Phil.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2012. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 134-139). / Abstract in Chinese and English. / Deng Wentao. / 導論 / 第一章 / Chapter 1. --- 時間客體如何被感知或向意識呈現? --- p.2 / Chapter 1.1 --- 對客觀時間的懸擱－－回到時間經驗本身 --- p.3 / Chapter 1.2 --- 邁農的「絶對現在論」時間觀及胡塞爾對其批判 --- p.5 / Chapter 1.3 --- 布倫塔諾的「過去想像論」時間觀及胡塞爾對其批判 --- p.9 / Chapter 2. --- 時間客體與其呈現模態 --- p.14 / Chapter 2.1 --- 「立義內容－立義」的圖式詮釋 --- p.15 / Chapter 2.1.1 --- 「呈現」的兩個面向──呈現活動和被呈現物 --- p.15 / Chapter 2.1.2 --- 三種「時段」 --- p.17 / Chapter 2.1.3 --- 三種「時段」和「立義模式」 --- p.19 / Chapter 2.2 --- 「現在」作為所有時間位置的「來源點」(source-point) --- p.21 / Chapter 2.3 --- 流動或連續的直觀──新鮮/原初與派生的回憶和顯在與再現的感知 --- p.22 / 小結 --- p.25 / 第二章 / Chapter 1. --- 內時間意識的時間流/意識流(stream of consciousness)結構如何被建構 --- p.27 / Chapter 1.1 --- 連續的意識流與時間的同一性 --- p.28 / Chapter 1.1.1 --- 「立義模式」和意識的流動性 --- p.28 / Chapter 1.1.2 --- 「立義模式」說明意識流的基礎──意識的三種模態 --- p.30 / Chapter 1.1.3 --- 意識的三層層次立義模式」 --- p.35 / Chapter 2.2 --- 立義模式所導致的無限後退理論困難 --- p.36 / Chapter 2.3 --- 無限後退的補救－絶對意識(the absolute consciousness)的引入 --- p.38 / Chapter 2.3.1 --- 絶對意識所衍生的弔詭(1)－「個體」與「流」 --- p.40 / Chapter 2.3.2 --- 絶對意識所衍生的弔詭(2)－「匿名性」 --- p.44 / 小結 --- p.45 / 第三章 / Chapter 1. --- 時間意識與意向性 --- p.48 / Chapter 1.1 --- 新的時間意識建構(1)──三個「意識」的概念 --- p.48 / Chapter 1.2 --- 新的時間意識建構(2)──意向性與「內在的」、「超越的」的三重意義 --- p.55 / Chapter 1.3 --- 新的時間意識建構(3)──內時間意識的「內」 --- p.60 / Chapter 1.4 --- 新的時間意識建構(4)──縱向和橫向意向性 --- p.61 / Chapter 2. --- 時間意識與意向性「對象化的內在反思」的把握與「非對象化的內時間意識」的把握 --- p.64 / 小結 --- p.70 / 第四章 / Chapter 1. --- 現象學還原在1893-1917 時期的擴充和作用 --- p.73 / Chapter 1.1 --- 前《邏輯研究》時期 --- p.75 / Chapter 1.2 --- 《邏輯研究》A 版時期 --- p.76 / Chapter 1.3 --- 《現象學的觀念》時期 --- p.76 / Chapter 1.4 --- 《現象學的基本問題》時期 --- p.79 / Chapter 1.5 --- 《觀念I》時期和《邏輯研究》B版 --- p.81 / Chapter 1.6 --- 《文章與講演》 --- p.85 / Chapter 2. --- 《內時間意識現象學》所顯現的現象學還原 --- p.85 / Chapter 2.1 --- 從《第一哲學》看成熟時期的現象學還原 --- p.86 / Chapter 2.2 --- 從成熟時期的現象學還原看現象學還原在1893-1917 時期的擴充 --- p.89 / Chapter 3. --- 還原的動機問題與道路 --- p.90 / 小結 --- p.97 / 第五章 / Chapter 1. --- 對海德格和德里達批判的回應 --- p.100 / Chapter 1.1 --- 對海德格的回應－－庸俗的時間概念 --- p.100 / Chapter 1.1.1 --- 黑格爾的時間概念，及其與精神的關係 --- p.101 / Chapter 1.1.2 --- 本原的原初現象和本己時態性 --- p.103 / Chapter 1.1.3 --- 黑格爾對時間的理解是庸俗的時間概念 --- p.104 / Chapter 1.1.4 --- 《存在與時間》中對黑格爾的批判－－對胡塞爾的批判 --- p.105 / Chapter 1.2 --- 胡塞爾的時間理解是否庸俗的時間概念? --- p.107 / Chapter 2.1 --- 對德里達的回應－現在/顯在形上學 --- p.110 / Chapter 2.1.1 --- 「真正的形上學」和「習慣意義上的形上學」的區分 --- p.110 / Chapter 2.1.2 --- 德里達所理解的現象學作為「真正的形上學」──「諸原則的原則」要求 --- p.111 / Chapter 2.1.3 --- 現象學作為「真正的形上學」的困難(1)──溝通與獨白 --- p.115 / Chapter 2.1.4 --- 現象學作為「真正的形上學」的困難(2)──顯在不是本原 --- p.116 / Chapter 2.1.5 --- 「延異」作為本原的補充 --- p.118 / Chapter 2.2 --- 胡塞爾是否「現在/顯在形上學」? --- p.121 / Chapter 3. --- 胡塞爾現象學的界限──諸原則的原則與第一身觀點的有效界域 --- p.124 / 小結 --- p.126 / 總結 --- p.128 / 參考書目 --- p.134 / 詞彙表 --- p.140
Cortical processing and perceived timing /Wilcock, Paul. January 2006 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (B.Psy.Sc.(Hons.)) - University of Queensland, / Includes bibliography.
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