When this study commenced in early 2004, only five Phaeophleospora species. had been reported from eucalypts of which only two; P. destructans (STE-U 1336) and P. epicoccoides (STE-U 1346) had been sequenced. In a former study, Phaeophleospora species emerged in two separate clades suggesting that Phaeophelospora is polyphyletic. The appearance and severity of lesions on eucalypt leaves are generally used to recognise the species of Phaeophleospora responsible for disease. However, depending on host and climate, the symptoms associated with infection by P. epicoccoides, P. eucalypti and P. destructans can be almost identical and incorrect diagnosis is a common problem. Thus, Phaeophleospora species were compared based on DNA sequences and multi gene genealogies were constructed. In addition species- specific primers were designed and tested on leaf material.
Many isolates of Phaeophleospora spp. were collected and sequenced, and all Phaeophleospora spp. from eucalypts were shown to cluster together and are closely related to the most important leaf pathogens associated with eucalypts namely Colletogloeopsis zuluensis, Mycosphaerella cryptica and M. nubilosa. In contrast, these fungi are distantly related to the type specimen of the genus Phaeophleospora, P. eugeniae. Furthermore, all DNA sequences of isolates of P. destructans examined in this thesis, including the ex-type culture, were identical but different to one previously lodged in GenBank.
This phylogenetic separation led to a morphological study of the species assigned to Phaeophleospora and compared the species from eucalypts with P. eugeniae the type specimen of Phaeophleospora. The phylogenetic and morphological studies show that P. eugeniae is well separated from Phaeophleospora spp. occurring on eucalypts and led to the resurrection of the previous generic name, Kirramyces for Phaeophleospora spp. occurring on eucalypts. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis and morphological observation of Kirramyces spp. and Colletogloeopsis spp. occurring on eucalypts showed considerable overlap between these two genera. Therefore, Colletogloeopsis was reduced to synonymy with Kirramyces. Consequently, the genus Kirramyces was expanded from five to 14 species, and included the description of two new species, K. angophorae and K. corymbiae. In order to assist with their identification a key based on morphology of conidia for Kirramyces species was developed.
Kirramyces destructans is a devastating pathogen originally described from Indonesia in 1996 and has since been found throughout Asia where all common tropical and subtropical plantation eucalypt species and hybrids are susceptible. K. destructans is considered a major biosecurity threat in Australia, both to native eucalypt forests and the tropical plantation industry. Prior to the current study, there had been no investigation into the origin and movement of this important pathogen. Thus, five gene regions and six microsatellite loci were sequenced for 43 representative isolates of K. destructans from a range of geographical locations and hosts. Two microsatellite markers detected very low nucleotide polymorphism (three haplotypes for each loci); five other gene regions, including four microsatellite region were uniform. This low level of genetic diversity provides strong evidence that K. destructans was introduced into Indonesia as a founder population and that it has subsequently been spread throughout Asia via human-mediated movement of germplasm. Timor and Northern Australia were considered to be a possible source of origin of this fungus, but the high susceptibility of native E. urophylla to K. destructans in Timor indicates that the pathogen is unlikely to be endemic to Timor.
The current distribution of Kirramyces eucalypti is New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania and New Zealand (North Island). The main host of this pathogen is E. nitens which is native to Victoria and New South Wales. Kirramyces eucalypti has not been found in South Africa, yet it causes a severe disease on eucalypt hybrids originating from South Africa growing in New South Wales indicating movement to these hybrids from either native eucalypts or nearby plantations. As such, K. eucalypti poses a threat for the plantation industry in sub-tropical and tropical Australia. The phylogeography of K. eucalypti in Australia and New Zealand was studied by sequencing three gene regions and one microsatellite locus of fifty-seven representative isolates of K. eucalypti from Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and New Zealand. The highest genetic variation was found among isolates from NSW suggesting that K. eucalypti originates from NSW. Isolates in New Zealand appear to have been introduced from NSW. Isolates from Queensland were consistently different to those from other regions and may in fact represent a cryptic species or a hybrid.
During monitoring of eucalypt taxa trials in far North Queensland, infected leaves resembling symptoms typical of K. destructans were collected and examined. Phylogenetic data based on three gene regions and some morphological characteristics revealed a new taxon described in this study as K. viscidus. Kirramyces viscidus was also shown to be closely related to the devastating pathogen K. destructans. Kirramyces viscidus had been found to cause extensive damage to eucalypt hybrids originating from South America, and less damage to E. grandis from Australia, indicating that this pathogen is probably endemic to Australia. Kirramyces viscidus has the potential to seriously damage tropical eucalypt plantations, especially if clonal and planted off-site.
In conclusion, this study resurrected genus Kirramyces for the Phaeophleospora and Coletoglloeopsis spp. occurring on eucalypts. It also studied the phylogeography and gene flow of the two most important Kirramyces species, K. destructans and K. eucalypti and describes three new Kirramcyes spp. found on eucalypts in Australia. Very recently, K. destructans has been discovered in Northern Australia. This raises a whole series of new issues as there are now several pathogens, K. eucalypti, K. viscidus and K. destructans present in Australia that known to cause serious damage on plantation eucalypts. Recent investigations have also revealed several undescribed Kirramyces spp. in Northern Australia. Their impact, distribution, movement and potential for hybridization now need to be examined.
|Creators||V.Andjic@murdoch.edu.au, Vera Andjic|
|Source Sets||Australiasian Digital Theses Program|
|Rights||http://www.murdoch.edu.au/goto/CopyrightNotice, Copyright Vera Andjic|
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