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Hokowhitu : a sport-based programme to improve academic, career, and drug and alcohol awareness in adolescent Maori

The purpose of this project was to design and evaluate a sport-based life skills intervention designed for indigenous New Zealand (Maori) youth who may be exposed to drug or alcohol abuse. An indigenous research approach known as Kaupapa Maori research was utilised. As an indigenous approach, Kaupapa Maori signifies the importance of research with Maori being initiated, determined, and validated by Maori and in particular, by those directly involved with the research initiative (Bishop, 1996; Tuhiwai-Smith, 1999). As a result of adhering to a Kaupapa Maori approach the participants determined additional areas of interest including academic self-esteem, intrinsic motivation for schoolwork and career awareness. Therefore, the initial project grew to include several other life skills areas identified by the participants. The life skills basis of the 'Hokowhitu' intervention was adapted from the Going for the Goal (GOAL) and Sports United to Promote Education and Recreation (SUPER) programmes developed by Professor Steve Danish (Danish, 1997; Danish & Nellen, 1997; Danish, Meyer, Mash, Howard, Curl, Brunelle & Owens, 1998). The GOAL and SUPER programmes taught life skills to adolescents including informed decision-making, health-enhancing activities (e.g., goal setting) and health-compromising activities (e.g., drug & alcohol abuse). A New Zealand (NZ) version of the GOAL programme was successfully pilot-tested in 1997-1998 in NZ schools with non-Maori adolescents (Hodge & Danish, 1999; Hodge, Cresswell, Sherburn, & Dugdale, 1999). The evaluation of the Hokowhitu programme used both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The qualitative investigation received an enthusiastic response and supportive results for the Hokowhitu programme. Many of the research participants preferred the qualitative investigative approach because of the culturally recognised components (e.g., Te kanohi ki kanohi or face-to-face method used to ask questions). The quantitative investigation used; Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, Chi Square and McNemar statistical tests (Harraway, 1995). The outcome of the overall programme evaluation showed that the Hokowhitu programme provided improvements in; (a) academic self-esteem, (b) increased intrinsic motivation for schoolwork, (c) increased career awareness, and (d) increased drug and alcohol awareness in adolescent Maori. Also, there was some statistical support for the Hokowhitu programme and evidence that life skills and Kaupapa Maori ideologies were able to be successfully integrated into a sport-based programme.
Date January 2005
CreatorsHeke, Justin Ihirangi, n/a
PublisherUniversity of Otago. School of Physical Education
Source SetsAustraliasian Digital Theses Program
Detected LanguageEnglish
Rights, Copyright Justin Ihirangi Heke

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