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## The joint numerical range and the joint essential numerical range

Let B(H) denote the algebra of bounded linear operators on a complex Hilbert space H. The (classical) numerical range of T ∈ B(H) is the set

W(T) = {〈T x; x〉: x ∈ H; ‖x‖ = 1}

Writing T= T_1 + iT_2 for self-adjoint T_1, T_2 ∈ B(H), W(T) can be identified with the set

{(〈T_1 x, x〉,〈T_2 x, x〉) : x ∈ H, ‖x‖ = 1}.

This leads to the notion of the joint numerical range of T= 〖(T〗_1, T_2, …, T_n) ∈ 〖B(H)〗^n. It is defined by

W(T) = {(〈T_1 x, x〉,〈T_2 x, x〉, …, 〈T_n x, x〉) : x ∈ H, ‖x‖ = 1}.

The joint numerical range has been studied extensively in order to understand the

joint behaviour of operators.

Let K(H) be the set of all compact operators on a Hilbert space H. The essential numerical range of T ∈ B(H) is defined by

W_(e ) (T)=∩{W(T+K) :K∈K(H) }.

The joint essential numerical range of T= 〖(T〗_1, T_2, …, T_n) ∈〖 B(H)〗^n is defined analogously by

W_(e ) (T)=∩{ /W(T+K) :K∈〖K(H)〗^n }.

These notions have been generalized to operators on a Banach space. In Chapter 1 of this thesis, the joint spatial essential numerical range were introduced. Also the notions of the joint algebraic numerical range V(T) and the joint algebraic essential numerical range Ve(T) were reviewed. Basic properties of these sets were given.

In 2010, Müller proved that each n-tuple of operators T on a separable Hilbert space has a compact perturbation T + K so that We(T) = W(T + K). In Chapter 2, it was shown that any n-tuple T of operators on lp has a compact perturbation T +K so that Ve(T) = V (T +K), provided that Ve(T) has an interior point. A key step was to find for each n-tuple of operators on lp a compact perturbation and a sequence of finite-dimensional subspaces with respect to which it is block 3 diagonal. This idea was inspired by a similar construction of Chui, Legg, Smith and Ward in 1979.

Let H and L be separable Hilbert spaces and consider the operator D_AB=A⨂I_L⨂B on the tensor product space H ⨂▒L. In 1987 Magajna proved that W_(e ) (D_AB )=co[W_(e ) (A)- /(W(B)))∪/W(A) - W_(e ) (B))] by considering quasidiagonal operators. An alternative proof of the equality was given in Chapter 3 using block 3 diagonal operators.

The maximal numerical range and the essential maximal numerical range of T ∈ B(H) were introduced by Stampi in 1970 and Fong in 1979 respectively. In 1993, Khan extended the notions to the joint essential maximal numerical range.

However the set may be empty for some T ∈ B(H). In Chapter 4, the kth joint essential maximal numerical range, spatial maximal numerical range and algebraic numerical range were introduced. It was shown that kth joint essential maximal numerical range is non-empty and convex. Also, it was shown that the kth joint algebraic maximal numerical range is the convex hull of the kth joint spatial maximal numerical range. This extends the corresponding result of Fong. / published_or_final_version / Mathematics / Master / Master of Philosophy

Identifer | oai:union.ndltd.org:HKU/oai:hub.hku.hk:10722/181884 |

Date | January 2013 |

Creators | Lam, Tsz-mang., 林梓萌. |

Contributors | Chan, JT |

Publisher | The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) |

Source Sets | Hong Kong University Theses |

Language | English |

Detected Language | English |

Type | PG_Thesis |

Source | http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B49858853 |

Rights | The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works., Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License |

Relation | HKU Theses Online (HKUTO) |

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