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Indicadores de defici?ncia h?drica em tr?s variedades de milho (Zea Marys L) / Indicators of water deficiency in three maize varieties (Zea Marys L)

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Previous issue date: 1978-07-10 / A study was made of the effect of water stress on
three corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars: Piranao, Centralmex and
IPEACS III.
Under the effect of a - 15 atm stress (using mannitol
as osmoticum), Centralmex showed the highest percent germination
while IPEACS III showed the lowest. The germination of Piran?o
seeds fell in between. There also differences in root and
coleoptile growths of the three varieties as compared to that of
the controls (germinated in demineralized water).
At a more advanced stage of grouth (6-8 leaves, plants
in pots kept in a greenhouse), the soil-water stress affected
the plants differently. IPEACS III continued to be severely
affected but Piran?o was now the least affected, with Centralmex
falling in between.
The effects of water stress upon the plant metabolic
patterns resulted in a increase in the leaf content of nitrate-N,
free amino-N, ammonia-N, free proline and soluble sugars.181
There was on the other hand a reduction in nitrate reductase
activity and protein content.
Although the same general metabolic pattern was
observed for the three varieties, significant differences
could be detected among the varieties. These results
indicated that the greenhouse environment was adequate for
the study of plant responses to water stress, even enabling
the distinction between varietal differences.
The content of free amino-N and soluble sugars in
the plant leaves showed a higher sensitivity to moderate water
stress than the other indicators. A special attention was
given to the study of the increase in free proline levels in
the leaves. The ellucidation of the factors governing the
relative accumulation of this metabolite in corn leaves
requires more detailed studies. Only then could proline
content be considered a safe indicator of water stress
resistance for corn plants.
The plants under water stress were also submitted to
growth analysis. This test was very efficient for the study
of dry weight and leaf expansion variation among varieties.
The results of this study shows that three main
factors are responsible for the plant resistance to water
stress, namely:
a. Tolerance to dehydration (differences in R.W.C.)
b. resistance to loss in protein (differences in
protein-N levels and free-N/protein-N ratios)182
c. increasc in root/shoot ratios.
The present study shows the necessity of experiments
with field grown plants, to check the sensitivity of the
various factors studied and to compare the behavior of
different corn varieties in the field with that in
greenhouse. / Tr?s variedades de milho (Zea mays L.), Piran?o, Centralmex e IPEACS III, foram submetidas a stress h?drico em
duas fases do crescimento vegetativo.
As diferen?as na taxa e percentagem final de germina-
??o, alongamento da raiz e do cole?ptilo foram avaliadas nas
tr?s variedades, quando submetidos a um stress osm?tico de
-15 atmosferas, usando-se manitol como osmoticum. Centralmex
mostrou a maior percentagem de germina??o final nestas candi-
??es e IPEACS III, a menor; Piran?o apresentou um comportamento intermedi?rio. Diferen?as entre as variedades nos respectivos percentuais de alongamento da raiz e cole?ptilo foram
notadas ao serem comparadas com seus controles mantidos em
?gua deionizada.
Quando as variedades foram comparadas em um est?gio
mais avan?ado de crescimento (6-8 folhas), e o stress h?drico
induzido por desseca??o progressiva do solo, em casa de vegeta??o, a variedade IPEACS III mostrou-se severamente afetada,Piran?o, relativamente, a menos afetada, apresentando Centralmex
um comportamento intermedi?rio. Neste ?ltimo est?gio de
crescimento, fez- se uma compara??o da sensibilidade de distintos indicadores metab?licos ? defici?ncia h?drica.
Com rela??o ao metabolismo de N, foram avaliados os
teores foliares de N-n?trico, N-amoniacal, N-amino livre, prolina e N-proteico. No que diz respeito ao metabolismo de carbohidratos, avaliou-se o teor foliar de carbohidratos sol?veis.
Foram observados incrementos nos teores de N-amoniacal, N-n?-
trico, N-amino livre, prolina e carbohidratos sol?veis. Concomitantemente, observou-se decr?scimos para o teor de N-proteico e a atividade de nitrato-reductase. Este padr?o geral de
varia??o, em resposta a stress h?drico, se expressou em forma
diferencial (estatisticamente significativa) entre variedades,
indicando que, o ambiente proporcionado pela casa de vegeta??o
foi apropriado para a separa??o dos efeitos decorrentes do
stress h?drico daqueles devidos ?s caracter?sticas varietais.
Os teores de N-amino livre e carbohidrato sol?vel mostraram uma maior sensibilidade a deficits h?dricos moderados.
Em adi??o aos indicadores metab?licos, realizou-se a
an?lise de crescimento, que mostrou ser um procedimento apropriado para descrever as varia??es em taxas de acumula??o de
mat?ria seca e expans?o de ?rea foliar entre as variedades.
Os dados sugeriram que, as diferen?as observadas em
resist?ncia ao stress h?drico entre as variedades podem ser
decorrentes de tr?s tipos de efeitos: toler?ncia ? desidrata ??o (diferen?as em C.H.R.), toler?ncia a perda de prote?nas
(diferen?as nos teores de N-proteico e na rela??o N-sol?vel/
N-proteico) e incrementos na rela??o raiz/parte a?rea.
A evolu??o do teor foliar de prolina foi particularmente observada nos tr?s cultivares, visando-se ligar o seu
teor ? explica??o das diferen?as em sensibilidade (ou resist?ncia) ao stress h?drico. Os resultados atualmente obtidos, mostraram que, pelo menos em milho, ? necess?rio um estudo mais
detido dos fatores que governam a acumula??o deste metab?lito,
antes de aplicar-se indiscriminadamente este par?metro como
indicador de resist?ncia ? seca.
Finalmente, foi destacada a necessidade de experimenta??o direta no campo, visando a determina??o do grau de sensibilidade dos distintos indicadores e a quantifica??o das diferen?as com respeito ao comportamento das variedades em casa
de vegeta??o.

Identiferoai:union.ndltd.org:IBICT/oai:localhost:jspui/1634
Date10 July 1978
CreatorsRossiello, Roberto Oscar Pereyra
ContributorsFernandes, Manlio Silvestre
PublisherUniversidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de P?s-Gradua??o em Agronomia e Ci?ncia do Solo, UFRRJ, Brasil, Instituto de Agronomia
Source SetsIBICT Brazilian ETDs
LanguagePortuguese
Detected LanguageEnglish
Typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion, info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis
Formatapplication/pdf
Sourcereponame:Biblioteca Digital de Teses e DissertaƧƵes da UFRRJ, instname:Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, instacron:UFRRJ
Rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
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