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Evolution and molecular characterization of clinical respiratory macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada

The purpose of this thesis was to molecularly characterize macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae (SPN) isolates in Canada between 1998 and 2008. The characterization involved looking at the multi-drug resistant phenotype (MDR), the mechanisms of macrolide resistance, the genetic relatedness, the serotype distribution and PCV7 vaccine coverage as well as the determination of presence of pili-virulence factors. The hypothesis of the study was that macrolide-resistant SPN will growingly be MDR, genetically related, piliated and consisting of serotypes not found in PCV7 vaccine.
Over 1500 macrolide-resistant SPN isolates collected between 1998 and 2008 were studied. Macrolide-resistant isolates came from patients from all regions of Canada, and from all age groups. They came from slightly more males (60%) and slightly more in-patients (62%). Macrolide resistant SPN remained low at 8% during the first 4 years of the study, and started to increase reaching 22% by the end of the study in 2008 (p=0.001). Overall the most common mechanism of resistance was efflux mediated by mef(A) (51%), followed by target site modification mediated by erm(B) (36%). The efflux mediated macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae was predominantly due to the presence of subtype E (95%), which was resistant to more antibiotic classes, and was genetically and serotypically more diverse than the A subtype. Isolates carrying both erm(B) and mef(A) macrolide resistance genes increased overtime from 1% (1998) to 19% (2008) (p=0.002). Serotype distribution showed a decrease in PCV7 vaccine coverage from 67% to 31% (p=0.0072). Isolates with non-PCV7 serotypes increased overtime from 33% to 57% (p=0.0152).
Isolates with serotype 19A increased by 15% (p=0.005). They were found to be multi-drug resistant, carried both erm(B) and mef(A) subtype E macrolide resistance genes, and were genetically related. The presence of virulence factor pili-type 1 (PI-1) and pili-type 2 (PI-2) was found associated with these isolates, possibly contributing to its emergence. In conclusion, macrolide resistant SPN increased during the course of this study mostly due to emergence of multi-drug resistant, genetically related, piliated, 19A S. pneumoniae.

Identiferoai:union.ndltd.org:LACETR/oai:collectionscanada.gc.ca:MWU.1993/5072
Date11 January 2012
CreatorsWierzbowski, Aleksandra K.
ContributorsZhanel, George (Medical Microbiology), Embree, Joanne (Medical Microbiology) Worobec, Elizabeth (Microbiology) Mulvey, Michael (Medical Microbiology) Hoban, Daryl (Medical Microbiology) Farrell, David (JMI Laboratories)
Source SetsLibrary and Archives Canada ETDs Repository / Centre d'archives des thèses électroniques de Bibliothèque et Archives Canada
Detected LanguageEnglish

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