This research presents a new way to improve inclusiveness for the variety of transgender self-identities in clinical settings. The spectrum of transgender identities were clustered into two groups: the fixed -- representing transgender individuals who preferred identification with the gender binary male or female, and the fluid -- representing transgender individuals that favor openness and flexibility on the gender continuum. Furthermore, different scales, the Memorial University of Newfoundland's Scale of Happiness (MUNSH) (Kozma, & Stones, 1980) and Bradley's Well-Being Scale (BWB) (Bradley, 1994), Self-Confidence Scale (Oakley, 1996, 1998) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) (Cohen, 1994) were investigated for their reliability with transgender clients. The fixed and fluid transgender groups were then used as the key criterion for investigating differences in quality of life (QOL), self-confidence, stress and counselling satisfaction. Using combined quantitative as well as qualitative methodology, data was analyzed for a sample of 145 transgender people. Mean age was 42.27. Quality of life for the fluid transgender group was <extremely low,> the group difference was not significant Stress was expectedly very high in both groups, but interestingly self-confidence was also high. The mean difference between the fixed (M=17.44) and fluid (M=20.82) transgender groups was statistically significant. One in four transgender individuals identified either as <neutral> or <dissatisfied to very dissatisfied> with their counselling experience. The dissatisfaction was higher in the fluid transgender group. One hundred eleven transgender participants (111) completed seven open-ended questions and 11 participated in a semi-structured, face-to-face interview process, guided by thirteen questions. The stories of the participants demonstrated how a gender specific upbringing affects transgender individuals through: themes of shame, guilt, and anger. While, transgender individuals developed survival techniques such as daydreaming and fantasizing, negative coping methods such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse and self-harm were also common. Family was identified as the dominant factor in reinforcing gender appropriate behaviour. To improve clinical care these findings should be taken into consideration.
|Source Sets||Library and Archives Canada ETDs Repository / Centre d'archives des thèses électroniques de Bibliothèque et Archives Canada|
|Type||Electronic Thesis or Dissertation|
|Coverage||Doctor of Philosophy (School of Social Work.)|
|Rights||All items in eScholarship@McGill are protected by copyright with all rights reserved unless otherwise indicated.|
|Relation||alephsysno: 002837430, proquestno: AAINR66704, Theses scanned by UMI/ProQuest.|
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