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Explorations in the mathematics of inviscid incompressible fluids

<p> The main subject of this dissertation is smooth incompressible fluids. The emphasis is on the incompressible Euler equations in all of <b>R</b><sup> 2</sup> or <b>R</b><sup>3</sup>, but many of the ideas and results can also be adapted to other hydrodynamic systems, such as the Navier-Stokes or surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) equations. A second subject is the modeling of moving contact lines and dynamic contact angles in inviscid liquid-vapor-solid systems under surface tension. </p><p> The dissertation is divided into three independent parts: First, we introduce notation and prove useful identities for studying incompressible fluids in a pointwise Lagrangian sense. The main purpose is to provide a unified treatment of results scattered across the literature. Furthermore, we prove several analogs of Constantin&rsquo;s local pressure formula for other nonlocal operators, such as the Biot-Savart law and Leray projection. Also, we define and study properties of a Lagrangian locally compact Abelian group in terms of which some nonlocal formulas encountered in fluid dynamics may be interpreted as convolutions. </p><p> Second, we apply the algebraic theory of scalar polynomial orthogonal invariants to the incompressible Euler equations in two and three dimensions. Using this framework, we give simplified proofs of results of Chae and Vieillefosse. We also investigate other uses of orthogonal transformations, such as diagonalizing the deformation tensor along a particle trajectory, and comment on relative advantages and disadvantages. These techniques are likely to be useful in other orthogonally invariant PDE systems as well. </p><p> Third, we propose an idealized inviscid liquid-vapor-solid model for the macroscopic study of moving contact lines and dynamic contact angles. Previous work mostly addresses viscous systems and frequently ignores a singular stress present when the contact angle is not at its equilibrium value. We also examine and clarify the role that disjoining pressure plays and outline a program for further research.</p>
Date16 February 2016
CreatorsKliegl, Markus Vinzenz
PublisherPrinceton University
Detected LanguageEnglish

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