The 2010 explosive eruption (VEI 4) of Merapi volcano, Indonesia, was the volcano’s largest since 1872. In contrast, volcanism over the last century has been characterised by dome-building and gravitational dome collapse, such as in 2006 (VEI 1). The driving forces behind effusive and explosive activity, as well as factors that affect transitions in eruptive style are investigated through petrological and textural analysis, using the well-documented 2006 and 2010 eruptions as case-studies. Pre- and syn-eruptive crystallisation and degassing processes are examined via whole rock geochemical analysis, mineral compositions and thermobarometry, quantitative textural analysis of feldspar microlites and analysis of volatiles and light lithophile elements in melt inclusions. These data were gathered from a detailed set of stratigraphically controlled samples, correlated to eruptive chronology and style, which were collected during several field campaigns. Both the 2006 and 2010 eruptions produced basaltic andesite, similar in terms of major and trace element compositions. A major zone of crystallisation is proposed at between ~ 14 and 29 km depth, although crystallisation occurs throughout the crust. Magmatic temperatures are estimated to be ~920–1020 °C. Maximum H2O contents reach 3.94 wt.% in 2010 melt inclusions and up to 3.73 wt.% in those from 2006. CO2 concentrations are < 200 ppm, although they may reach up to 695 ppm in some melt inclusions from the 2010 eruption. An exsolved brine phase was present during both eruptions which “buffered” melt Cl concentrations and enriched Li at shallow depths within the conduit or edifice. Eruptive style and transitions at Merapi are linked to magma ascent rate, crystallisation and open- and closed-degassing processes, which can be influenced by magma influx. The findings of this work are crucial for understanding the full range of eruptive behaviour that Merapi is capable of producing.
|Publisher||University of East Anglia|
|Source Sets||Ethos UK|
|Type||Electronic Thesis or Dissertation|
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