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Synthesis and study of fluorescent molecular dyes

Uses for fluorescent dyes are diverse and increasingly important with compounds having many uses in medicinal, chemical and physical fields - amongst others. The creation of new fluorescent dyes helps to push the boundaries of molecular photonics alongside the further study of the underlying principles involved in the systems. This thesis concentrates largely on the synthesis and characterisation aspects of novel fluorescent dyes, though the analysis of the resultant photophysical data also features prominently. Chapter 1 is an introduction to fluorescence from some of the more basic principles involved in the field. A discussion and comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescent dyes is followed by a brief discussion of a series of examples of fluorescent molecular sensors. As bodipy dyes feature heavily throughout the thesis the second half of the introduction is focused solely on this topic. This half of the chapter centres around the synthetic approaches towards bodipy, modifications to the bodipy core and the resulting photophysics. Photo-induced electron transfer and fluorescence energy transfer is introduced from basic principles along with selected literature examples that demonstrate these processes in systems that incorporate bodipy. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis and photophysics of a new class of fluorescent dyes based on a highly substituted terephthalate core. The initial aim of the chapter was to create fluorescent systems based on a xanthene core, this was found to be non-fluorescent. As such attention was turned towards a terephthalate intermediate which demonstrated strong and highly red shifted fluorescence in solution, as well as solid state fluorescence. A meso-perfluorinated phenyl ring causes a marked increase in fluorescence quantum yield, along with a pronounced red-shift, relative to the equivalent meso-phenyl variant. This observation lead to a series of Fn-aryl (n = 1,2,3,5) bodipy dyes being synthesised. Chapter 3 subsequently investigates the relationship between the number and position of fluorine atoms on the aryl moiety, and the resultant photophysical measurements. High fluorescence quantum yields were observed with ortho-substitution of fluorine atoms, a trend that was mirrored with the fluorescence lifetime. Mono-ortho fluorine substitution iii of the aryl group was also found to make the bodipy prochiral pathing the way towards axially chiral bodipy compounds. Chapter 4 follows on from chapter 4 by taking prochiral bodipy compounds to there chiral conclusion. In this chapter several synthetic approaches towards axially chiral (AxC) bodipy compounds are discussed. Included in these synthetic approaches is a completely novel route towards asymmetric bodipy cores thus AxC-bodipy compounds. This chapter represents the first examples of AxC bodipy compounds to exist with future developments in the field aimed at enhanced fluorescence sensing in chiral media and facile enantiomeric determination via circularly-polarised fluorescence measurements. Chapter 5 is an in-depth experimental section where the synthesis and characterisation of each compound is detailed. Also provided are the details for each chemical used, purification and drying methods for each solvent used and techniques used for proper characterisation of all of the compounds.
Date January 2013
CreatorsWinstanley, Thomas Peter Llewelyn
PublisherUniversity of Newcastle upon Tyne
Source SetsEthos UK
Detected LanguageEnglish
TypeElectronic Thesis or Dissertation

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