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Application of engineering methodologies to address patient-specific clinical questions in congenital heart disease

The recent advances in medical imaging and in computer technologies have improved the prediction capabilities of biomechanical models. In order to replicate physiological, pathological or surgically corrected portions of the cardiovascular system, several engineering methodologies and their combinations can be adopted. Specifically, in this thesis, 3D reconstructions of patient-specific implanted devices and cardiovascular anatomies have been realised using both volumetric and biplanar visualisation methods, such as CT, MR, 4D-MR Flow and fluoroscopy. Finite Element techniques have been used to computationally deploy cardiovascular endoprosthesis, such as stents and percutaneous pulmonary valve devices, under patient-specific boundary conditions. To analyse pressure and velocity fields occurring in patient-specific vessel anatomies under patient-specific conditions, Lumped Parameter Networks and Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations have been employed. The above mentioned engineering tools have been here applied to address three clinical topics: 1 - Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) Nowadays, more than 5,000 patients with pulmonary valve dysfunctions have been treated successfully with a percutaneous device, consisting in a bovine jugular venous valve sewn inside a balloon expandable stent. However, 25% of the treated patients experienced stent fracture. Using a novel methodological patient-specific approach that combines 3D reconstructions of the implanted stent from patients’ biplane fluoroscopy images and FE analyses, I carried out a risk stratification for stent fracture prediction. 2 - Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) Patients born with the congenital heart defect TGA need a surgical correction, which however, is associated with long term complications: the enlargement of the aortic root, and the development of a unilateral pulmonary stenosis. These may originate a complex hemodynamics that I tried to investigate by using patient-specific LPN and CFD models. 3 - Aortic Coarctation (CoA) Finally, combinations of FE and CFD-LPN models have been used to plan treatment in a patient with CoA and aberrant right subclavian.
Date January 2014
CreatorsCosentino, D.
PublisherUniversity College London (University of London)
Source SetsEthos UK
Detected LanguageEnglish
TypeElectronic Thesis or Dissertation

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