Ink jet technology is a rapidly growing and diverse field of research. Ink jets are used to deliver very precise and small (picolitre) volumes of fluid to a surface. Recent advances in ink jet technology demand a better understanding of the dynamics of the fluid during jetting. The aim of this project was to design a method capable of measuring the flow velocities inside ink jet streams. This objective has been achieved by the use of digital holographic particle image velocimetry. The difficulty with measuring flows inside tightly curved samples is that the refractive index change over the boundary leads to an optical distortion and therefore particles cannot be viewed or tracked reliably. Optical distortion is compensated for by taking advantage of the ability to replay a holographically recorded wave. The light scattered by particles is propagated numerically back through the sample’s surface, to form a three-dimensional image in which all refractions at the interface have been accounted for. Three dimensional particle fields are then analysed using custom particle detection and correlation code to extract the displacement of individual particles between exposures, which facilitates the construction of full flow profiles. Holograms were recorded with a simple off-axis holographic microscope, comprising two point sources of divergent light, formed from the same objective lens, acting as the source of illumination and reference light, respectively. Experiments were conducted on continuous ink jet streams of water issuing from a nozzle with 100 µm diameter. For a few millimetres after the nozzle exit, the jet is cylindrical, it then starts to form swells and necks; the swells continue to grow at the expense of the necks until the jet breaks up into a stream of droplets. Measurements of the stream wise component of velocity have been successful in the cylindrical parts of the jet, in swells and in necks greater than 20 µm in diameter. To my knowledge measurements of particle velocities on fluid jets at this scale have not been accomplished previously.
|Creators||McKeague, Thomas Anderson|
|Source Sets||Ethos UK|
|Type||Electronic Thesis or Dissertation|
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