The chirality of biological systems can be probed using highly emissive lanthanide complexes with the aid of circularly polarised luminescence and emission spectroscopy. Such chirality probes can be synthesised through the incorporation of a remote chiral centre within the ligand framework, which can preferentially stabilise a particular stereoisomer giving an enantiopure complex of well-defined helicity. Alternatively, lanthanide chirality probes can be derived from achiral or dynamically racemic ligands, where the selective induction of a CPL signal can be monitored as a function of the nature and concentration of a selected chiral analyte. A series of chiral lanthanide complexes has been synthesised. Each complex is based on an amide substituted 1,4,7-triazacyclononane system derived from either R-(+) or S-(-)-α-methylbenzyl amine. The stereochemistry of the amide moiety controls the helicity of the complex, and one major diastereoisomer is formed for each lanthanide metal. The absolute stereochemistry of the major diastereoisomer was determined by X-ray crystallography (S-Δ-λλλ and R-Λ-δδδ). Inclusion of an aryl-alkynyl chromophore generated complexes that exhibited large extinction coefficients (up to 55,000 M-1 cm-1) and high quantum yields (up to 37%) in water. A second set of bright Eu (III) complexes has been prepared based on an achiral heptadentate ligand system, which vary in the nature of the pyridyl donor (phosphinate, carboxylate and amide). The binding of a number of chiral acids including lactate, mandelate and cyclohexylhydroxyacetate was monitored by a change in the emission spectrum and the induction of strong CPL. Empirical analysis of the ΔJ = 4 region of each of the Eu (III) complexes allows an assignment of the complex-anion adducts as R-Δ and S-Λ. Furthermore, variations in the sign and magnitude of CPL allow the enantiomeric purity of samples with unknown enantiomeric composition to be assessed. Finally, several dynamically racemic lanthanide chirality probes have been synthesised and characterised. Induced CPL has been assessed, which arises as a result of the change in complex constitution upon binding to important chiral biomolecules such as, sialic acid, O-phosphono-amino acids and peptides and oleoyl-L-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). This work presents the first example of induced CPL in the detection of cancer biomarkers, sialic acid and LPA, and demonstrates the utility of this class of dynamically racemic Eu (III) complexes as chirality probes.
|Creators||Neil, Emily Rose|
|Source Sets||Ethos UK|
|Type||Electronic Thesis or Dissertation|
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