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## Improving scalability of exploratory model checking

As software and hardware systems grow more complex and we begin to rely more on their correctness and reliability, it becomes exceedingly important to formally verify certain properties of these systems. If done naïvely, verifying a system can easily require exponentially more work than running it, in order to account for all possible executions. However, there are often symmetries or other properties of a system that can be exploited to reduce the amount of necessary work. In this thesis, we present a number of approaches that do this in the context of the CSP model checker FDR. CSP is named for Communicating Sequential Processes, or parallel combinations of state machines with synchronised communications. In the FDR model, the component processes are typically converted to explicit state machines while their parallel combination is evaluated lazily during model checking. Our contributions are motivated by this model but applicable to other models as well. We first address the scalability of the component machines by proposing a lazy compiler for a subset of CSP<sub>M</sub> selected to model parameterised state machines. This is a typical case where the state space explosion can make model checking impractical, since the size of the state space is exponential in the number and size of the parameters. A lazy approach to evaluating these systems allows only the reachable subset of the state space to be explored. As an example, in studying security protocols, it is common to model an intruder parameterised by knowledge of each of a list of facts; even a relatively small 100 facts results in an intractable 2<sup>100</sup> states, but the rest of the system can ensure that only a small number of these states are reachable. Next, we address the scalability of the overall combination by presenting novel algorithms for bisimulation reduction with respect to strong bisimulation, divergence- respecting delay bisimulation, and divergence-respecting weak bisimulation. Since a parallel composition is related to the Cartesian product of its components, performing a relatively time-consuming bisimulation reduction on the components can reduce its size significantly; an efficient bisimulation algorithm is therefore very desirable. This thesis is motivated by practical implementations, and we discuss an implementation of each of the proposed algorithms in FDR. We thoroughly evaluate their performance and demonstrate their effectiveness.

Identifer | oai:union.ndltd.org:bl.uk/oai:ethos.bl.uk:730051 |

Date | January 2016 |

Creators | Boulgakov, Alexandre |

Contributors | Roscoe, A. W. |

Publisher | University of Oxford |

Source Sets | Ethos UK |

Detected Language | English |

Type | Electronic Thesis or Dissertation |

Source | https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:76acb8bf-52e7-4078-ab4f-65f3ea07ba3d |

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