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A study on the generation of free fatty acids and ethyl esters in Chinese fermented soybean curds.

Kam, Shuk Fan. / Thesis (M.Phil.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2009. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 124-134). / Abstracts in English and Chinese. / Abstract --- p.ii / Abstract in Chinese --- p.iv / Acknowledgements --- p.vi / List of Figures --- p.xi / List of Tables --- p.xii / Chapter Chapter 1 --- Literature Review --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1 --- Soybeans as Food --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1.1 --- Backgrounds --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1.2 --- Soybean Composition --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1.3 --- Diseases Prevention of Soybean Consumption --- p.3 / Chapter 1.1.4 --- Traditional Soyfoods --- p.3 / Chapter 1.2 --- Sufu --- p.5 / Chapter 1.2.1 --- Historical Information and Synonyms --- p.5 / Chapter 1.2.2 --- Features --- p.5 / Chapter 1.2.3 --- Manufacturing Techniques --- p.5 / Chapter 1.2.4 --- Types and Varieties of Sufu --- p.10 / Chapter 1.2.5 --- Compositional Changes during Fermentation and Ripening --- p.11 / Chapter 1.2.5.1 --- Proteins and Amino Acids --- p.11 / Chapter 1.2.5.2 --- Fats and Free Fatty Acids --- p.13 / Chapter 1.2.5.3 --- Carbohydrates --- p.14 / Chapter 1.2.5.4 --- Isoflavones --- p.15 / Chapter 1.2.6 --- Volatile Flavor Compounds --- p.15 / Chapter 1.3 --- Accelerated-Ripened Sufu --- p.17 / Chapter 1.4 --- Objectives of Project --- p.18 / Chapter Chapter 2 --- Contribution of Lipid to the Fatty Acids and Ethyl Esters in Model Plain Sufu --- p.20 / Chapter 2.1 --- Introduction --- p.20 / Chapter 2.2 --- Materials and Methodology --- p.23 / Chapter 2.2.1 --- Sufu Preparation --- p.23 / Chapter 2.2.1.1 --- Preparation of Tofu --- p.23 / Chapter 2.2.1.2 --- Preparation of Inoculum --- p.23 / Chapter 2.2.1.3 --- Spore Count in Spore Suspension --- p.24 / Chapter 2.2.1.4 --- Preparation of Pehtzes --- p.25 / Chapter 2.2.1.5 --- Brining and Ripening --- p.26 / Chapter 2.2.1.6 --- Sampling --- p.26 / Chapter 2.2.1.7 --- Free Fatty Acid Analysis --- p.26 / Chapter 2.2.1.7.1 --- Extraction --- p.26 / Chapter 2.2.1.7.2 --- Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis (GC-MS) for Free Fatty Acid Analysis --- p.27 / Chapter 2.2.1.7.3 --- Compounds Identification and Quantification --- p.28 / Chapter 2.2.1.8 --- Ethyl Ester Analysis --- p.29 / Chapter 2.2.1.8.1 --- Extraction --- p.29 / Chapter 2.2.1.8.2 --- Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis (GC-MS) for Ethyl Ester Analysis --- p.29 / Chapter 2.2.1.8.3 --- Compounds Identification and Quantification --- p.30 / Chapter 2.2.1.9 --- Enzymatic Activities --- p.30 / Chapter 2.2.1.9.1 --- Enzyme Extracts --- p.30 / Chapter 2.2.1.9.2 --- Lipase Activity Measurement --- p.31 / Chapter 2.2.1.9.3 --- Lipoxygenase Activity Measurement --- p.32 / Chapter 2.2.1.10 --- Determination of Peroxide Value --- p.33 / Chapter 2.2.1.11 --- pH Value Determination --- p.34 / Chapter 2.2.1.12 --- Moisture Content --- p.34 / Chapter 2.2.1.13 --- Statistical Analysis --- p.34 / Chapter 2.3 --- Results and Discussions --- p.35 / Chapter 2.3.1 --- Change of Free Fatty Acids with Sufu Processing Stage --- p.35 / Chapter 2.3.2 --- Change in Ethyl Esters with Sufu Processing Stage --- p.41 / Chapter 2.3.3 --- Activity of Lipase in the Sufu Enzyme Extracts --- p.47 / Chapter 2.3.4 --- Activity of Lipoxygenase in the Sufu Enzyme Extracts --- p.50 / Chapter 2.3.5 --- Lipid Oxidation determined by Peroxide Value --- p.50 / Chapter 2.3.6 --- pH Value Change during Sufu Production --- p.54 / Chapter 2.3.7 --- Moisture Content during Sufu Production --- p.56 / Chapter 2.3.8 --- Overall Discussions --- p.58 / Chapter 2.3.8.1 --- Lipolysis and Ester Synthesis --- p.58 / Chapter 2.3.8.2 --- Lipid Oxidation --- p.58 / Chapter 2.4 --- Conclusion --- p.61 / Chapter Chapter 3 --- A Study on Ripening Model Systems of Sufu --- p.63 / Chapter 3.1 --- Introduction --- p.63 / Chapter 3.2 --- Materials and Methodology --- p.68 / Chapter 3.2.1 --- Partial Purification Lipase from Mucor hiemalis --- p.68 / Chapter 3.2.1.1 --- Inoculum --- p.68 / Chapter 3.2.1.2 --- Culture --- p.68 / Chapter 3.2.1.3 --- Protein Precipitation --- p.68 / Chapter 3.2.1.4 --- Gel Filtration Column Chromatography --- p.69 / Chapter 3.2.1.5 --- Enzyme Assay --- p.69 / Chapter 3.2.1.6 --- Lipase Activity Confirmation --- p.70 / Chapter 3.2.1.7 --- Protein Determination --- p.70 / Chapter 3.2.2 --- Model Studies of the Formation of Free Fatty Acids and Ethyl Esters --- p.70 / Chapter 3.2.2.1 --- "A System with Lipid, Alcohol, and Lipase" --- p.70 / Chapter 3.2.2.2 --- A System with Different Lipase Concentrations --- p.71 / Chapter 3.2.2.3 --- A System with an Exogenous Fatty Acid --- p.71 / Chapter 3.2.3 --- Characterization of the Crude Lipase from Mucor hiemalis Culture on the Formation of Free Fatty Acids and their Ethyl Esters --- p.72 / Chapter 3.2.3.1 --- Effect of a Phospholipid --- p.72 / Chapter 3.2.3.2 --- Effect of Ethanol Concentration --- p.72 / Chapter 3.2.3.3 --- Effect of Sodium Chloride Concentration --- p.72 / Chapter 3.2.3.4 --- Effect of initial pH --- p.73 / Chapter 3.2.4 --- Orthogonal Design Experiment L9 (33) --- p.73 / Chapter 3.2.5 --- Free Fatty Acids Identification and Quantification --- p.76 / Chapter 3.2.5.1 --- Extraction --- p.76 / Chapter 3.2.5.2 --- Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis (GC-MS) --- p.76 / Chapter 3.2.5.3 --- Compounds Identification and Quantification --- p.77 / Chapter 3.2.6 --- Ethyl Esters Identification and Quantification --- p.77 / Chapter 3.2.6.1 --- Extraction --- p.77 / Chapter 3.2.6.2 --- Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis (GC-MS) --- p.78 / Chapter 3.2.6.3 --- Compounds Identification and Quantification --- p.78 / Chapter 3.2.7 --- Statistical Analysis --- p.79 / Chapter 3.3 --- Results and Discussions --- p.80 / Chapter 3.3.1 --- Lipase Partial Purification --- p.80 / Chapter 3.3.2 --- Lipase Activity Confirmation --- p.80 / Chapter 3.3.3 --- Model Studies on the Formation of Free Fatty Acids and Ethyl Esters --- p.84 / Chapter 3.3.3.1 --- "A System with Lipid, Alcohol and Lipase" --- p.84 / Chapter 3.3.3.2 --- A System with Different Lipase Concentrations --- p.84 / Chapter 3.3.3.3 --- A System with an Exogenous Fatty Acid --- p.89 / Chapter 3.3.3.4 --- Summary --- p.92 / Chapter 3.3.4 --- Characterization of the Crude Lipase from Mucor hiemalis Culture on the Formation of Free Fatty Acids and their Ethyl Esters Formation --- p.92 / Chapter 3.3.4.1 --- Effect of a Phospholipid --- p.92 / Chapter 3.3.4.2 --- Effect of Ethanol Concentration --- p.96 / Chapter 3.3.4.3 --- Effect of Sodium Chloride Concentration --- p.103 / Chapter 3.3.4.4 --- Effect of initial pH --- p.109 / Chapter 3.3.5 --- Orthogonal Design Experiment L9 (33) Optimizing the Ethyl Esters Formation --- p.114 / Chapter 3.4 --- Conclusion --- p.118 / Chapter 4 Overall Conclusions --- p.120 / References --- p.124

Identiferoai:union.ndltd.org:cuhk.edu.hk/oai:cuhk-dr:cuhk_326668
Date January 2009
ContributorsKam, Shuk Fan., Chinese University of Hong Kong Graduate School. Division of Food and Nutritional Sciences.
Source SetsThe Chinese University of Hong Kong
LanguageEnglish, Chinese
Detected LanguageEnglish
TypeText, bibliography
Formatprint, xiii, 134 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.
CoverageChina
RightsUse of this resource is governed by the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons “Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International” License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

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