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Optimization of a manufacturing process for atrazine with a focus on waste minimization

Chemical synthesis is not complete without waste treatment. There is no chemical process that does not produce waste. The untreated effluent discharged by chemical industries poses a major environmental concern. This dissertation describes the results of an investigation carried out on the formation of by-products (impurities) during the synthesis of atrazine by neutralization of the reaction mixture during the actual synthesis procedure, and prior to disposal using carbon dioxide or hydrochloric acid. The main objectives for the said investigation were: {u100083} To optimise the reaction parameters to obtain a higher yield and purity of atrazine. {u100083} To evaluate the use of carbon dioxide and hydrochloric acid to neutralise the reaction mixture. {u100083} To study the solids present in the effluent. Synthetic reactions were carried out in the presence of an organic solvent, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The synthesis of atrazine was optimised in terms of addition sequence and rates of amine reagents and base (proton acceptor) additions by means of bench scale reactions. It was found that addition of a neutralising step (hydrochloric acid or carbon dioxide) to neutralise the basic reaction mixture prior to and after addition of the secondary amine and the base minimizes the formation of by-products. Of particular importance in ensuring high yields and selectivity to the atrazine product was temperature control, pH control, reagent ratios, addition rates and mixing. The latter was important in view of the rapid reaction of amine/NaOH with cyanuric chloride, as well as the possible reaction of mono-i, the reaction intermediate, with IPA in cases of excesses of reagent. Under optimum conditions, an atrazine composition of >97% was achieved where the resultant product was well within stipulated product specifications.
Date January 2004
CreatorsMtyopo, Mteteleli Bethwell
PublisherNelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Faculty of Science
Source SetsSouth African National ETD Portal
Detected LanguageEnglish
TypeThesis, Masters, MTech
Formatviii, 98, 19 leaves, pdf
RightsNelson Mandela Metropolitan University

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