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Second order analyses methods for stirling engine design

Thesis (MScIng( Mechanical Engineering)--University of Stellenbosch, 2007. / 121 Leaves printed single pages, preliminary pages a-l and numbered pages 1-81. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT:In the midst of the current non-renewable energy crises specifically with regard to fossil fuel, various
research institutions across the world have turned their focus to renewable and sustainable development.
Using our available non.renewable resources as efficiently as possible has been a focal point the past
decades and will certainly be as long as these resources exist Various means to utilize the world's
abundant and freely available renewable energy has been studied and some even introduced and
installed as sustainable energy sources, Electricity generation by means of wind powered turbines,
photo-voltaic cells, and tidal and wave energy are but a few examples.
Modern photo-voltaic cells are known to have a solar to electricity conversion efficiency of 12% (Van
Heerden, 2003) while wind turbines have an approximate wind to electricity conversion efficiency of 50%
(Twele et aI., 2002). This low solar to electricity conversion efficiency together with the fact that
renewable energy research is a relatively modern development, lead to the investigation into methods
capable of higher solar to electricity conversion efficiencies. One such method could be to use the
relatively old technology of the Stirling cycle developed in the early 1800's (solar to electricity conversion
efficiency in the range of 20.24 % according Van Heerden, 2003). The Stirling cycle provides a method
for converting thermal energy to mechanical power which can be used to generate electricity, One of the
main advantages of Stirling machines is that they are capable of using any form of heat source ranging
from solar to biomass and waste heat.
This document provides a discussion of some of the available methods for the analysis of Stirling
machines. The six (6) different methods considered include: the method of Beale, West, mean-pressurepower-
formula (MPPF), Schmidt, idea! adiabatic and the simple analysis methods. The first three (3) are
known to be good back-of-the-envelope methods specifically for application as synthesis tools during
initialisation of design procedures, while the latter three (3) are analysis tools finding application during
Stirling engine design and analysis procedures. These analysis methods are based on the work done by
Berchowitz and Urieli (1984) and form the centre of this document. Sections to follow provide a
discussion of the mathematical model as well as the MATlAB implementation thereof. Experimental tests
were conducted on the Heinrici engine to provide verification of the simulated resutls. Shortcomings of
these analyses methods are also discussed in the sections to follow. Recommendations regarding
improvements of the simulation program, possible fields of application for Stirling technology, as well as
future fields of study are made in the final chapter of this document. A review of relevanl literature
regarding modern applications of Stirling technology and listings of companies currently manufacturing
and developing Stirling machines and findings of research done at various other institutions are provided. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Die tempo van uitputling van die wereld se nie-hernubare energiebronne die afgelope jare het aanleiding
gegee daartoe dal daar loenemend fokus toegespits word op die ontwikkeling van hernubare
alternatiewe. Meer doeltreffende benutting van die wereld se nie-hernubare energie is reeds 'n fokus
punt, vir navorsers reg oor die wereld, vir die afgelope dekades. Die aarde se oorvloedryke hernubare
energie bronne word reeds met verskeie metodes ontgin. Die omskakeling van wind-, son- en gety
energie na elektrisieteids is net 'n paar voorbeelde.
Die effektiwiteid van sonkrag na elektrisietyds omskakeling van moderne fotovo!la'iese selle is in die orde
van 12% (Van Heerden, 2003) terwyl die doeltreffendeid van wind energie na elektrisiteit omskakelling in
die orde van 50% (Twele et at, 2002) is. Hierdie relatief lae omskelings doeltreffendeid van sonkrag na
elektrisietyd, tesame met die feit dat die hernubare industrie nag relatief jonk is, lei lot die soeke na ander
meer doellreffende moontlikhede Die Stirling siklus is nie 'n mod erne beginsel nie, maar die toepassing
daarvan veral in die hernubare energie industrie is wei 'n relatiewe nuwe beg rip, veral in teme van die
omskakeling van sonkrag na elektriese energie (gemiddelde sonkrag na lektriese energie omskakelings
doellreffendeid in die orde van 20-24% is gevind deur Van Heerden, 2003). Die omskakeling van
lermiese energie na meganiese energie is sekerlik die hoof uitkomsle van die Stirling siklus, alhoewel dit
ook toepassing vind in die verkoefingsindustrie. Die feit dat die Stirling siklus van enige vorm van
termiese energie (bv. son. biomassa, asook hilte geproduseer as byproduk tydens sekere prosesse)
gebruik kan maak. is een van die redes wat die tegnologie 56 aanloklik maak, spesifiek !.o,v. die
hernubare energie sektor.
Ses (6) metodes vir die analise van die Stirling siklus word in hierdie dokument bespreek. Dit slui! die
volgnde in: Beale-, West-, die gemiddelde-druk-krag-metode (GDKM), Schmidt-, adiabatiese- en die
eenvoudige analise melodes. Die eerste drie (3) metodes is handige berekenings metodes Iydens die
aanvangs en sinlesefase van Stirling enjin ontwerp, lerwyl die laaste drie (3) meer loegespils is op die
volledige ontwerps- en analisefases gedurende die Stirling eniin ontwerps proses. Die drie (3) analise
melodes is gebaseer op die werk wat deur Berchowitz en Urieli (1984) gedoen is en maak die kern van
die dokument uit. Die wiskundige model, implimentering daarvan in MATlAB, sowel as die
eksperimentele verifieering van die resultate word bespreek. Tekortkominge van die analise metodes
word ook aangespreek in elke hoofsluk. Moontlikke verbeterings len opsigte van die verskeie aannames
word in die finale hoofsluk van die dokumenl aangespreek. Verskeie voorgestelde riglings vir
toekomslige navorsings projekle word ook in die finale hoofstuk van die dokument genoem. 'n Kort oorsig
van die relevanle lileraluur in verband mel huidige loepassings van die Stirling legnologie, asook die
name van maatskappye wal tans hierdie tegnologiee ontwikkel en vervaardig, word genoem.

Identiferoai:union.ndltd.org:netd.ac.za/oai:union.ndltd.org:sun/oai:scholar.sun.ac.za:10019.1/16102
Date03 1900
CreatorsSnyman, H.
ContributorsHarms, T. M., Strauss, J. M., University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering
PublisherStellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch
Source SetsSouth African National ETD Portal
Languageen_ZA
Detected LanguageUnknown
TypeThesis
Format81 p. : ill.
RightsUniversity of Stellenbosch

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