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Die laat-Victoriaanse Mosselbaai 1870-1902

Thesis (PhD) -- Stellenbosch University, 1990. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The development of Mossel Bay was subject to the opening of passes accross the
two mountain ranges between the coast and the interior of the country. As the
harbour gradually became more accessible to its hinterland, the Karoo, imports
and exports increased. The granting of municipal status in 1852 precipitated a
period of growth and by 1871, the town even had its own newspaper.
Until the mid eighties, Mossel Bay was an arid town with little vegetation and
scarcely enough water for domestic use. The serious shortage of water hindered
the inhabitants in almost every way. With the completion of a water scheme in
1886 whereby water was received from the Outeniqua mountains, not only was the
town embellished by the planting of trees but the drains could be cleaned and
the fires successfully extinguished.
The Town Council had to deal with squatters, roaming dogs and other stray
animals. The general hygienic conditions left much to be desired. The drains
were dirty, sanitation poor, dumping sites unfavourably situated and until
1891, animals were slaughtered in town. Typhus and Bubonic Plague broke out
in the late nineties. The town had its own doctor and pharmacist, while a
dentist made sporadic visits. A Cottage Hospital was established.
The crime rate was low and the judge of the Circuit Court often had no criminal
cases to hear. Commercially a market was established and an unusually high
number of wholesalers began trading in the bay. Three large hotels
accommodated the many visitors. Travelling ph.o tographers visited regularly and
at one stage Mossel Bay even had its own resident photographer.
The Mossel Bay Advertiser made an important contribution in influencing public opinion and in participating in the struggle for obtaining a rail link. This
struggle was the major issue of the time. The link was frequently promised but
it was only the last assurance in 1895 that was ultimately honoured.
Major development took place in Shipping: Steam cranes and steam tugs were
acquired and large oceanliners called, first fortnightly and then weekly. In
so doing, regular contact was established with England. However the Coode
Report found that the bay was becoming shallower and for this reason harbour
development was rejected. Immense dissatisfaction prevailed after steam ships
began calling in on Sundays, thereby forcing the inhabitants to work on the
Sabbath. With the completion of the railway lines linking Port Elizabeth and
Cape Town to the diamond fields, these ports gradually took over the trade
generated by the Karoo. The services of the steamship companies were curtailed
in the nineties resulting in diminished trade. At the end of the decade, it
was announced that the harbour would receive a new breakwater and wharf. The
number of shipwrecks were relatively small in comparison with other places.
After the completion of the Kleinbosch Water Scheme in 1886, the town was
marketed as a watering place and health resort. Many holiday makers flocked to
the bay to swim in the natural bathing place at the Point. Farmers from the
interior began to camp near the beach at Diepkloof. After the introduction of
a halfday holiday on Saturdays, sporting activities became popular and sports
clubs were established. Societies enabled participants to spend their leisure
time in a constructive manner.
The contribution of the church was large. A few ministers held their posts for
lengthy periods and left their stamp on the community. Education was
characterised by the struggle between the state supported schools and those run
by the church. Although small, the schools produced outstanding students. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Mosselbaai was aanvanklik moeilik van sy natuurlike hinterland, die Karoo,
bereikbaar aangesien dit deur twee bergreekse van die binneland geskei word.
Met die oopstelling van passe het die hawe algaande meer toeganklik geword en
het die nedersetting, soos die in- en uitvoer toegeneem het, gegroei. Die
Munisipaliteit is in 1852 gestig en daarna het die dorp in so 'n mate ontwikkel
dat dit in 1871 'n koerant gehad het.
Mosselbaai was tot in die middel tagtigerjare 'n droe, boomlose dorpie met
skaars genoeg water vir huishoudelike gebruik. Die ernstige gebrek aan water
het stremmend op bykans elke gebied ingewerk. Nadat water in 1886 van die
Outeniekwaberge aangel~ is, kon die dorp nie slags verfraai word nie, maar kon
afvoerslote gewas en brande met sukses geblus word.
Die Dorpsraad het te kampe gehad met plakkers,
loslopende diere. Die algemene higiene het veel
rondloperhonde en ander
te wense gelaat. Die
afvoerslote was vuil, sanit~re geriewe swak, stortingsterreine ongunstig gelee
en daar is tot in 1891 midde-in die dorp geslag. Tifus en builepes het in die
negentigerjare uitgebreek. Die dorp het oor 'n geneesheer en apteker beskik en
tandartse het sporadies op besoek gekom. 'n ·"cottage Hospital" is gestig.
Die misdaadsyfer was laag en die regter van die Rondgaande Hof het dikwels geen
strafsake gehad om te verhoor nie. Op sakegebied was daar 'n mark, 'n ongewoon
hoe aantal groothandelaars en verskeie ander sakeondernemings. Drie groot
hotelle het huisvesting aan besoekers verskaf. Reisende fotograwe het die dorp
gereeld besoek en 'n dekade lank was daar ook 'n residensiele fotograaf.
Die Mossel Bay Advertiser het 'n belangrike bydrae gelewer deur die openbare mening te be1nvloed. Die blad het eweneens 'n groot rol gespeel
van die stryd om spoorverbinding, wat die grootste deel van
Victoriaanse Tydperk gekenmerk het. Alhoewel 'n spoorlyn meermale
is dit eers in 1895 toegestaan.
ten opsigte
die Laatbeloof
is,
Op maritieme gebied was daar groot ontwikkeling: stoomhyskrane en · -sleepbote
is bekom en groot oseaanskepe het Mosselbaai tweeweekliks en later weekliks
aangedoen en sodoende gereelde verbinding met Engeland bewerkstellig. Die
Coode-verslag het egter bevind dat die baai besig was om vlakker te word en
haweontwikkeling is afgekeur. Stoomskepe het op Sondae begin aandoen en het
sodoende Sondagwerk op die inwoners afgedwing. Nadat die spoorweg tussen die
Diamantveld en die hawestede Kaapstad en Port Elizabeth voltooi is, is
Mosselbaai stadig as hawe vir die Groot Karoo verdring. In die negentigerjare
is die diens van die stoomskiprederye ingekort, wat 'n geweldige slag vir die
handel was. Aan die einde van die dekade is aangekondig dat die hawe 'n
golfbreker en nuwe kaai sou kry. Alhoewel verskeie skepe deur die jare vergaan
het , was dit min in vergelyking met die skipbreuke elders.
Na die voltooiing van die Kleinbosch-waterskema in 1886 is die dorp as badplaas
en gesondheidsoord bemark en het groot getalle vakansiegangers na die Baai
gestroom om veral in die natuurlike swemsloep by die Punt te baai. Boere van
die binneland het ook naby die strand by Diepkloof begin kampeer. Na die
installing van 'n halfdagvakansie op Saterdae het sport groot aftrek geniet en
is verskillende klubs gestig. Inwoners het ook by verskillende verenigings
aangesluit om hul vryetyd op 'n opbouende wyse te verwyl.
Op kerklike gebied het 'n paar leraars besonder lank op Mosselbaai gearbei en
het veel tot die ontwikkeling van die gemeenskap bygedra. Die onderwys is
gekenmerk deur 'n stryd tussen die staatsondersteunde skole en die van die
kerke. Alhoewel klein, het die plaaslike skole goeie uitslae behaal en
uitstekende studente opgelewer.

Identiferoai:union.ndltd.org:netd.ac.za/oai:union.ndltd.org:sun/oai:scholar.sun.ac.za:10019.1/67256
Date03 1900
CreatorsScheffler, Helena Maria
ContributorsGrobbelaar, P. W., Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of History.
PublisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
Source SetsSouth African National ETD Portal
Languageaf_ZA
Detected LanguageUnknown
TypeThesis
Format355 p. : ill.
RightsStellenbosch University

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