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Development of a dynamic multivariate power system inertia model

A research project submitted to the Faculty of Engineering and the Built
Environment, University of the Witwatersrand, in fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Master of Science in Engineering, 2018. / The power system inertia immediately following small and large system
disturbances was investigated. By understanding factors affecting the system
inertia and primary frequency response behaviour, an online inertia model was
developed. Historical data was extracted from the Eskom Energy Management
System (EMS) and Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS). The developed
model using Multivariate Analysis (MVA) includes measured and estimated data
from Eskom generators, Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) and the
interconnected Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). Inertia plus Fast Primary
(Frequency) Response (FPR) (as determined by the load behaviour) and system
inertia models were developed from June 2015-December 2016 and validated
with past frequency disturbance events (June 2014-March 2017). From the
comparison between the measured and model results for 355 actual disturbances,
225 disturbances resulted in errors within ±5% and 51 events resulted in errors
between ±5% and ±10%. Eight disturbances caused errors greater than ±10%,
which were largely from trips at particular large power stations and HVDC.
During a large disturbance, the multivariate coefficients for Renewable Energy
Sources, HVDC and interconnectors were very small for the pure inertia model
(excluding the load frequency behaviour and the generator damping). In contrast,
the spinning reserve provides significant contribution and is location based. The
location of a disturbance affects the FPR behaviour and the system inertia but not
the Rate of Change of Frequency (RoCoF) with reference to the central power
station. The strong and weak areas with respect of the stiffness of the system
(extent of frequency nadir for particular disturbances) were identified. This can
contribute to future grid planning and real-time operations in managing the system
inertia and primary frequency response. The model is expected to improve with
time, as the accuracy of a statistical approach requires large amounts of data. The
model can be used to determine and monitor the maximum level of RES in real
time. / XL2019
Date January 2018
CreatorsSibeko, Bonginkosi Johannes
Source SetsSouth African National ETD Portal
Detected LanguageEnglish
FormatOnline resource (various pagings), application/pdf, application/pdf

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